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estimate estimate

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1966 estimate

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Total obligations.--

General and special funds:

(Permanent, indefinite)

Identification code 15-60-0550-0-1-851

Program by activities:

10 Payment of interest (cost-obligations) (object class 32.0)..


Financing: 60 New obligational authority (appropriation).

Relation of obligations to expenditures: 71 Total obligations (affecting expenditures). 90 Expenditures...

Program and Financing (in thousands of dollars)




Savings bonds.

Special issues...

Other nonmarketable issues..

1965 estimate

1966 estimate

10,665,858 11,200.000 11.500.000

10,665,858 11,200,000 11,500,000

10,665,858 11,200,000 11.500.000 10,665,858 11,200,000 11,500,000

Such amounts are appropriated as may be necessary to pay the interest each year on the public debt (31 U.S.C. 711(2) and 732). With the exception of savings bonds and bonds of investment series A of 1965, interest is computed on an accrual basis. Interest on savings bonds and the 1965 investment series is computed on a due and

payable basis.

Payment of interest during 1964 was distributed among the following categories (in thousands of dollars):







Not to exceed 5 per centum of any appropriation herein made to the Treasury Department for the current fiscal year may be transferred, with the approval of the Bureau of the Budget, to any other appropriation of the Treasury Department, but no appropriation shall be thereby increased by more than 5 per centum, and such transfers shall be reported promptly to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate

and of the House of Representatives.

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New obligational authority:
40 Appropriation..
41 Transferred to "Operating expenses,

Public Buildings Service," General
Services Administration (77 Stat.
436 and 78 Stat. 655) ---

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General and special funds:

OPERATING EXPENSES For necessary operating expenses of the Commission in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, including the employment of aliens; services authorized by section 15 of the Act of August 2, 1946 (5 U.S.C. 55a); hire, maintenance and operation of aircraft; publication and dissemination of atomic information; purchase, repair and cleaning of uniforms; official entertainment expenses (not to exceed $30,000); reimbursement of the General Services Administration for security guard services; hire of passenger motor vehicles; ($2,261,573,000) $2,231,000,000, and any moneys (except sums received from disposal of property under the Atomic Energy Community Act of 1955, as amended, (42 U.S.C. 2301)) received by the Commission, notwithstanding the provisions of section 3617 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 484), to remain available until expended: Provided, That of such amount $100,000 may be expended for objects of a confidential nature and in any such case the certificate of the Commission as to the amount of the expenditure and that it is deemed inadvisable to specify the nature thereof shall be deemed a sufficient voucher for the sum therein expressed to have been expended: Provided further, That from this appropriation transfers of sums may be made to other agencies of the Government for the performance of the work for which this appropriation is made, and in such cases the sums so transferred may be merged with the appropriation to which transferred: Provided further, That no part of this appropriation shall be used in connection with the payment of a fixed fee to any contractor or firm of contractors engaged under a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract or contracts at any installation of the Commission, where that fee for community management is at a rate in excess of $90,000 per annum, or for the operation of a transportation system where that fee is at a rate in excess of $45,000 per annum. (42 U.S.C. 2011, 2017, 2291; 78 Stat. 227; Public Works Appropriation Act, 1966; additional authorizing legislation to be proposed.)

Program and Financing (in thousands of dollars)

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Relation of obligations to expenditures:
10 Total obligations...
70 Receipts and other offsets (items

71 Obligations affecting expendi-

72 Obligated balance, start of year.-
73 Obligated balance transferred to

"Plant and capital equipment" (77

Stat. 844)
74 Obligated balance, end of year..

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I Selected resources as of June 30 are as follows:
Inventories and items on order:

1963 1964 1965 1966 Inventories.

178,611 197,553 198,836 199,648 Unpaid undelivered orders... 674, 652 701,603 689, 406 734, 301 Advances..

22, 484 15,573 13, 589 8,357 Collateral funds and other de.

posits (insurance collateral. em-
ployee bencht and annuity
funds, merchandise deposits
with vendors and miscellaneous

18, 618 18, 863 18,863 18, 863 Total selected resources.... 894, 365 933, 592 920, 694 961, 169

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500, 450

Program by activities: 1. Raw materials.

326.209 267,455 212,770 2. Special nuclear materials.

463,657 398,547 378.625 3. Weapons.

754.889 753,334 705,400 4. Reactor development.

502.299 494,122 5. Physical research.

195,761 214.000 239,000 6. Biology and medicine..

71,045 78.051 85.000 7. Training, education, and information.. 14,991 15,780 16,850 8. Civilian applications of Isotopes...

7,916 9.300 12.800 Nuclear explosives..

12.491 11.000 17,875 9. Communities.

9,284 9.069 8.927 10. Program direction and administration.. 70,780 80,078 81,500 11. Security investigations...

6.282 7,254

6,300 12. Cost of work for others..

4.862 8,080 8,100 13. Adjustment to prior year costs.

-16,545 Total program costs, funded. 2,423,921 2,346,070 (2,273,597 Change in selected resources

39,227 -12,898 40, 475 10 Total obligations----

12,463,148 2,333, 172 2,314,072 Financing: 14 Receipts and reimbursements from non

-28,076 - 50.046-46,625 21 Unobligated balance available, start of year-. -150.429 -58,018 -36,447 24 Unobligated balance available, end of year

58,018 36,447 New obligational authority.

2,342,661 2,261,555 2,231,000

The Atomic Energy Commission procures raw materials; manufactures special nuclear materials and atomic weapons; develops improved weapons; conducts research and development aimed at generation of atomic power; conducts research concerning protection of health against possible hazards arising from atomic energy operations; conducts investigations in the physical and biomedical sciences related to atomic energy, including investigation of controlled thermonuclear reactions; conducts research and development in civilian applications of isotopes and nuclear explosives; establishes and enforces regulations for civilian uses of atomic energy; promotes industrial participation in atomic energy development for peaceful purposes; encourages scientific and industrial progress through the dissemination of atomic energy information; and participates in programs of international cooperation in peaceful applications of atomic energy.

The program is administered through field offices. Most of the AEC activities are carried on in Governmentowned facilities by industrial concerns and educational institutions operating under contracts.

under contracts. Coordination with the armed services is achieved through the Military Liaison Committee of the Department of Defense.

Federal sources.

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General and special funds-Continued


1964 actual 1965 estimate 1966 eslimate

1. Civilian power reactors.-- 74,927 79,016 71,800

2. Cooperative power reactor
demonstration program...:-

12,412 16,000 33,800 Total program costs in 1966 are estimated at $2,273.6 3. Cooperative program

with million or $72.5 million less than the estimated 1965 costs


4,138 5,500 5,900 4. Merchant ship reactors...

5,282 2,319 of $2,346.1 million, and $150.3 million less than actual

1,400 5. Army power reactors.

9,661 9,500 4.800 costs of $2,423.9 million for 1964. The principal 1966 6. Naval propulsion reactors. 101,948 94,600 96,550 increases are for reactor development, physical research, 7. Rocket Propulsion reactors biology and medicine, and the civilian application of

(Project Rover).

88,255 83,460 84,100

8. Missile propulsion reactors isotopes and nuclear explosives. These increases are

(Project Pluto)---

12,781 4,000 more than offset by decreases in the raw materials, special 9. Satellite and small power sources nuclear materials, and weapons programs.

(Project SNAP)

79,284 79,550 70.500 In 1966, the total program obligations will be more than

10. General reactor technology. 56,649 59,205 58,900 program costs, the difference being obligations to be

11. Advanced systems research and

25,894 27,000 32,500 incurred for future years' costs. Total program obliga- 12. Nuclear safety .

28,547 29,050 35,450 tions for operating expenses in 1966 are estimated to be 13. Operational services...

2,521 4,922 4,750 $2,314.1 million compared to $2,333.2 million in 1965 and

Total reactor development. 502,299 494,122 500,450 $2,463.1 million in 1964.

The schedule of costs by activity does not include nonbudgetary costs such as depreciation charges, accrued The civilian power reactor program establishes a founannual leave earned but not taken by AEČ employees, dation of technical knowledge through a program of the cost of source and special material consumed and research and development on promising reactor concepts, sold, etc.; in total, these are as follows: 1964, $326 million; | including those with water desalting applications; design, 1965 estimate, $365 million; 1966 estimate, $370 million, fabrication, and operation of power reactor experiments

; 1. Raw materials.—Uranium concentrates are procured development and testing of experimental reactors; and for processing in the AEC production facilities. Procure- development of conceptual designs for prototype powerment of concentrates in 1966 is estimated at 12,845 tons plants. based on current contractual commitments and an esti- Costs of $33.8 million will be incurred for the cooperative mated total domestic deferral of 15,000 tons under the power reactor demonstration program in which AEC stretchout program. It is expected that all contractual provides financial aid in development and construction of amendments related to the domestic stretchout program full-scale power reactors built by private utilities and will be completed during fiscal year 1965. The 1966 public power bodies. This aid provides a basis for a estimate reflects a decrease of 2,830 tons from the 1965 privately financed nuclear power industry. The 1966 estimate of 15,675. Procurement in 1964 was 18,654 tons. estimates include costs of $22 million for proposed new co

2. Special nuclear materials. Special nuclear materials operative arrangements for a high-temperature gas-cooled are produced to meet weapons production schedules and

power reactor and a large seed-blanket reactor. requirements for other programs. Uranium concentrates

The Euratom program provides for research and are processed into feed materials from which plutonium development under a joint program with the European and other products are produced in the reactors at Rich- Atomic Energy Community, for which costs of $5.9 land, Wash., and Savannah River, S.C., and the isotope million will be incurred in 1966. uranium 235 is extracted in plants at Oak Ridge, Tenn., The merchant ship reactors program provides for the Paducah, Ky., and Portsmouth, Ohio. Production of development of propulsion reactors for commercial ship special nuclear materials will decline somewhat

in 1966 as application. In 1965 the NS Savannah was turned over

to the Maritime Administration for licensed operation. operation after the shutdown of four production reactors during 1964 and 1965. Work will continue on process development of portable and mobile reactor systems to

The Army power reactors program provides for the improvements to assure continuity and safety of opera

meet military needs for powerplants for use at remote lotion and more economical methods of production.

cations and for unique military purposes. Effort will con3. Weapons. -The weapons program encompasses the

tinue in 1966 on the development of mobile nuclear powerproduction of atomic weapons; the maintenance of plants for field use and on improvements to portable stockpiled weapons in a state of constant readiness;

reactors for central power use at remote locations to prothe design, development and underground testing of new

vide more efficient, economical, and safe plants. weapons types; preparation for and maintenance of a

The naval propulsion

reactors program, carried out with readiness capability to resume atmospheric testing; and

the Department of Defense, will be continued in 1966 to participation with the Department of Defense in the de

provide for the development of propulsion reactors for velopment of test detection methods.

submarine and surface combatant ships. 4. Reactor development.---This program includes the The

rocket propulsion reactors program (Project Rover

) development of reliable and economic nuclear power is carried out in cooperation with the National Aeronautics plants for central station application and the development and Space Administration to develop nuclear rocket engines of power and propulsion reactors and reactor systems for a

for space application. The program of ground-based Variety

of military and space applications, together with research, engineering, and testing will continue. research and development on advanced reactor systems, The missile propussion reactors program (Project Pluto) nuclear safety, and general reactor technology. The will be terminated in 1965 due to the absence of Doo costs by major category are in thousands of dollars): 'partment of Defense needs.

tide Adras Idaho SIFIC

The lated і се space Iris

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The satellite and small power sources program in prior years, phase into operation.

Medium energy (Project SNAP) is carried out in cooperation with the physics includes research investigations in the intermediDepartment of Defense, the National Aeronautics and ate energy range (50 Mev-1,000 Mev) for the purpose of Space Administration, and other Government agencies, developing and improving knowledge of nuclear structure. to develop nuclear reactors and small power sources for | The increase in low-energy physics is primarily due to the satellites and other special purpose applications. Den operation of research tools acquired in prior years. Invelopment of reactor power systems for possible applica- creased work is planned in mathematics and computertion to large communication satellites, reconnaissance related techniques. Chemistry and metallurgical research systems, and space probes will be continued.

are aimed at advancing basic knowledge in these fields To provide broad support for developmental reactor of science and developing such knowledge for practical projects, AEC conducts research in general reactor tech- operations of the atomic energy, program. Controlled nology, which includes general research and development thermonuclear research is directed toward ultimate proon materials, components, moderators, control tech- duction of power from the controlled fusion of heavy niques, fuel elements, spent fuels reprocessing and waste hydrogen nuclei. processing

Approximately 75% of the physical research proThe advanced reactor systems research and develop- gram is conducted at 15 laboratories and installations ment program is devoted to the development and testing owned by or operated for the Commission, and the of experimental reactors and research and development remainder, comprising approximately 600 research projon promising advanced reactor concepts.

ects, is supported in more than 150 universities, colleges, In its nuclear safety program, AEC conducts investi- institutes and independent laboratories. gations related to nuclear safety problems which have 6. Biology and medicine.—Research is conducted on general application. The 1966 estimate provides for ad- the effects of radiation on living things. It includes ditional work on related engineering field tests on postu- investigations of the biological effects of radioactivity in lated safety problems and on aerospace safety.

the body and the development of methods for minimizing The AEC also operates the National Reactor Testing exposure to radioactive materials of all kinds and for Station in Idaho, including two test reactors which pro- minimizing and protecting against the injurious effects of vide irradiation services for the AEC programs. The radiation. Support is given to the development of methAdvanced Test Reactor (ATR), when completed at ods of utilizing radioactive materials for human welfare Idaho during 1966, will contribute to these irradiation and for the diagnosis, treatment, and understanding of services.

human diseases, such as cancer.

Evaluation of the The cost categories in the table above may be recapitu- significance of human exposure to radioactivity from all lated to indicate approximately the relative efforts placed sources is given special emphasis. Studies being carried on central station civilian atomic power applications, out include the measurement of radioactivity (including space program applications, and all other applications. fallout) in the atmosphere, soils, fresh waters, oceans, and This comparison, exclusive of plant and capital equip- biosphere proper. Research provides the basis for estabment, is as follows (in thousands of dollars):

lishment of standards to insure that AEC activities are

conducted with safety. This program recognizes the Development and support related pri

needs and responsibilities of other agencies of the Governmarily to civilian nuclear power... 161,787 170,574 181,300 ment conducting programs in biomedical research. Close Development and support related pri

relationships have been continued with such agencies as marily to space program application.. 194,696 193, 416 190,570 Military and other reactor development

the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 145,816 130,132 128,580

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Depart

ment of Defense, and the U.S. Weather Bureau. Total reactor development pro

The major portion of the research is carried on at 18 502,299 494,122 500, 450

laboratories which are owned by or operated for the Com

mission, and the remainder, comprising approximately 5. Physical research. This program is directed toward 650 off-site research projects, is supported in more than basic and applied research relevant to the Commission's 230 universities, colleges, hospitals and independent responsibilities for the development, use, and control of laboratories. The program includes the operation of nuclear energy. Within this framework investigations several facilities in the United States devoted to cancer are undertaken in the fields of physics, mathematics, research and, through the National Academy of Sciences, chemistry, metallurgy and materials, and controlled in Japan for the determination of long-term effects of thermonuclear research. By major category, the costs

atomic bomb radiation on the affected population. are (in thousands of dollars):

7. Training, education, and information.—This activity includes conduct of specialized courses; granting of

graduate and postdoctoral fellowships; assistance to High energy physics.... 77.398 87,860 100,500

colleges and universities, operation of the Puerto Rico Medium energy physics.

5,458 5,600 7,500 Nuclear Center; and dissemination of technical informaLow energy physics.

23,722 24,840 27,250 tion, including participation in international conferences Mathematics and computer research.. 4,498 5,200 5,900 Chemistry research.

and exhibits on nuclear science and technology. 43,563 46,400 49,850 Metallurgy and materials research...

Under the fellowship program in 1966, approximately 20, 128 22,600 24,500 Controlled thermonuclear research

317 college fellowships, compared to 276 in 1965 and 228 (Project Sherwood).

20,994 21,500 23,500 in 1964, will be offered for graduate studies in nuclear Total physical research........

science and engineering. In 1966, 102 fellowships will be 195,761 214,000 239,000

offered in the fields of radiological physics, industrial

hygiene and industrial medicine, which compares to 91 Research in high energy physics continues to expand fellowships in these fields in 1965 and 80 in 1964. The as new accelerators, on which construction was initiated nuclear traineeship program is expected to include 92

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1964 actual

1965 estimate 1966 eslimate




1964 actual

1965 eslimate 1966 estimate


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Proce Sery

General and special funds-Continued

million for the Los Alamos community of which $75

thousand is for assistance to the hospital and $6.4 million OPERATING EXPENSES-Continued

is for operation of the town. The remaining $2.4 million participants in 1966, as compared to 50 participants in is for assistance payments to the former

Atomic Energy 1965. *Assistance to schools to provide for educational Commission communities of Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Richprograms in nuclear science and engineering will be land, Wash., in accordance with the Atomic Energy continued. Grants are made to universities to help them Community Act of 1955, as amended. Operating reveacquire nuclear training equipment, teaching aids, demon- nues at Los Alamos (budgeted under revenues applied) stration apparatus, and special laboratory equipment. are estimated at $5.1 million. University summer and academic year courses in radio- 10. Program direction and administration. This probiology are made available to high school and university gram includes the salaries and other costs for employees of science teachers. Special training in the nuclear aspects

the Federal Government engaged in executive direction, of the engineering, life, and physical sciences for university general management, and technical supervision of the faculty members is provided.

atomic energy program; the negotiation and administraIn order to assist the States in the implementation of tion of contracts; establishment and enforcement of Public Law 86-373, approved September 23, 1959 (which regulations for civilian uses of atomic energy; and other authorizes the Commission to transfer certain regulatory related administrative activities. Employees under this functions to the States and also authorizes related train program are located in the Washington headquarters and ing activities), training courses and on-the-job orientation in field offices. The 1966 increase of $1,4 million is to are conducted in radiation safety, radiological health pro- meet the cost of 5,540 employees, which is 71 employees tection, waste disposal, etc., for State and local govern- over the June 30, 1965 end strength of 5,469 employees: ment employees. No tuition charges are made for these 11. Security investigations.--The Atomic Energy Act

of 1954 requires background investigations of those To broaden the dissemination of information on matters persons proposed for access to restricted data of the atomic relating to atomic energy, AEC provides technical infor- energy program. The number of full background investimation services, maintains libraries, performs trans- gations to be requested in 1966 is estimated at 15,826 lation services, operates domestic traveling atomic energy compared with 18,136 for 1965 and 17,221 for 1964. exhibits, participates in and supports selected international 12. Cost of work for others. In furthering the objectives conferences and presents international nuclear energy of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 concerning utilization exhibits.

of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, AEC furnishes 8. Civilian applications of: Isotopes. This program materials and services, apart from those which it provides provides the new technology necessary for developing uses normally for its own basic programs, to industrial organiof radioisotopes and high level radiation. Continuing zations and other private parties. Costs for these are research is done to develop economic uses of fission

product incurred only upon the request of others. Charges made wastes arising from nuclear reactor operation. Effort is

Effort is for such products and services are reflected in the budget also directed to development of nuclear technology for under receipts and reimbursements from non-Federal solution of problems in meteorology, seismology, control sources (revenues applied) and are applied as a source of of environmental pollution, water resources development, funds, thereby reducing the amount of appropriations and food pasteurization. An increasingly important area required. The items included are in thousands of is the development of isotopic power and heat sources dollars): for space and terrestrial applications. To the maximum extent possible, the research and development work Cost of products sold..


6,050 supported under this program is designed so as to promote, Cost of services performed.

1,359 2,030
encourage and utilize industrial cooperation in furthering
the beneficial uses of ionizing radiation.

Total costs (excluding deprecia-

4,862 8,080 8,100 Nuclear explosives.—This program (Plowshare) provides Related revenues

6,205 11,140 11,730
for the investigation and development of peaceful uses
for nuclear explosives, as well as development of such

Excess of revenue over related
funded costs.

1,343 explosives. Current emphasis is on the development of

3,060 3,630 explosives and technology for nuclear excavation. In addition to research work and work with industry on Receipts and reimbursements from non-Federal sources contained underground applications, one full scale crater- (revenues applied).- This item, shown as a source of ing experiment is planned for 1966 as well as continuation financing on the program and financing schedule

, redụces of promising work on explosives capable of producing appropriation requirements and is obtained from services heavy elements.

performed; the sale and lease of products, including sale 9. Communities.-Although legislation has been enacted and lease of nuclear materials produced as a part of the to terminate Government ownership of the town of Los Commission's own basic program; the operation of AECAlamos, N. Mex., over a period of the next few years, the owned communities and housing; the sale of special reactor 1966. The program estimate of $8.9 million includes $6.5 incurred only upon the request of others and are included


Pe 1

1964 actual

1965 estimate

1966 estimate


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