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about 70. Of these 10 were Students of Law, and six of Medicine. The annual expense of boarding, tuition, &c. is from 80 to 100 dollars.
TENNESSEE has one College, viz.
Greenville College, founded in the year 1794. The Funds of this institution are very sinall. It has a Library, consisting of 2000 volumes; a good Philosophical Apparatus, and about 20 Students.
The Officers of the College are, a President (at present the Rev. HEZEKIAH BALCH), and one other Professor.
American Editions of the Bible. p. 387.
I have lately ascertained that, prior to Aitken's edition of the Bible, in 1781, there was an excellent edition of the German Bible, in Quarto, printed in the year 1776, by CHRISTOPHER Sower, of Germantown, near Philadelphia. Mr. SOWER was a man of large property, and occasionally a preacher in the German Churches in Pennsylvania. He undertook and executed this work at his own risk, and had the honour of printing the first Quarto Bible that ever issued from an American press. It is one of the best specimens of typography that our country has produced.
NOTES ON THE RECAPITULATION.
Reciting, instead of Printing, among the Ancients. p. 414.
It is well known that the ancients, being ignorant of the art of printing, were obliged to employ public rehearsals as the best means of publishing new compositions. In early times this was the case with writers of the first class. HERODOTus recited his history in different portions, at the Olympic Games; and other writers of great reputation did the same.
Tacitus speaks in the following language of the author, who is obliged to employ this method of publishing his works.
“ Cùm toto anno, per omnes dies, magnâ noctiune parte, unum librum extudit et elucubravit, rogare ultro et ambire cogatur, ut sint, qui dígnentur audire: et ne id quidem gratis: nam et domum mutuatur, et auditorium extruit, et subsellia conducit, et libellos dispergit: et ut beatissimus recitationem ejus eventus prosequatur, omnis illa laus intra unum aut alterum diem, velut in herbâ vel flore præcepta, ad nullam certam et solidam pervenit frugem: nec aut amicitiam inde refert, aut clientelam, aut mansurum in animo cujusquam beneficium, sed clamorem vagum, et voces inanes, et gaudium volucre."-C. Cornelii Taciti Dial. de Oratoribus. ix.
Pliny, in one of his Letters, gives a lively description of the disadvantages which authors had to encounter in this mode of publishing their compositions.
“ Magnum proventúm poetarum annus hic attulit. Toto mense Aprili nullus fere dies, quo non recitaret aliquis. Tametsi ad audiendum pigrè coitur. Plerique in stationibus sedent, tempusque audiendi fabulis conterunt, ac subinde sibi nuntiari jubent, an jam recitator intraverit, an dixerit præfationem, an ex magnâ parte eyolverit librum? Tum demum, ac tunc quoque lentè, cunctanterque veniunt, nec tamen remanent, sed ante finem recedunt; alii dişsimulanter, ac furtim; alii simpliciter, ac liberè. Sed tanto magis laudandi probandique sunt, quos a scribendi recitandique studio hæc auditorum vel desidia, vel superbia non retardat. Equidem prope nemini defui: his ex causis longius, quam destinaveram, tempus in urbe consumpsi. Possum jain repetere secessum, et scribere aliquid, quod non recitem; ne videar, quorum recitationibus affui, non auditor fuisse, sed creditor. Nam, ut in cæteris rebus, ita in audiendi officio, perit gratia, si reposcatur.' Plin. lib. i. Ep. 13.
The poets who could not obtain an audience otherwise, frequented the baths, and other public places, in order to fasten on their friends, and procure an opportunity of reciting their compositions. JUVENAL tells us, that the groves and marble columns of Julius Fronto resounded with the vocife, rations of the reciting poets.
Frontonis platani, convulsaque marmora clamant
Sat. i. ver. 12.
The same satirist suggests, that the poet who wished his works to become known, inight borrow an house for the purpose of public reading; and that the person who accommodated the writer, might place his friends and freedmen on the back seats, with directions to be liberal in their applause.
Et si dulcedine famæ
Sat. vii. ver. 39.
In another place, speaking of Statius, a popular poet, he says:
Curritur ad vocem jucundam, et carmen amicæ
Promisitque diem; tantâ dulcedine captos
Sat. vii. ver. 82.
From a passage in Horace it would seem that, in his day, writers of the first class disdained to employ this method of obtaining literary fame.
Non recito cuiquam, nisi amicis, 'idque coactus;
Sat. lib. i. Sat. iv. ver. 78.
Influence of Printing. p. 418.
The following remarks of Professor STEWART, on the probable influence of printing upon the future interests of society, are worthy of attention. Whatever may be thought of the truth or falsehood of the opinions which they express, they afford to the contemplative mind materials for very interesting reflections.
“ The influence which printing is likely to have on the future history of the world, has not, I think, been hitherto examined, by philosophers, with the attention which the importance of the subject deserves. One reason for this may, probably, have been, that, as the invention has never been made but once, it has been considered rather as the effect of a fortunate accident, than as the result of those general causes on which the progress of society seems to depend. But it may be reasonably questioned, how far this idea be just : for, although it should be allowed that the invention of printing was accidental, with respect to the individual who made it, it may, with truth, be considered as the natural result of a state of the world, when a number of great and contiguous nations are all engaged in the study of literature, in the pursuit of science, and in the practice of the arts: insomuch, that I do not think it extravagant to affirm, that, if this invention had not been made by the particular person to whom it is ascribed, the same art, or some analogous art, answering a similar purpose, would have infallibly been invented by some other person, and at no very distant period. The art of printing, there fore, is entitled to be considered as a step in the natural history of man, no less than the art of writing; and they who are sceptical about the future progress of the race, merely in consequence of its past history, reason as unphilosophically as the member of a savage tribe, who, deriving his own acquaintance with former times from oral tradition only, should affect to call in question the efficacy of written records, in accelerating the progress of knowledge and of civilization.
“ What will be the particular effects of this invention, (which has been, hitherto, much checked in its operation, by the restraints on the liberty of the press in the greater part of Europe) it is beyond the reach of human sagacity to conjecture; but, in general, we may venture to predict with confidence, that, in every country, it will gradually operate to widen the circle of science and civilization; to distribute more equally, among all the members of the community, the advantages of the political union, and to enlarge the basis of equitable governments, by increasing the number of those who understand their value, and are interested to defend them. The science of legislation, too, with all the other branches of knowledge which are connected with human improveinent, may be expected to advance with rapidity; and, in proportion as the opinions and institutions of men approach to truth and to justice, they will be secured against those revolutions to which human affairs have always been hitherto subject. Opiniunum enim commenta delet dies, nature judicia confirmat.”
“ Nor must we omit to mention the value which the art of printing communicates to the most limited exertions of literary industry, by treasuring them up as materials for the future examination of more enlightened inquirers. In this respect the press bestows upon the sciences an advantage somewhat analogous to that which the mechanical arts derive from the division of labour. As in these arts, the exertions of an uninformed multitude are united by the comprehensive skill of the artist, in the accomplishment of effects astonishing by their magnitude, and by the complicated ingenuity they display ; so, in the sciences, the observations and conjectures of obscure individuals on those subjects which are level to their capacities, and which fall under their own immediate notice, accumulate for a course of years ; till at last some philosopher arises, who combines these scattered materials, and exhibits, in his system, not merely the force of a single mind, but the intellectual power of the age in which he lives."- Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind, Chap. iv. Sect. 8.
I agree with the Professor in thinking, that " the influence which printing is likely to have on the future history of the world, has not been examined, by philosophers, with that at. tention which the importance of the subject deserves."" But he has only presented the fair side of the picture. Experience proves, that this precious art is not devoted to laudable purposes alone; and that in estimating its future influence on human happiness, we must take into the account the abuses to which it is liable, as well as the advantages which it tends to produce.
END OF THE FIRST PART,