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I have gone rapidly through 'Hudibras,' running my eye down the ends of lines, and have failed of finding the passage. But I have found the following:

And if I durst, I would advance
As much in ready maintenance
As upon any case I've known.

(The rhyme is "own"), III. iii. 690. Has not Johnson here, as not unfrequently, trusted his memory and misquoted? If so, he is doubly wrong, for he has fathered on Butler a piece of bad grammar. C. B. MOUNT.


We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.

WRAGG FAMILY.-In 'N. & Q.,' 4th S. ix. 216, is an interesting account of the distribution of Mary Wragg's charity at Beckenham. One Mary Wragg died in 1737 (vide Lysons's 'Environs of London,' 1796, vol. iv. p. 299). She was the wife of Samuel Wragg, merchant, of London, whose will is dated 1749, and proved by his son William Wragg, January 26, 1760. The said William Wragg was an owner of extensive property in South Carolina, as was his father. In the south aisle of Westminster Abbey is a fine cenotaph to his memory, placed there by his sister Mary Wragg; it adjoins that of Sir Cloudesley Shovell, and is in close proximity to that of the Wesleys. Wm. Wragge was shipwrecked on his way home from South Carolina in 1777, on the coast of Holland, and drowned, while "his son, who accompanied him, was miraculously saved on a package, supported by a black slave, till he was cast on shore, on the coast of Holland" (so says the 'Guide' to the Abbey). In Beckenham Church is a fine large copper plate re Wragg's charity, but owing to the enlargement of the church a short time ago, the vault of the Wraggs in the churchyard was covered by the

church, and the Charity Commissioners ordered the quaint annual ceremony of inspecting the vault and coffins to be abandoned. Mary Wragg, the daughter, made her will in 1778, with four codicils and long statement, extending to 1794. She was of St. John, Westminster, and she appointed the famous Rev. William Romaine, Rector of Blackfriars, her executor. Her will was proved in 1794. She gives full directions about the Wragg charity, brass plate, &c. What I want to discover is the relationship between Samuel Wragg and William Wragg, a Quaker merchant of London (son of William Wragg, of Derby), who died near Croydon in 1737, aged seventy-nine. That there was a relationship is evident, as not only does one Samuel Wragg-not of William Wragg's immediate family apparently-sign several Quaker marriage certificates of William's family, but bis will is witnessed by David Barclay, grandson of the Quaker apologist. An infant son of William Wragg's was also named Samuel; and in the will of his son-in-law Benjamin Bell, of Leadenhall Street, property in South Carolina is alluded to. I should be particularly glad of a copy of the M.I. in Beckenham to the Wraggs, if such exists, or any other notices of the family.

JOSEPH J. GREEN. Frieston Lodge, Stonebridge Park, N.W.

SIR JOSEPH YATES, JUDGE (1722-1770).-In the 'Manchester School Register' (vol. i. pp. 7 and 221) is a memoir of this eminent judge, who was admitted into the school Aug. 8, 1737, the entry being "Joseph, son of Joseph Yates, of Manchester, esquire." It is also stated in Carlisle's Grammar Schools' (vol. ii. p. 698) that he was at Appleby School, in Westmoreland, probably before his admission to Manchester. The memoir is signed C., indicating it to be by the pen of my old friend the late Mr. James Crossley, of Manchester, a man of great information and an eminent antiquary. No mention, however, occurs of the scholar proceeding to either university, but on a reference to Foss's 'Dictionary of English Judges' (1066-1870) I find it distinctly stated that he was a member of Queen's College, Oxford, though nothing is said of his graduation. He was appointed one of the judges of the King's Bench in 1763, and transferred to the Common Pleas in 1770, but held the latter appointment little more than a month, when he died. He was buried at Cheam, in Surrey, where there is a monument to

his memory.

Sir Joseph Yates is thus alluded to shortly after his death by Junius in his first letter to Lord Mansfield, under date Nov. 14, 1770:

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the pernicious principles introduced by your lordship, and uniformly supported by your humble friends upon the bench, he determined to quit a court whose proceedings and decisions he could neither assent to with honour, nor oppose with success."

In 1775 his widow, Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of Charles Baldwyn, of Munslow, Shropshire, was married to Dr. John Thomas, Bishop of Rochester, a great benefactor to Queen's College, where he had been educated, and which was presumably the college of Sir Joseph Yates. Is there any portrait in oils or any engraved portrait existing? This question is asked as my friend the Provost of Queen's College is making a collection of engraved portraits of eminent alumni, amongst whom this upright judge is not the least. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

WHITE JET.-In Jean Valjean's pathetic dying scene in the last chapter but one of 'Les Misérables,' Valjean says, "Le jais noir vient d'Angleterre, le jais blanc vient de Norvége." As "jetblack" is a most common simile, does not "white jet" seem something like a contradiction? We should say, "Her hair is as black as jet"; but if there is also white jet, we might say, Her hands are as white as jet," which would sound like a more than doubtful compliment. Victor Hugo must certainly know better than I do; but may I ask if what the great novelist calls "jais blanc" is really jet at all; and, if not, what is it? M. Gasc gives no other meaning of "jais" than "jet," but Spiers defines it also as "black amber." Annandale defines "jet " 88a highly compact species of coal, susceptible of a good polish, deep black and glossy." "May the "jais blanc" be a species

of amber?


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individual? As Sheriff of Forres in somewhat stirring times, it seems probable that many documents must have borne his seal, and I should be glad to learn what was its description. A. CALDER.

BAKER FAMILY.-Charles Baker, of West Ham, Essex, grandson of Sir Richard Baker, the chronicler, by his will (1675) mentions his testator's brother Richard. I should be much obliged for any information respecting this Richard Baker, his locality, family, or otherwise. LINCOLN.

VICAR OF NEWCASTLE.-In Foote's play 'The Devil upon Two Sticks' (1768, Act I.), Margaret, an early advocate of women's rights, scores off Sir Thomas Maxwell in a burst of scornful eloquence:

"Had you analiz'd the Pragmatic Sanction, and the family compact; had you toil'd thro' the laborious pages of the Vinerian professor, or estimated the prevailing manners with the Vicar of Newcastle; in a word, had Representation, you would have known that, in spite of you read Amicus upon Taxation, and Inimicus upon the frippery French Salick laws, woman is a free agent, a noun substantive entity," &c.

Who is the Vicar of Newcastle here alluded to?


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"GOOD INTENTIONS. "Hell (a wise man has said) is paved with good intentions. Pluck up the stones, then, ye sluggards, and break the devil's head with them." So writes Augustus Hare in 'Guesses at Truth' ("Golden Treasury" Series, P. 180). Surely he misquotes! Ought not the proverb to read, "The way to hell is paved with good intentions"? Who was the "wise man" who said it? I have always understood it to be a proC. C. B. verb of unknown authorship.

AUTHOR WANTED.-Some fifty-five years ago, when I was a boy, I learnt at school a sort of poem or recitation on war, in which occurred :—

One murder makes a villain, Millions a hero,

And numbers sanctify the crime. Grave,' and more closely in Cowper's Task'; but The same ideas appear in Blair's poem "The

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the words are not there. I wish to trace them and their author. F. R. S.

[They are in Porteous, On Death.'] "YUPPEFIED."-In the course of conversation I heard a cultured Jew use this word in the sense of being deceived or overreached. What is its derivation?


HARDMAN FAMILY.-Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' give me any information regarding the Rev. Samuel Hardman, Presbyterian minister? He lived early in the last century, and was buried at Stockport. He died 1761, and in the register is entered as old Master Hardman; also his wife Lettuce. What

was her maiden name; and where were they married? H. C. H.

BANGOR.-Some years since I remember seeing it stated in Church Bells that Bangor is not a city. Is this correct?


8, Morrison Street, S.W.



(8th S. iii. 88, 173, 496; iv. 136, 269, 409.)

I willingly transcribe the note in Hallam for which MR. C. A. WARD asks. It occurs in hig 'Middle Ages,' eighth ed., 1841, vol. ii. p. 237, and is as follows:

GUELPH GENEALOGY.-What book of reference will best show the successive generations, without break, up to the earliest ancestor of Pharamond, without the authority of some very respectable names, King of the West Franks?

Corrard, Lisbellaw.


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M.P., LONG PARLIAMENT.-Sir Richard Wynn, Bart., M.P. for Liverpool in the Long Parliament, died in 1649 (Carlyle's list). Was he "Treasurer and Receiver-General to the Queen's Majesty " in April, 16317 Sir George Wentworth Strafford's brother was M.P. for Pontefract in 1640. Was he the same person who signed a warrant "by the Lords Justices and Council" of Ireland in November, 1642, at Dublin? This document is signed by others of the Irish Council. I know that Strafford's brother Sir George was a Privy Councillor of Ireland; but could any other "G. Wentworth" have signed this document? Among other signatures on the warrant are those of Jo. Borlase and J. Temple. Was either of these a member of the Long Parliament? In Carlyle's list there are two John Borlases, members for Corfe Castle and Marlow respectively, and two J. Temples, members for Bramber and Chichester respectively.

R. W.

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"A notion is entertained by many people, and not

that the king is one of the three estates of the realm, the lords spiritual and temporal forming together the second, as the commons in Parliament do the third. records and law-books; and indeed the analogy of other This is contradicted by the general tenor of our ancient governments ought to have the greatest weight, even if more reason for doubt appeared upon the face of our own authorities. But the instances where the three estates commons, or at least their representatives in Parliament, are declared or implied to be the nobility, clergy, and are too numerous for insertion. This land standeth, three states, and above that one principal, that is to says the Chancellor Stillington, in 7th Edward IV., by wit, lords spiritual, lords temporal, and commons, and over that, state-royal, as our sovereign lord the King. 'Rot. Parl.,' vol. v. p. 622. Thus, too, it is declared that the treaty of Staples in 1492 was to be confirmed per tres status regni Anglia ritè et debitè convocatos, videlicet per prelatos et clerum, nobiles et communitates ejusdem regni.' Rymer, t. xii. p. 508. I will not however suppress one passage, and the only instance that has occurred in my reading, where the king does appear to have been reckoned among the three estates. The commons say, in the 2nd of Henry IV., that the states of the realm may be compared to a trinity, that is, the king, the lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons. Rot. Parl., vol. iii. p. 459. In this expression, however, the sense shows, that by estates of the realm they meant locke, 'On the Parliamentary Writ,' vol. ii. p. 43, argues members or necessary parts of the Parliament. Whiteat length, that the three estates are king, lords, and commons, which seems to have been a current doctrine among the popular lawyers of the seventeenth century. His reasoning is chiefly grounded on the baronial tenure of bishops, the validity of acts passed against their consent, and other arguments of the same kind; which might go to prove that there are only at present two estates, this error is an inattention to the primary sense of the but can never turn the king into one. The source of word estate (status), which means an order or condition into which men are classed by the institutions of society. It is only in a secondary, or rather an elliptical application, that it can be referred to their representatives in Parliament, or national councils. The lords temporal, indeed, are identical with the estate of the nobility; but the House of Commons is not, strictly speaking, the estate of commonalty, to which its members belong, and from which they are deputed. So the whole body of the clergy are, properly speaking, one of the estates, and are described as such in the older authorities, 21 Ric. II. ('Rot. Parl.,' vol. iii. p. 348); though latterly the lords spiritual in Parliament acquired, with less correctness, that appellation. Hody on Convocations,' p. 426. The bishops, indeed, may be said, constructively, to represent the whole of the clergy, with whose grievances they are supposed to be best acquainted, and whose rights it is their peculiar duty to defend. And I do not find that the inferior clergy had any other representation in the

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property, and either his son or grandson assumed the name of Pike in lieu of Crowche.

cortes of Castile and Aragon, where the ecclesiastical Wharf) Gregory Baker, of Bishop's Stortford, order was always counted among the estates of the bachelor; in Foster's edition of Col. Chester's licences her father is wrongly styled, correctly in C. R. M. the Harl. Soc. copy. Mr. Baker died shortly It is evident that in James I.'s time the Parlia- after, and his widow married (li. V. G., Oct. 18, 1662, ment did consider the three estates to consist of for Great or Little Bartholomew) John Crowche, the Lords Spiritual, the Lords Temporal, the of Alcewick Hall, in Layston, co. Hert., Esq. Her Commons, as we may see from the Fifth of Novem-son John Pike Crowche inherited the Birdwood ber Service in our old Prayer Books; the heading is "for the happy Deliverance of King James I. and the three Estates of England"; where the King is distinguished from the three estates. If my memory does not deceive me, Hooker makes the same distinction. MR. C. A. WARD is certainly wrong when he writes: "The king is the head of the Protestant Church, so if the three estates consist of clergy, lords, and commons, the Church is not represented without the presence of the king." If so, then it must be equally true that the State cannot be represented unless the king be present, for certainly the king is head of the State; but neither is true, for the estates are complete without the presence of the king. The title of Head of the Church was given by Act of Parliament to Henry VIII.; but the Act which gave it was repealed by Mary, and was not reenacted; the king holds the position of supreme governor in all causes ecclesiastical and civil; the law knows not the title of Head of the Church, neither does the Church know itself by the term Protestant, which nowhere appears in the Prayer Book or Canons. E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP.

PIKE OF MELDRETH, CAMB. (8th S. iv. 288).I do not think any pedigree of this family has ever been printed, but I am able to furnish the following particulars.

George Pike, ob. 1658, was a widower. In 1643 he had lands in Birdwood, co. Essex, and on July 20, 1648, purchased the manor of Bathorne, alias Bapthorne, in Birdwood aforesaid; had issue George, Anne, Cecilia, Mary, and Elizabeth, with regard to whose order of primogeniture all I can affirm is, that Anne was the eldest daughter, and Elizabeth the youngest child. George Pike, junior, married at Aspeden Church, co. Hert., July 2, 1660, Anne, daughter of Ralph Freeman, of Aspeden Hall, Esq., by Mary, his wife, daughter of Sir William Hewyt, Knt. He would appear to have died s.p., as his sisters became his coheirs. Anne, born cir. 1625, married (li. Bp. Lon., Nov. 14, 1643, for St. Bride or St. Mary Magdalen, Old Fish Street) William Violet, of Pinkney, co. Norfolk, Esq., and dying v.p. left a son George Violet. Cecilia married one Thomas James. Mary-Le Neve calls her "Mercy"-was wife of Sir James Whitlock, of Trumpington, co. Camb., Knt., by whom she had issue. Elizabeth, born cir. 1638, married (li. Bp. Len., Nov. 18, 1661, for SS. Bartholomew Great or Peter's, Paul's

George Pike's will, dated Aug. 10, 1658, proved (P.C.C. 585, Wootton) Oct. 17, 1658, by George Pike, Esq., the son, the sole executor. Testator styles himself "George Pike of Mildreth in the County of Cambridge esquire"; funeral charge not to exceed 250l. and 1201. of that to be expended on monument; daughter Whitlock and her hus band to give a release of lands in Blackwall and Poplar (which testator purchased of John Procod) to the use of son-in-law James, as part of his wife's portion; 10l. to poor of Mildreth" to be delivered to the collectors for the said poor, to remaine for ever for a stock for poor of the said Town to set them on work "; 51. to poor of Milborne adjacent, in like manner; 30l. to 30 poorest-with preference for widows-of Mildreth for "black garments gownes and coats to be worne at my funeral "; 201. to 20 poorest of Milborne in same way. Testator recites that on May 31, 1647, he redeemed mort gage on lands of son-in-law Violet, viz., Pinkney, alias Tatterset, Boyvils alias Bigvils, Lacies, Moor Hall, and Wickens, all in Manor of Tatterset, co. Norfolk, from one Mr. Edward Brograve, to whom they had fallen in marriage, from Mr. Robert Burges of Norwich, the mortgagee; devises all said lands to grandson, George Violet, and recites that they were his father and grandfather's respectively, William and Thomas Violet, both deceased. Guardianship of said grandson till of age to son and daughter James. To daughter, Elizabeth Pike, 3,000 marks at twenty-one or marriage, provided she do not bestow herself without consent of sons-in-law James and Whitlock. Recites that my kinsman Edward Heighes of Binsted in Hants, Esq.," on Sept. 10, 1655, indebted to testator for rent charge of lands at Binstead, he to be excused 260%. thereof. Sons-in-law James and Whitlock and "my cozen Mr. William Gore fellow of Queen's College in Cambridge" to be overseers. Gives to grandchild Mary Pitchard 50l. at twenty-one or marriage.



Arms used by Pike of Meldreth: Az., three pikes naiant or. I see, on further reference to Le Neve, that he styles "Mercy," Lady Whitlock, the "third daughter and coheir," and states she had been previously married to one Pychard. This explains the last bequest. She is distinctly called "Mary" in the will. From part xvii. of Close Roll 18 Car. II., No. 13, I have just learned that by indentures trip., Oct. 20, 1666, between George Violett, of Meldreth, Gent., and George Pike, of

the same, Esq., of the first part; Benjamin Vesey, of Staple Inn, London, Gent., of second; John Crouch and Francis Oldfield, both of Staple Inn aforesaid, gentlemen, of the third. Said first parties disentail the manor of Tattersett, co. Norfolk. C. E. GILDERSOME-DICKINSON.

8, Morrison Street, S.W.

THE EARLIEST WEEKLY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE (8th S. iv. 444).-It is perhaps worth recording that the interesting scientific review Weekly Memorials for the Ingenious, had an earlier birth than that assigned by your correspondent, and, moreover, a rival publication, closely resembling it in form and matter, was being issued during the same year. This was the outcome of a quarrel between author and publisher, upon which the annexed particulars may throw some light. No. 1 was issued " 'Munday, January 16, 1681/2," and in the Preface we read :

"If the R. S. [Royal Society] shall think my endeavours in this kind any way subservient to their designes, it may animate my industry to perform things in the best manner I may, none being more devotedly their servant than myself."

The printers were Henry Faithorne and John Kersey, and the weekly issue by them appears to have proceeded smoothly until the publication of No. 9, "Munday, March 13, 1681/2." This was printed by J. C. and Freeman Collins, Old Bayley. With No. 11 the printing reverted to Faithorne and Kersey, but No. 10 is wanting, and the record for the week which would bave been embraced by it is omitted. Notwithstanding this the pagination is continuous over the gap. At the end of No. 12 we read :

"Advertisement.—Whereas a certain Huffish Gentleman, stiling himself an Author, pretends a Concern in these Papers, and in order to promote the Sale of his own Ware, by Advertisements disturbs the Publick with Complaints of unknown Injuries done to his Worth and Dignity; the Booksellers think fit to repeat this Notice, That they being encourag'd by the Justice of their Cause, which They are ready to make appear to all Ingenious Gentlemen, do resolve to proceed in the Weekly Publication of these Memorials."

This marks the dispute with the original and anonymous author, who, as will be seen later, continued to publish on his own account. The Memorials were issued week by week until January 15, 1683, when the numbers were pub

lished in collected form with an index and dedication to the Hon. Robert Boyle. There are several illustrations scattered throughout its pages. As the result of the dispute mentioned, the original promoter began again with a No. 1, dated "Munday, March 20, 1681/2," at the end of which he informs the reader that he has printed No. 8 and No. 9, and intends that the public shall receive them in their due course of numbers; and this undertaking was duly carried out. His opinion upon his treatment is thus set forth in No. 2:

"An Advertisement. Whereas Henry Faithorn Bookseller, at the Rose in S. Pauls Churchyard, has surand No. 1 (alias No. 10 as he calls it) and has publickly reptitiously reprinted two of these Memorials, viz., No. 9 in Thompson's Intelligence, March the 21, set his own and his Partner's Names to this creditable Act, and invites Gentlemen to his Shop for a Cheap Penny-worth as such Stoln Goods are wont to be afforded at: It is conceived that those Gentlemen to whom these Memorials may be grateful, being probably most of them Authors themselves, or may be so, will have a greater regard to the Laborious Industry of an Author, than to encourage a Person, who without the least colour of Right to his Copies, shall publickly invade him with Scurrilous Language, and Print upon him, meerly because he will not interested in the Sale of them, after his refusal to progive him his Copies, or, to his own loss, continue him ceed, as he began, with the impression of them, by Agreement with the Author. In the mean time the Agressor may find there will be Justice enough in the Nation to check his Insolence, more than his Unthinking Brain is aware on."

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No. 29, "Munday, Sept. 25, 1682," was the last published, and the whole series, like the other numbers, were issued in a collected form with an index and a preface. Perhaps some of your readers can suggest the original author of the Memorials." T. E. JAMES. Royal Society, Burlington House.

of the name of Olney in England: (1) Olney, near OLNEY (8th S. iv. 508).—There are three places Newport Pagnell, N.E. Bucks, the home of Cowper and Newton; (2) Olney, or Onley, a hamlet near Rugby; (3) Olney, or Alney Island, in the river Severn, at Gloucester, where Irounde and Canute agreed to divide the kingdom, 1016.


CURSE OF SCOTLAND (8th S. iii. 367, 398, 416, 453; iv. 319, 537).-FATHER OSWALD, O.S.B., writes, 8th S. iii. 416: “I am told on good authority that the identical card," on which Cumberland wrote the order for the massacre, "is preserved at Slains Castle, Aberdeenshire, the seat of Lord Errol." My friend Capt. Webbe, who married a sister of the present Lord Errol, has most kindly made a search for this card, and he writes to me:

"The only card I can find among the Kilmarnock papers is the eight of diamonds; it has a short letter

written on the back of it from the Duke of Hamilton to the Countess of Yarmouth, expressing regret at his not having been able to call upon her. There is no other card, nor has my wife ever heard of there ever having

been another in existence here."


JACKSON FAMILY (8th S. iv. 428).-There is no such coat in Papworth as Per pale indented or and argent. The nearest to it is Per pale indented or and azure, Holand, Gosnold, Parleis (Parleys or Parlys); the same, or and s., Borle (Sir Henry Borle). B. FLORENCE SCARLETT.

JUVENILE AUTHORS (8th S. iv. 349, 490).—The query under this head has been answered in part

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