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LOMONOZOF, SUMOROKOF, KHERASHOF, and KARAMSIN, were particularly mentioned in a former chapter. Besides these, KNIÆSHNIN, DERSCHAVEN, PETROF, VAN Wisin, and YELAGHEN, are enumerated, with great respect, among those Russian poets, who are either now living or lately deceased.

Even the Fine Arts have not been without some zealous and able cultivators in the empire under review. In Painting, LEVITSKY and KOSLOF, besides several foreigners, are much distinguished; the former in portrait, the latter in history. In Sculpture, SCHUBIN, MASCHALOF, IVANOF, GARDEYEF, and KhaILOF, are mentioned as respectable artists. And in Engraving, SKORODUMOF and SCHLEPPER, besides others, drawn from different countries, afford abundant evidence that, even in the inhospitable climate of Russia, the elegant arts can live and flourish.

The study of Languages has been, for a number of years, more cultivated in Russia than could have been expected, considering the infant state of literature in that country. Besides all the attention paid to the cultivation of the vulgar tongue, which was before noticed, and the numerous instances of profound acquaintance with the best writers of Greece and Rome;" considerable labour has been bestowed, by a number of the literati of that empire, on the study of various living languages. The astonishing monument of learning and industry, in this branch of inquiry, given to the public by Professor Pallas, was mentioned in a former

s Among many persons who might be mentioned as having distinguished themselves by their attainments io classic literature, it would be improper not to take some notice of Plato, Archbishop of Moscow, and EvgeNIUS, a naturalized foreigner, Archbishop of Slavensk and Kherson. The former has the character of a profound scholar; but the latter is, perhaps, still more celebrated for his translation of the Eclogues and Georgies of VirGil, into Greek hexameters, which was, a few years since, splendidly printed in folio, at the expense of Prince POTEMKIN.

chapter, as doing him great honour. The translator YARIG, is supported by the academy, to study the Mongolian language among that people. LEONTIEF, of the college of foreign affairs, has translated a great number of works from the Chinese language, and may be considered among the most accomplished scholars in Chinese literature now living in Europe. And there is no want of works in Russia, for learning a large portion of the modern European languages.

Literary Journals have never had much encouragement or circulation in Russia. Several at. tempts have been made to establish them, and they have obtained a slender support for a time, but the state of literature in that country is not sufficiently popular to render works of this kind generally sought after and read. Newspapers are also few in number, and comparatively confined in their dissemination. The nature of the government conspires with various other disadvantageous circumstances, to impose restraints on their circulation.

During the last four years of the century under review, literature, it is believed, has received much less encouragement from the governing powers in Russia than for a considerable period before. And indeed, after all, it must be acknowledged, that the advantages of education have by no means had that general and equal diffusion in the empire which is to be wished, and might have been expected; and that a large portion of the inhabitants are still sunk in a degree of ignorance and barbarisın, which the exertions of another century, and of another succession of enterprizing sovereigns, will perhaps not be more than sufficient to

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GERMANY.

It can scarcely be said, with strict propriety, that Germany has lately become literary; for long before the period under consideration, there was much, both of literature and of science, in that empire. Those who have any knowledge of the great contributors to human knowledge, whose names adorn the history of Europe, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, need not be informed, that of this number, Germany may claim a very respectable portion. But the cultivation of the German language; the publication of dignified and popular works in that language; and especially the commencement of a jusť taste in German literature, may all, with truth, be ascribed to the eighteenth century.

At the beginning of this period, all works of importance in Germany were written in the Latin language. And it seemed then to be a prevalent opinion among the literati of that country, that the compilation of huge folios, interspersed with innumerable quotations from writers in all known languages, was the most unequivocal proof of literary merit. For this reason, the greater part of German productions, prior to the period under review, were proverbially tedious and dull, and were seldom sought after by the learned of other nations; insomuch, that it was often and seriously questioned, whether genius could grow in a German soil.

The first conspicuous writer who employed the German language, in important scientific publications, was Christ. THOMASIUS, the celebrated metaphysician and moral philosopher, who died in 1728. After him WOLF was the next who made use of the vulgar tongue, in treating of philosophical subjects. This example was soon followed by Mosheim, Schlegel, and others, of distinguished reputation in various species of composition.

But though the employment of the German language in philosophical works began thus early in the last century, yet it must be confessed, that in the early part of the century this language was extremely rude, harsh, and disgusting ; exhibiting a motly mixture of Latin, French, and Italian words and idioms, incorporated, without judgment or taste with the original Gothic stores. It is true, much was done, about this time, by several learned men, for regulating the Grammar of their vernacular tongue. K. DUNKELBERG, who died in 1708, was the first conspicuous German who perceived, and publicly insisted on the necessity of regularly instructing the youth of his country in their native. language. After him, Schilter, LEIBNITZ, VON STADE, STEINBACH, WACHTER, and Frisch, wrote largely on the German language, and contributed much to its regulation and refinement. Still, however, after all the labours of these philologists, persons of tolerable correctness of taste were much dissatisfied with the corrupt jargon which continued to be in vogue.

About the year 1740, J. C. GOTTSCHED became animated with a laudable zeal for the improvement of his native language, and engaged

For a knowledge of many of the facts and names contained in the following pages, the Author acknowledges himself to be indebted to the Historical Account, &c. before quoted, and ascribed to the Rev. Mr. Wilt now of this city.

v In the sixteenth century some specimens of German style were given to the public, much superior to any that appeared in the seventeenth. The works of Martin Luther, the great reformer, exhibit, we are told, a correctness, variety, and energy of diction, not to be met with in the works of any writer that preceded him, nor indeed of any that immediately followed him. Through the greater part of the seventeenth century this language was in a course of degeneracy; and at the commencement of the eighteenth, was found in a condition which loudly demanded reform,

with ardour in various undertakings for this purpose. And though his own style was far from being a model of that purity and elegance for which he contended; yet his labours were by no means without considerable effect. He wrote several works on the subject, which were extensively useful. He engaged in controversies relating to philological questions, with BODMER, BREITINGER, and others, which also served to throw important light on the German language. And he directed the attention of his countrymen to the English and French classic writers, whose influence in promoting the same object was very sensible. In short, before the death of this indefatigable labourer, which happened in 1766, he had done much to discountenance the wretched models which were before implicitly followed, and to bring into view principles and examples more worthy of imitation.

While GotTSCHED was engaged in these useful exertions, the great object of his pursuit was aided by the writings of Poposwitsch and MEINERS, who both published extensive and important works on the German language, and made contributions towards its improvement which do them much honour. But to no individual now living is this language more indebted than to the celebrated J. C. ADELUNG, who was mentioned in a former chapter. His Grammar and Dictionary of the High-German language" are famous throughout Europe, and have probably done more to explore the etymology, to correct the orthography, and to regulate the syntax of that language, than any writer who appeared before him. To the above

w The language spoken in the middle and southern parts of Germany is called the Higb-German, of which that dialect which prevails in Upper Saxony, especially in Leipsic, Dresden, &c. is reckoned the most pure an elegant. In Lower Saxony and Westphalia the country people speak a language called Flat-German, or Low-Dutch, but still differing greatly from the Low-Duteb of the United Netherlands.

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