« PreviousContinue »
On each side of the entrance to Bentinck Street, from Berwick Street, Soho, is a tablet inscribed "Bentinck Street 1736." It has a monogram, of which the letter B forms part, and is surmounted by a crown or coronet. Bartolozzi, the engraver, was living in this street in 1781.
According to Kelly's 'Directory,' Broad Street Buildings now form part of Liverpool Street; but from a careful comparison of old maps I find that the site is covered by the Liverpool Street railway station. They formerly had on them the inscription "Broad Street Buildings 1737." The stone is now in the Guildhall Museum.
above appears the inscription "HH, 1752," the F being, no doubt, the initial of the surname of the first owner or occupant, and the letters below the initial of his Christian name and of that of his wife.
On a house at the corner of Cutler Street and Houndsditch, facing Cutler Street, is a stone inscribed "Cuttlers Street 1734." On the same house, facing Hoandsditch, are the arms of the Cutlers' Company.
At the south-east corner of Danvers Street and
Cheyne Walk there is a stone panel with brackets and pediment, which has the following inscription, "This is Danvers Street begun in ye year 1696 by Benjamin Stallwood"; and below are the words, "This house rebuilt by J. Cooper 1858." The street was named after Sir John Danvers, who Com-lived hard by; his mansion was not pulled down till 1716.
In Carter Street, a cul-de-sac running out of Cutler Street, Houndeditch, there is a tablet with the inscription "Carter Street 1734." All the houses here bear the arms of the Cutlers' pany.
Catherine Court, opening into Seething Lane and Trinity Square, has the date "1725." There is some good iron-work at each end, now much corroded.
High up on a modern house at the north-west corner of Cecil Street, Strand, of which but little remains, there is a prettily carved tablet bearing a coronet and the inscription "Cecil Street 1696." It is surmounted by a heavy pediment, placed to protect it when the house was rebuilt in 1881. Cecil Street occupied part of the grounds attached to Salisbury House.
Imbedded in the wall of a red-brick house on the east side of Cheyne Row, Chelsea, is a stone tablet inscribed "Cheyne Row 1708."
On Craven Buildings, Drury Lane, was formerly the date "1723," which has now disappeared. The site of Craven Buildings had belonged to Craven House. This latter was not pulled down till 1809. The cellars are said to be still in existence, though now blocked up.
In Crown Street, Soho, at the corner of Rose Street, as Cunningham tells us, there used to be a tablet with the inscription "This is Crown Street 1762." The street was originally called Hog Lane, and was built about 1675. Mr. H. B. Wheatley says it was still called Hog Lane in Dodsley's 'London,' 1761, but that from the vestry minutes it would seem to have received its new name at the beginning of the eighteenth century. The scene of Hogarth's picture Noon' is laid in Hog Lane; St. Giles's Church appears in the distance. Crown Street is now partly destroyed, and partly thrown into the Charing Cross Road.
In Curlew Street, late Thomas Street, Horselydown, on the "Grapes" public-house, is a stone inscribed "Thomas Street, 1749." At No. 16 in this street there is a quaint carved porch, which looks as if it might have been made by some ship's carver. The pediment is supported by little figures having in their hands tablets with the letter H (a scarce one in these parts I should imagine), and
Let into the wall at the south-west corner of Denzell Street and Stanhope Street, Clare Market, on a public-house called the "Royal Yacht," there is a stone tablet with the following curious inscription: "Denzell Street, 1682, so called by Gilbert Earle of Clare in Memory of his Uncle Denzell Lord Holles, who dyed February ye 17th 1679, Aged 81 years 3 months, a great honour to his name and the exact paterne of his Fathers great Meritt, John Earle of Clare." This tablet was erected by Gilbert, third earl. The house was
rebuilt in 1796.
At the north-east corner of Dering Street (late Union Street), Oxford Street, there is a stone inscribed "Sheffield Street 1721." In Horwood's map of 1799, and in another issued in 1800 the name is given as Shepherd Street.
In front of No. 20, Devereux Court-on a building said to have been formerly the Grecian, though it has at the south-east corner the inscription "Eldon Chambers, 1844,"—there is a bust of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, and on the pedestal, "Deveraux Courte 1676."
On a level with the first-floor windows, between Nos. 14 and 15, on the west side of Drury Court, is the inscription "Stones Buildings 1747."
A house at the corner of Edward Street and Wardour Street has on one side the inscription "Edward Street 1686" and on the other "Wardour Street 1686."
Between Nos. 32 and 34, Exmouth Street, Clerkenwell, there is a tablet inscribed "Braynes Buildings 1765." The row of houses of which these form part were named after Mr. Thomas Braynes, who had been lessee of the ground, and who died in 1759, and was buried in St. James's Church, Clerkenwell. In their early days there was a fine view from these houses extending to Highgate and Hampstead, for the northern side of the road was not completely built over till about the year 1818, when the name Exmouth Street first appears.
The entrance to Falcon Court, Fleet Street, used to have a stone with the inscription "Faulcon Courte Anno Dai 1667." It has lately been rebuilt, and the stone has, I believe, disappeared. Wynkyn de Worde, the famous printer, lived at the sign of the "Falcon," in Fleet Street, and at the "Falcon" William Griffith had his press from 1561 to 1570. At the house over the entrance to the court the first John Murray established himself, and he and his son carried on business there for many years.
On the east side of Furnival Street (late Castle Street), Holborn, is a stone marked "Castle Street 1785." Mr. H. B. Wheatley says, 'The proper name is Castle Yard, perhaps from the yard of the Castle Inn, on which it was built. In Castle Yard in Holborn' Lord Arundel, the great collector of art and antiquities, was living in 1619-20." PHILIP NORMAN.
(To be continued.)
THE SACHEVERELL CONTROVERSY. Since the issue of my catalogue of certain books and tracts in the library of St. Paul's Cathedral in April last, I have added to the collection a large and curious series of pamphlets, 159 in number, apon the Sacheverell controversy; which, as may be remembered, may be said to have taken its rise from a sermon preached in the Cathedral on Nov. 5, 1709. I cannot affect a very deep interest in the controversy, but I have so long accustomed myself to regard the history of St. Paul's Cathedral as a subject to which I ought, as librarian of the Cathedral, to devote my all too scanty leisure, that I have wandered off into this bypath, scarcely realizing at first how long the excursion would prove. This particular collection of pamphlets has grown so large, and (if I may say so in the case of a controversy as dead as Queen Anne herself), so important, that it seemed to me worth while to offer to N. & Q.' a transcript of my list. The Editor has generously undertaken to find space for it.
I have numbered each separate pamphlet consecutively, not because they stand in exact historical order, but because in the six volumes in which the 159 tracts above mentioned are bound they are arranged according to this list, and were so arranged when I purchased the collection. The other pamphlets here enumerated I have also numbered, so that if any learned reader of 'N. & Q.' should be able to supply the author's name, he need only refer to the number, without having to transcribe the title of the tract.
One of the volumes bears within it a pencil note to the effect that the collection comprised two folio volumes also. Where are these? The booksellers who had recently purchased the six volumes knew nothing of the folios.
In order to avoid frequent repetition, I may say that all tracts not otherwise marked were published in London, and that they are, in size, octavo aut infra.
Perhaps a short sketch of the controversy ought to be prefixed to the catalogue. What follows is taken entirely from Earl Stanhope's History of England, comprising the Reign of Queen Anne' (the second edition, pp. 404-417), often in the author's own words.
Henry Sacheverell was grandson of a Presbyterian minister at Wincaunton, and son of a clergyman of Low Church principles, the incumbent of a church at Marlborough. In his case, as in that of many others in later times, the pendulum swung over, and he attached himself to the school of Archbishop Laud. He became Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, and was elected by the popular voice to the benefice of St. Saviour's, Southwark, where he preached to large congregations his favourite doctrines of non-resistance and of passive obedience. Hotly opposed to him was Mr. Benjamin Hoadley, then Rector of St. Peter-le-Poer, in the City of London (Tracts Nos. 4, 6, 9, 13-16, &c.), and afterwards, in reward for his political opinions, successively Bishop of Bangor, Salisbury, and Winchester. (The dates of these preferments are 1716, 1723, and 1734.)
Sacheverell preached before the judges at the summer assizes at Derby (Tract No. 18), and before the Lord Mayor at St. Paul's Cathedral (Tract No. 19), in August and November, 1709, two vigorous discourses. In the latter "be gave the rein to his hostility against the principles of the Revolution, by denying that resistance was lawful to any form of tyranny." He bitterly inveighed against the Dissenters, attacked "the toleration of the Genevan discipline" and the Calvinistic system, and even assailed the Lord Treasurer Godolphin, under his well-known nickname of Old Fox, or Volpone. Forty thousand copies of the sermon at St. Paul's were sold or distributed.
The Lord Mayor, an ardent High Tory, was delighted with the sermon, carried the doctor home to dinner in his coach, and commended the discourse, enjoining the preacher to print it. The Whigs, however, were furious, and determined on the impeachment of Sacheverell. Mr. John Dolben made complaint of the sermon in the House of Commons on Dec. 13, and on the following day Sacheverell stood before the bar of the House. He expressed no contrition for his opinions, nor did he offer to withdraw from his position; and he was committed to the custody of the Serjeant at Arms. Later on, the articles of impeachment were sent up to the Lords, and Sacheverell was transferred to the safe keeping of the Deputy Usher of the Black Rod; shortly, however, to be released on bail, himself in 6,000l. and each of his two sureties
(one of whom was Dr. Lancaster, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford) in 3,000l.
On Jan. 25, 1710, Sacheverell delivered in his answer to the articles (Tract No. 29), and his trial (Tract No. 174) commenced on February 27. The members of the committee which had framed the articles were managers" of the impeachment (Tracts Nos. 74, 77, 185, &c.). They were twenty in number; only eighteen appeared in Westminster Hall. Dr. Atterbury placed his pen at the doctor's disposal. Sir Simon Harcourt, the ablest of the Tory lawyers, was one of the five counsel assigned to him,
The popular favour was entirely on Sacheverell's side. As he passed daily from the Temple to Westminster Hall, crowds gathered round his coach, striving to kiss his hand, and shouting "Sacheverell and the Church for ever." Even when the Queen went in her sedan chair to hear the trial, the people pressed round and cried "God bless your Majesty and the Church. We hope your Majesty is for Dr. Sacheverell." The Queen, however, said to Bishop Burnet, "It is a bad sermon, and he well deserves to be punished for it." She seems to have changed her mind when she saw that the clergy, almost as a whole, excepting the Whig bishops, espoused his cause.
Five speeches have been preserved: Lord Haversham's for the defence (Tract No. 34); and the speeches of the Bishops of Salisbury, Lincoln, Oxford, and Norwich (Burnet, Wake, Talbot, and Trimnell) for the impeachment (see Tracts Nos. 35-46, 176). Of the peers, sixty-nine voted "Guilty," fifty-two "Not Guilty" (Tract No. 164). The sentence was that Sacheverell should be prohibited from preaching for three years next ensuing; it was carried only by six votes. His two sermons were ordered to be publicly burnt by the common hangman :
"The fable of the bear that hurled a heavy stone at the head of its sleeping master on purpose to crush a fly upon his cheek, is a type of the service which on this occasion Godolphin rendered to his party."
The trial did much to bring about the downfall of the Whig ministry.
there he could save them."-Abbey and Overton, 'English Church in the Eighteenth Century,' p. 380. It was a strange popular frenzy.
Lord Stanhope says that Sacheverell was "far more distinguished by zeal and noise than by either ability or learning."
In compiling this exceedingly condensed notice my principal object has been to indicate some of the most prominent features in the story, which the pamphlets (now to be enumerated) serve to illustrate. Large as the collection is, it assuredly is not complete; but I think I may claim that it is tolerably comprehensive.
I may add that the Cathedral Library possesses a copy of 'Eutropius' (12mo., Salmurii, 1672), on the title-page of which is written, I suppose in the doctor's handwriting, "Ex libris H. Sacheverell e Coll. Mag. Oxoñ, 1683." W. SPARROW SIMPSON. (To be continued.)
PRIMATE MCGAURAN OR MCGOVERN.
It is quite clear from these 'State Papers' that his Grace became inspired with the desire to obtain freedom of faith and fatherland for his suffering flock by casting off the Saxon yoke; and the earliest notice we find of him therein is in the 1885 tome, A.D. 1588, p. 135, in a despatch from "the Lord Deputy Fytzwylliam to Burghley. Reports touching the King of Spain's new preparations for in Vasion. The arrival of one Ferres O'Hooin of Fermanagh. Cahill O'Conor, whom he left in Flanders with the He is the secret messenger of Bishop Magawran and prince, labouring for forces to come into Ireland. He is in Maguire's country, and intends to return to Spain." And again, in the same work, pp. 452, 453, A.D. 1591, Sir Henry Wallop writes to Burghley, and encloses a report of an examination of the Rev. T. O'Keynai, who gave additional information against his countrymen and supplied "a list of such as have dealings with Spain,” viz.:—
"Edmund Magawran, Primate of Armagh; ConnogBishop of Cloufert, &c. The Spaniards have great hope hour O'Mulrian, Bishop of Killaloe; Teig O'Ferral, to get the town of Galway through the means of the said James Blake. They intend not to take land in any place in Ireland before they shall have the possession of some strong city. Cathall O'Conor and Maurice Fitzships as went from Ireland to Spanish ports were seized. John, of Desmond, are in great credit there. All such The king purposed to send some ships with a sum of money to bring as many Scots as possible for the in
When the sentence became known there were bonfires and illuminations; the ladies flocked in crowds to the churches where he read prayers (it was only from preaching that he was debarred). His journey to a considerable living in Wales, which had been bestowed upon him, became a festal progress. At Banbury (Tract No. 193) and again at Warwick he was met by the mayor and aldermen in their robes of office; at Shrews-vasion of Ireland. The Spanish army was to take land bury a crowd of 5,000 people poured forth to meet him (Tracts Nos. 83, 107, &c.):—
"At Sherborne, they drank Sacheverell's health on their knees and made a bonfire on the top of the church tower. At Pontefract, people thought it an honour to have their children christened Sacheverell. Some on their deathbeds told their own ministers, if Dr. Sacheverell was
first in Connaught under the leading of Cathal O'Conor, James Blake, and John Burke, M'William Burke's son, who make the Spaniards believe that they shall have great help of men, strength [i. e., strongholds], and victuals. The Spaniards were very much set against O'Donnell and O'Dogherty in the North of Ireland, for that many Spaniards were killed there by them. Two things ought to be looked to for the prevention of the
"by virtue of his oath taken before us hath deposed, that one M'Gauran, nominated the Primate of Ireland by Bulls* from the Pope, repaired to Maguire and after to O'Donnell, and used persuasive speeches unto them to forbear all obedience to the State, and that before midMay next the forces of the Pope and the King of Spain would arrive here to aid them against the Queen, and that presently hereupon the Primate and O'Donnell sent their letters to the Earl of Tyrone [Margin, " Cormock M'Baron, brother to the Earl"], Cormock M'Baron and to Bryan M'Hugh Oge (Brian M'Hugh Oge, of Monaghan, Fitz-proclaimed to be M'Mahon), affirming the same, whereupon a day of meeting was appointed, at which day in the presence of the Earl of Tyrone at Dungannon, and after at another day of meeting at Ballynascanlan Maguire took an oath† to join with the Spanish forces, before the Earl of Tyrone, these persons combined together and by their corporal oaths taken did conclude to join in arms for the aiding of the Spanish navy, which the Primate affirmed to be more in number of ship masts than there were trees in a great wood in Maguire's country. The names of the conspirators that were sworn were Cormock M'Baron, Bryan M'Hugh Oge, Rossebane M'Brene, Rory M'Hugh Oge (Rory M'Hugh Oge, brother of Brian M'Hugh Oge, of Monaghan), Art Oge M'Art Moyle M'Mahon (Art Oge M'Art Moyle M'Mahowne, brother to Patrick M'Art Moyle M'Mahon, sheriff of Monaghan), Art M Rory M'Brene, Hugh M'Rory M'Brene, Brene Ne Sawagh, and Henry Oge O'Neill, none of Tyrone being then present, but the Earl
Spaniards, viz. the conjunction of the Scots and Spaniards, and the good keeping of the town of Galway." A despatch, dated Jan. 23, 1592, from the Lord Deputy and Council to the Privy Council, encloses the following letter from G. Byngham to R. Byngham, vide vol. 1890, pp. 71, 72. It is of great historical value, the arch informer James O'Crean, referred to therein as betraying the confidence of the Primate, well merits to be classed with Francis Higgins, the betrayer of the gallant Lord Ed. gerald, whose identity that eminent author of Irish works, Mr. W. J. Fitzpatrick, F.S.A., successfully followed up (which Mr. Froude failed to do); see his most excellent work on 'Secret Service under Pitt,' 1892, which should be a companion volume to Gilbert's 'Documents relating to Ireland, 1795-1804,' referred to in my note on 'The Rebellion of '98' in 'N. & Q.,' 8th S. iv. 149: "James O'Crean came lately out of the north from Hugh Roe O'Donnell, where, as he saith, he saw seven bishops. Some of them he named unto me. But the chiefest among them was the Bishop M'Gawran, whom the Pope hath made Lord Primate of all Ireland. They were in great Council for two or three days together, and have some great despatch of certain letters, which shall be sent out of hand (as James O'Crean saith) by Bishop O'Hely to the Pope and the King of Spain. He further learned by the Primate M'Gawran that the King of Spain, came into France by Waggon and brought, his daughter with him to be married to the Duke of Guise. The Primate himself came in his company, and that the King determined to send two armies this next summer, the one for England, the other for Ireland, and the army that should come for Ireland should come by Scotland and land in the north, but their only want was to have some great man here to be (as it were) their leader or general, and have now thought Hugh Roe O'Donnell to be the most fittest' for the same. The Primate himself landed at Drogheda, and staid there two or three days after his landing. All which I have thought good to signify unto you, that you may advertise the Lord Deputy thereof. And if it be his pleasure to lay privy at Drogheda, no doubt the Bishop O'Hely may be apprehended, and with him all their practises will be found out. This Bishop M'Gawran is now in Maguire's country and is most relieved there. Jan. 3, Ballymote."
(Evidently O'Crean was hoping to obtain the high reward offered by the Lord Deputy for his apprehension.) But it would appear that his Grace the Primate also resided at times with his kinsman the M'Gauran, royal chieftain of Tullyhaw (see footnote, 8th S. iv. 504), and with O'Donnell, Prince of Tirconnell, as this excerpt denotes. The Lord Deputy and Council to the Privy Council, "Magawran and the titular bishops have their most frequent abode under O'Donnell," vide vol. 1890, p. 82, A.D. 1592. And at pp. 94, 95, ibid., A.D. 1593, the Lord Deputy and Council write to Burghley, dated April 29, 1593, "The intelligence of a combination in Ulster. Have written to the Earl of Tirone to make his personal repair to Dublin," enclosing the declaration by Patrick M'Art Moyle (M'Mahon), sheriff of the county of Monaghan,
The action of His Holiness Clement VIII. in this great struggle between the sons of Erin and Queen Elizabeth was such that it can be taken that the celebrated Bull of Adrian IV. (temp. Hen. II.), annexing Ireland to England, was revoked and cancelled. The effect on the religion of the country in subsequent years was not what the latter Pope anticipated. So under this and other circumstances the previously mentioned pontiff felt justified in the course he pursued. If the bold O'Neill had only proceeded to Dublin after his memorable victory at the Blackwater, the country would have been entirely under the control of his forces. See Mitchel's Hugh O'Neill'; also 'The Life and Letters of Reagh Florence MacCarthy,' by D. MacCarthy, 1867, pp. 170-172.
+ The examination of Moris O'Skanlon (in margin, "One that came in upon protection at the suit of the sheriff of co. Monaghan"), taken before the Lord Deputy, June 9, 1593; vide C. 8. P. I., vol. 1890, pp. 112, 113. "He further declareth by virtue of his oath that about Thursday was seven night, Sir Hugh Maguire, Cormock M'Barron Henry Oge, Alexander M'Donnell Oge, Shane Evarry brother to Maguire, and the supposed Primate called Edmond M'Gawran, met upon a hill in Slight Art's country [in margin, "Part of Sir Turlough O'Neill's country bounding upon Fermanagh"], where the said Edmond held a book, whereupon the said parties took their oath; but what it was this examinate knoweth not, but by hearsay, for that he stood sixty yards off, and as in all their doings and actions. The cause of his knowhe heard it was that they should faithfully join together ledge is that he was then present and saw every of them take the book from the pretended Primate and put it towards their heads, and heard the report as before; and for a further testimony he saith, that he sent the Seneschal of Monaghan word by his own messenger the for that he feared they would come to prey his country. same evening that he should be well upon his keeping, Vide The Lord Deputy and Council to the Privy Council,' vol, 1890 aforesaid, pp. 112-113.
The words Goth and Gothic are an example of this. Why the Goths, who were among the least barbarous of the tribes which overran the decaying empire, should have been chosen as the types of things coarse, debased, bad-mannered, and ugly, I do not know. Probably the 'N. E. D.' will some day inform us when, and perhaps by whom, the beautiful styles of architecture of the Middle Ages were first called Gothic. It was meant as a term of contempt, for it surely does not require proving that the Goths had no more to do with pointed architecture than the Seven Wise Masters had with the Peace of Amiens. It is one of those terms which possess inherent vitality. Those who use it to indicate the character of the old village churches which stud our land, and their unhappy imitations so familiar to all, rarely pause to consider how very far the word has become deflected from its proper meaning. We are quite willing to retain Gothic as an architectural term. If we were not it would make not an atom of difference. The Goths were a noble people, and there is no reason why the most soul-inspiring of all architectural styles should not be named after them, if we bear in mind that it is a sign-word only, not a term of affinity.
Our predecessors, however, were not content with this use of the word. With them a badmannered, ill-dressed, or slovenly person was a Goth, and anything ugly, coarse, or in bad taste was Gothic. The whole of the Middle Ages were, of course, Gothic, so were the classic dresses of the women of the Court of Napoleon I., and the carved paddles and other objects which early navigators brought home from New Zealand. Those who read the literature of the last century and the first thirty years of this will encounter the word used in many incongruous senses. Here are a few samples. They might be increased almost without limit :
"The unmeaning strokes of Gothicism."—Archæologia, vol. i. p. 295.
"A time when we are shaking off the shackles of ignorance, and emerging from the Gothic darkness which surrounded us."-Sporting Magazine, 1814, vol. xliv. "After a long night of tasteless Gothicism."-Best, Italy as It Is,' 1828, p. 144.
From what I have beard from the elders, it seems that Goth, Gothic, and Gothicism were on every one's lips when this old century was young. Now we never hear them. The architectural term has lived, in other senses the words are dead. How is this? Words do not die, any more than come into being, without a reason. In this case I imagine the cause to be the increased interest in and admiration for medieval architecture. When it was the custom to despise our old buildings it was natural to use these terms of contempt; when they became, instead of barbarisms to be got rid of, objects of reverent study, it seemed incongruous to apply to ugly and debased persons and things words which connoted some of the most lovely material creations that the hand of man has wrought.
demolitions have occurred in the City of London CASTLE BAYNARD WARD SCHOOL.-So many in recent years, whereby such a large number of curious old memorials of the past have vanished from the public gaze, that it is really refreshing to a stroller of an antiquarian turn of mind to disLane, near St. Paul's Cathedral, where the abovecover that one such is still standing in Sermon named building bears the familiar figures of a boy and girl, together with the annexed inscriptions : Castle Baynard Ward School supported by voluntary contributions. This House was repaired and beautified by the Liberal Benefaction of John Cossins Esq.
late of Redland Court near Bristol,
Many Years a worthy inhabitant of this Parish
To the Glory of God
and for the Benefit of 50 Poor
Baynard this House was
THACKERAY'S VANITY FAIR.'-We must not expect too much from cheap reprints; but why do Messrs. Ward, Lock & Bowden announce, in their "Minerva Library," an edition of 'Vanity Fair: a Novel without a Plot'? The substitution of "Plot" for "Hero seems uncalled for, especially as no copyright remains to be respected.
EDWARD H. Marshall, M.A.
THE VINEGAR BIBLE.-An inquiry is sometimes made about the edition of the Bible which is thus named. I find two copies described in the current catalogue of a firm of well-known booksellers, and to the description is appended a note in which it is stated that this edition obtained its