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therefore behoved us, not to pass through negligence, omit through hurry, or render obscure by an ill-timed brevity, any matter which tended to the elucidation of a subject, in which our Readers are so immediately and deeply concerned. The time of publication was with us, and we will believe with them, by no means the principal object of attention. We might have saved much labour and time by publishing early, and of course, more imperfectly.
Our Publisher has liberally seconded our views in affording the expence consequent of so great an extension of the Historical Article, He thinks he cannot do too much to testify his gratitude to the Public, and desires we would observe, that from the abundance of matter which is now neceflarily discussed, it trebles in extent the amount of the History in any year of the late war. For ourselves, if we have the happiness to experience a continuance of that approbation with which we have been so long honoured by the Public, it will be an additional fpur to our future industry.
Retroffedive view of American affairs in the year 1775. Motives which
led to the invasion of Canada. Forts of Chamble and St. John taker.
S the hopes of a reconci. sign of the Quebec aet, had early
country, upon the condi. ed their apprehensions, in relation
expedition to the Lakes, with sovereign, carry war into his dothe reduction of Ticonderoga and minions, and invade a province to Crown-Point, in the beginning of which they could lay no claim, the summer 1775, by which, it nor pretend no right, seemed fach might be said, that the gates of an outrage, as not only overthrew Canada were thrown open, ren every plea of justifiable resistance, dered the affairs of that country but would militate with the ellamore immediately interesting, and blified opinions, principles, and encouraged the Congress to a bold feelings of mankind in general. measure, which they would not On the other hand, the danger otherwise perhaps have ventured was presing and great. The exupon. This wis no less than the traordinary powers placed in the rending of a force for the invasion hands of General Carleton, the and reduction of that country. Governor of Canada, by a late
A measure of so extraordinary a commission, were new, alarming, nature required the most serious and evidently pointed out the purconsideration. The commencing poses for which they were granted. of an offensive war with the sove. By these he was authorized to emreign, was a new and perilous un- body and arm the Canadians, to dertaking. It seemed totally to march them out of the country for change the nature of the ground the subjugation of the other colo. on which they stood in the present nies, and to proceed, even to capidispute. Oppofition to government tal punishments, against all thore, had hitherto been conducted on and in all places, whom he should the apparent design, and avowed deem rebels and opposers of the principle only, of supporting and laws. The strong powers of go. defending certain rights and im- vernment which he also possessed munities of the people, which within his province, were equal to were supposed, or pretended, to those of the most arbitrary Eurobe unjustly invaded. Opposition, pean monarchs, and had been alor even resistance, in such a case, ready felt both by the English and Supposing the premises to be fairly French subjects. Thus, though ftated, is thought by many to be the Canadians had hitherto refused entirely confitent with the princi- to be embodied, or to march upon ples of the British conflitution; any terms out of the province, it and this opinion is said to have was easily seen, that as soon as the received the fanction of precedents Governor's authority was supported of the first authority, At any rate, by the arrival of a body of English the questions in dispute were of forces, they would be obliged imsuch a nature, that mankind mighc plicitly to obey him, as well in for ever be divided in opinion, as that, as all other matters. He had to the matter of right or wrong, besides already engaged a conf. justice or injuslice, oppression orderable number of the Canada, good government. But to render and other Indians, in his service, themselves at once che aggressors, and if his arms once became preand not content with vindicating dominant, the desire of spoil and their own real or pretended rights, blood would bring them in crowds co fy wantonly in the face of the from the remotel desarts to his
afstance. Besides they were per- retarded by the blood of their wo-
In these circumstances, confider- drawa, and the appeal made. It ing a war pot only as inevitable, was too late now to look back, and but as already begun, they deemed to waver would be certain destrucit inconfiftent with reason and po- tion. If a certain degree of success licy to wait to be attacked by a did not afford a fanction to their formidable force at their backs, in resistance, and dispose the court of the very initant that their atmott Great-Britain to an accommodaexertions would be requisite, and tion upon lenient terms, they probably insufficient, for the pro- would not only lose those immuniteclion of their capital cities and ties for which they at present concoaits against the resentment of tended, but all others would lie at the mighty power whom they had the mercy of a jealous and irritated fo grievously offended, and with government. In such a state, their whom they were entering into so moderation in the single instance untried and arduous a contest. of Canada, they thought, would They argued, that preventing the be a poor plea for compassion or known hoflile intentions of an ene- indulgence. my, by forestalling his designs ere The knowledge they had of the they could be carried into execu- present state of affairs, and the tion, was as much a matter of self. temper of the people in Canada, defence, and less cruel, than wait. also contributed much to encourage ing to be attacked by him under them in this enterprize. They every disadvantage, and when he knew that the French inhabitants, had arrived at his utmost force. excepting the noblesse and clergy, There was no natural law, nor were in general as much discon. convention among mankind, by tented at the overthrow of the which a person was bound to be a English laws, and the introduction fimple and inactive looker-on, while of the present fyllem of governbis enemy was loading a gun for ment, as even the British settlers. his destruction ; was he to wait till It seemed therefore probable, thac the execution took place, for fear this discontent, operating with the he should be deemed an aggressor? rooted aversion which they bore to Questions in cafuiftry, however edi- their ancient proud and oppressive fying upon other occasions, have tyrants, the noblesse, or lords of the nothing to do in circumstances manors, and the mortal dread which upon which the fate of nations de- they entertained of being again repend. Were they only to seek a duced to their former state of feudal remedy, when the favages had pe- and military vafsalage, would inDetrated into their country, and duce them to consider the Provinthe fury of the flames which con- cials rather as friends than invafam:d their fettlements were only ders, and to embrace so favourable
an opportunity of obtaining a share to the isle of Aux Noix, which lies in in that freedom for which they the entrance of the river, and took were contending. Though they neceffary measures to guard againft were perfe&tly unacquainted with the passage of those vessels into the nature of the particular con- the lake. Schuyler, who at that troversy, and little interested in it, time commanded in chief, having it seemed to be for freedom, and also arrived from Albany, they American freedom, and the name published a declaration to encouwas pleasing. It was in favour of rage the Canadians to join them, colonics; and Canada was a co. and with the same hope or desiga lony.
pushed on to the fort of St. John, The Congress accordingly de- which lies only about a dozen termined not to lose the present miles from the island. The fire favourable opportunity, while the from the fort, as well British arms were weak and cooped as the strong appear.
Sept. 6th, up in Boston, for attempting the ances of force and resistance which réduction of that province. The they observed, occafioned their Generals Schuyler and Montgo- landing at a confiderable dilance, mery, with two regiments of New- in a country composed of thick York militia, a body of New. woods, deep swamps, and interEngland men, and some others, lected with creeks and waters. In amounting in the whole to near this situation they were vigorously 3000 men, were appointed to this attacked by a confiderable body of service. A number of batteaux, or Indians, who did not neglect the flat boats, were built at Ticonde- advantages which they derived roga and Crown-Point, to convey from it; along with which, find. the forces along Lake Champlain ing that the fort was well garri. to the river Sorel, which forms the foned and provided, they found it entrance into Canada, and is com necessary the next day to return to posed of the surplus waters of the their former station on the iland, lakes, which it discharges into the and to defer their operations until river St. Lawrence, and would af. the arrival of the artillery and re. ford a happy communication be inforcements which were expected. tween both, were it not for some Schuyler upon this retreat rerapids that obftruct the navigation. turned to Albany, to conclude a
Not above half the forces were treaty which he had for some time yet arrived, when Montgomery, been negociacing with the Indians who was at Crown-Point, received in that quarter, and found himself some intelligence which rendered afterwards fo occupied by business, him apprehensive that a schooner or broken in upon by illness, that of confiderable force, with some the whole weight and danger of other armed vessels, which lay at the Canada war fell upon Montthe fort of St. John's, on the river gomery, a man most eminently Sorel, were preparing to enter the qualified for any military service. lake, and thereby effe&tually ob- His first measure was io detach fruct their passage. He thereupon, those Indians who had joined in the latter end of August, pro- General Carleton from his ferceeded with such force as he had vice, and being Strengthened by