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tionary of Arts and Sciences, in three volumes folio, by the Rev. HENRY TEMPLE CROKER, and others. This work, though, in many respects, worthy of public patronage, attracted but little attention, and gained but a small share of reputation.

About the year 1773 was published, in Edinburgh, the Encyclopædia Britannica, in three volumes quarto, of which the principal editor was Mr. Colin Mac FARQUHAR, assisted by a number of the learned men around him. A second edition of the same work was completed in 1783, enlarged to ten volumes quarto, executed chiefly by the same persons who had compiled the former edition. · A third impression, still under the same title, was undertaken in 1789, with the aid of a number of new literary labourers, and completed in 1797, in eighteen quarto volumes. This work deserves to be highly commended on various ac, counts. The friendly aspect which it bears, in general, towards religion and good morals, is entitled to much approbation. And though, on some subjects, it is far from containing the same depth and extent of scientific research with the French Encyclopedid, yet it presents a rich variety of knowledge, and, in the general usefulness of its tendency, far exceeds that celebrated performance.

From the last edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, an American impression has been given by Mr. Thomas Dobson, a respectable printer and bookseller of Philadelphia, who, with a degree of zeal and enterprize then altogether unrivalled in the United States, soon after the commencement of the publication in Britain, announced his intention of giving it to the American public through the medium of his own press. His plan has been ex, ecuted in a manner equally honourable to himself and his patrons; and his edition, on account of many valuable additions and corrections, deserves

to be considered as decidedly superior to that from which the greater part of it was copied.“

In 1783 some of the literati of France, not satisfied either with the plan or the execution of the grand Encyclopedie, which had attracted so much of the public attention, commenced a new work under the title of the Encyclopedid Methodique. This has been, with some propriety, called a Dictionary of Dictionaries. It is entirely on a new plan, and was lately finished, having reached the wonderful extent of two hundred volumes. in quarto. It is scarcely necessary to say that this last work, executed by many of the persons who were engaged in the preceding, bears, like that, an anti-religious complexion; and that, while it displays much genius, learning, industry, and perseverance, its general tendency is highly unfavourable to the interests of virtue and piety.

Some years before the close of the eighteenth century, a Dictionary of Arts and Sciences was undertaken by VARRENTRAPP and WENNER, learn, ed and enterprizing booksellers at Frankfort, in Germany. This work, under the title of Allgemeine, Encyclopædie, der Künste und Wissenschaften, has already reached to a considerable extent, but is not yet completed. It has been said, by persons acquainted with the German language, to be, on the whole, so far as it has gone, the best Encyclo pædia yet published.

Several other compilations, intended to embrace the circle of arts and sciences, were made in different parts of Europe, in the course of the last century. Some of these were translations or abridgements of those already mentioned, while others had better claims to originality. But too

* Besides other new matter, Mr. Dobson's edition contains much im. portant information respecting the United States, not contained in the work as it came from the British press.

little is known of those which belong to either class, to undertake any detailed account of their characters, or even of their titles.

It deserves also to be noticed, that the last age produced an unprecedented number of systematic works on particular sciences, exhibited in the form of dictionaries, and having the several parts disposed according to alphabetical arrangement. Of these the number is too great to be recounted. As a specimen, it may be observed, that we have dictionaries of Agriculture, by several associations and individuals; of Gardening, by MILLER, MAWE, and others; of Trade and Commerce, by Rolt, SAVERY, and PosTLETHWAITE; of Law, by Jacobs; of Mathematics, by Hutton; of Chemistry, by Macquer and Nicholson; of Mineralogy, by RINMAN; of Botany, by MARTYN; and of Paintżng, Music, &c. by various persons of learning and taste, in different parts of the world,

That these numerous and extensive collections of the different branches of human knowledge have had a considerable influence on the literary and scientific character of the age, will scarcely be questioned. They have contributed to render modern erudition multifarious rather than deep. By abridging the labour of the reader they have diminished his industry. But they have been attended, at the same time, with considerable advantages. To those residing at a distance from large libraries, and other repositories of science, they

Yo The English Encyclopedia, begun a few years ago by Dr. GREGORI and others, and intended to be comprized in eight or nine volumes 4to. was nearly concluded at the close of the century. The Encyclopædia Lon. dinensis, begun near the expiration of the century, by Dr. Rees, and other learned men, is now publishing. The Encyclopedia Perthensis, which has been for several years printing in the city of Perth, in North-Britain, is also still unfinished ; as is an Encyclopedia publishing by M Јонх Low, an enterprizing bookseller in the city of New-York, in which considerable progress is made, and which it is expected will form six quarto yolumes.

have furnished a most instructive epitome of knowJedge. They have thus contributed to enlarge the mind, and to show the connection between the several objects of study; and though they are far from presenting a sufficiently minute and detailed view of each of the various subjects of which they treat; yet, to general readers, they give more information than would probably have been gained without them; and to readers who wish to investigate subjects more deeply, they serve as an index to more abundant sources of information.

CHAPTER XXV.

EDUCATION.

EDUCATION has always been considered among the most difficult and important of those duties which are intrusted to man. Corresponding with its arduous and interesting nature have been the numerous plans to facilitate its accomplishment, or to improve its methods. Of these plans the eighteenth century was eminently productive, as no age ever so much abounded in learned and ingenious works on this subject; but the real improvements to which the period in question has given birth in the business of education, are by no means of that radical kind which might have been expected by the sanguine, from the progress of society in other arts and sciences. Still, however, the last age produced some events and revolutions, with regard to this subject, which demand our notice in the present brief review.

Of the numerous treatises on the subject of Education, which were presented to the public in

- the course of the last age, there are few entitled

to particular attention. Among these, perhaps, the celebrated work of Rousseau, under the title of Emilius, is most extensively known. This singular production undoubtedly contains some just reasoning, many excellent precepts, and not a few passages of unrivalled eloquence. But it seems to be now generally agreed by sober, reflecting judges, that his system is neither moral in its tendency, nor practicable in its application. If the author excelled most other men in genius, he certainly had little claim either to purity of character, or real wisdom.

Besides this work, a few others are worthy of particular notice; some of which, if they have less claim to ingenuity than the celebrated production of Rousseau, are more judicious, practical, and conducive to the happiness of youth. The Method of studying and teaching the Belles Lettres, by M. Rollin, has received much attention and general applause, and is pre-eminently favourable to the interests of virtue and piety. The Plan of a Liberal Education, by Dr. VICESIMUS Knox, is also the production of a learned and ingenious man, and may be ranked among the best modern treatises on this subject. The Elementar-Werk, by BASEDOW, of Germany, is said to be one of the most influential and useful works on education that the age produced. Much praise has also been bestowed on the Neuen Emil of Professor Feder, of Göttingen, which still continues to be held in esteem in the author's own country. Towards the close of the

DER

x The author has no acquaintance with the works of Basedow or Fe

This account of them is taken from a learned and interesting Hisforical Account of the Rise and Progress of Literature in Germany, published in the German Muscum of London, and said to be drawn up by the Rev. Mr. Will, lately of London, at present minister of the German Calvinist Church in the city of New-York.

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