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negroes. The former and much the small

the arguments we shall address to them er class possess all the wealth, all the cul- because the conclusion is a little humiltivation, and all the political power, which iating. In their case, we shall have little they are enabled to retain by an ingenious need to concern ourselves about the wishand systematic use of the prejudices and es of a local majority. The fact that a passions of the latter. They are reputed majority are blacks, to begin with, must to have much earnestness of conviction, deprive that consideration of all its force, and claim an unusual amount of gallant- even to their own apprehension. It will ry and courage for their soldiers; though not be the first time that they have reit is noticeable that their principal ex- ceived a benefit which did not

agree

with ploits in our time have been the seizure the wishes of the greater part of those of friendless colored sailors, and selling upon whom it was bestowed. The men them into slavery, — the achievement of of Rhode Island and Massachusetts who that knight of the bludgeon, the repre- achieved the independence of South Carsentative whose noble deed his constit- olina did not stop to consider whether a uents could hardly admire enough, but majority of her white inhabitants were the better part of whose valor was the dis- Tories. cretion that preferred to encounter his When we hear that the colonel of a antagonist sitting and incapable of resist- regiment of Secessionists sends a flag of ance, – and lastly, that heroic and blood- truce to Fort Monroe to ask for the reless victory at Fort Sumter, where imper- turn of his fugitive slaves under the Conishable glory was won by the ten thou- stitution and laws of the United States, sand who conquered the seventy. They a painful doubt must be suggested whethseem now to be united, and substantially er such gentlemen really believe themunanimous. What elements a little ad- selves to be so wholly and utterly out of versity would develop in them, time must the Union as the theory of Secession would determine. Whether there is any reserve indicate. And when the novel, but very of patriotism and fidelity, overawed and sensible doctrine with which that singular silenced now, but which will come forth demand was met, that slaves are to be to serve as the nucleus of reconstruction regarded as articles contraband of war, when it can find protection and security, chattels capable of a military use, a kind or whether we must wait for a new gen- of locomotive gun-carriages and intrencheration to grow up, remains to be tried. ing-tools, and as such to be taken and conTheir leaders are subtle reasoners, and fiscated when found belonging to armed it has been shrewdly observed of them rebels, shall have been practically applithat “they never shrink from following ed for a time, with its natural and obvitheir logic to its consequences because ous result, it may be that even the Palthe conclusion is immoral.” Perhaps they metto State will exhibit some general will find no more difficulty in accepting symptoms of returning reason.

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THEODORE WINTHROP.

THEODORE WINTHROP's life, like a come they snatch at it unfairly. This fire long smouldering, suddenly blazed up was precisely what he could not do. He into a clear, bright flame, and vanished. would strive and deserve; but if the crown Those of us who were his friends and were not laid upon his head in the clear neighbors, by whose firesides he sat famil- light of day and by confession of absolute iarly, and of whose life upon the pleasant merit, he could ride to his place again Staten Island, where he lived, he was so and wait, looking with no envy, but in important a part, were so impressed by patient wonder and with critical curiosity his intense vitality, that his death strikes upon the victors. It is this which he exus with peculiar strangeness, like sudden presses in the paper in the July numwinter-silence falling upon these bum- ber of this magazine, “ Washington as a ming fields of June.

Camp,” when he says, “I have heretoAs I look along the wooded brook-side fore been proud of my individuality, and by which he used to come, I should not resisted, so far as one may, all the world's be surprised, if I saw that knit, wiry, light attempts to merge me in the mass." figure moving with quick, firm, leopard It was this which made many who knew tread over the grass, — the keen gray him much, but not truly, feel that he was eye, the clustering fair hair, the kind, purposeless and restless. They knew his serious smile, the mien of undaunted pa- talent, his opportunities. Why does he tience. If you did not know him, you not concentrate ? Why does he not bring would have found his greeting a little himself to bear ? He did not plead his constrained, - not from shyness, but from ill-health ; nor would they have allowed genuine modesty and the habit of socie- the plea. The difficulty was deeper. ty. You would have remarked that he He felt that he had shown his credenwas silent and observant rather than talk- tials, and they were not accepted. “I ative; and whatever he said, however can wait, I can wait,” was the answer his gay or grave, would have had the reserve life made to the impatience of his friends. of sadness upon which his whole charac- We are all fond of saying that a man ter was drawn. If it were a woman who of real gifts will fit himself to the work saw him for the first time, she would in- of any time; and so he will. But it is not evitably see him through a slight cloud of necessarily to the first thing that offers. misapprehension ; for the man and his There is always latent in civilized society manner were a little at variance. The a certain amount of what may be called chance is that at the end of five minutes Sir Philip Sidney genius, which will seem she would have thought him conceited. elegant and listless and aimless enough At the end of five months she would have until the congenial chance appears. A known him as one of the simplest and plant may grow in a cellar; but it will flowmost truly modest of men.

er only under the due sun and warmth. And he had the heroic sincerity which Sir Philip Sidney was but a lovely possibelongs to such modesty. Of a noble bility, until he went to be Governor of ambition, and sensitive to applause, Flushing. What else was our friend, unevery delicate nature veined with genius til he went to the war ? always is, — he would not provoke the ap- The age of Elizabeth did not monopoplause by doing anything which, although lize the heroes, and they are always esit lay easily within his power, was yet sentially the same. When, for instance, not wholly approved by him as worthy. I read in a letter of Hubert Languet's to Many men are ambitious and full of tal- Sidney, “You are not over-cheerful by ent, and when the prize does not fairly nature," or when, in another, he speaks

-as

of the portrait that Paul Veronese paint ship he and another were judged equal, ed of Sidney, and says, “ The painter has and, drawing lots, the other gained the represented you sad and thoughtful,” I scholarship; but they divided the honor. can believe that he is speaking of my In college his favorite studies were neighbor. Or when I remember what Greek and mental philosophy. He nevSidney wrote to his younger brother, – er lost the scholarly taste and babit. A “ Being a gentleman born, you purpose wide reader, he retained knowledge with to furnish yourself with the knowledge little effort, and often surprised his friends of such things as may be serviceable to by the variety of his information. Yet it your country and calling," or what he

was not strange, for he was born a scholwrote to Languet, —“Our Princes are ar. His mother was the great-granddaughenjoying too deep a slumber: I cannot ter of old President Edwards; and among think there is any man possessed of com- his ancestors upon the maternal side, Winmon understanding who does not see to throp counted seven Presidents of Yale. what these rough storms are driving by Perhaps also in this learned descent we which all Christendom has been agitated may find the secret of his early seriousnow these many years," – I seem to hear ness. Thoughtful and self-criticizing, he my friend, as he used to talk on the Sun- was peculiarly sensible to religious influday evenings when he sat in this huge ences, under which his criticism easily cane-chair at my side, in which I saw became self-accusation, and his sensitive him last, and in which I shall henceforth seriousness grew sometimes morbid. He always see him.

would have studied for the ministry or a Nor is it unfair to remember just here professorship, upon leaving college, exthat he bore one of the few really historic cept for his failing health. names in this country. He never spoke the later days, when I knew him, of it; but we should all have been sorry the feverish ardor of the first religious not to feel that he was glad to have sprung impulse was past. It had given place to straight from that second John Winthrop a faith much too deep and sacred to who was the first Governor of Connecti- talk about, yet holding him always with cut, the younger sister colony of Massa

serene, steady poise in the purest region chusetts Bay, - the John Winthrop who of life and feeling. There was no frankobtained the charter of privileges for his er or more sympathetic companion for colony. How clearly the quality of the young men of his own age than he; but man has been transmitted! How bright- his conversation fell from his lips as unly the old name shines out again! sullied as his soul.

He was born in New Haven on the He graduated in 1848, when he was 22d of September, 1828, and was a grave, twenty years old; and for the sake of his delicate, rather precocious child. He was health, which was seriously shattered, at school only in New Haven, and enter- an ill-health that colored all his life, – he ed Yale College just as he was sixteen. set out upon his travels. He went first The pure, manly morality which was the to England, spending much time at Oxsubstance of his character, and his bril- ford, where he made pleasant acquaintliant exploits of scholarship, made him the ances, and walking through Scotland. idol of his college friends, who saw in him He then crossed over to France and the promise of the splendid career which Germany, exploring Switzerland very the fond faith of students allots to the thoroughly upon foot,-once or twice esfavorite classmate. He studied for the caping great dangers among the mounClark scholarship, and gained it; and his tains, — and pushed on to Italy and name, in the order of time, is first upon Greece, still walking much of the way. In the roll of that foundation. He won the Italy he made the acquaintance of Mr. W. Townshend prize for the best composition H. Aspinwall, of New York, and upon on History. For the Berkeleian scholar- his return became tutor to Mr. Aspinwall's son.

He presently accompanied the Heart of the Andes. It so fired his his pupil and a nephew of Mr. Aspin- imagination that he wrote a description wall, who were going to a school in Swit- of it, in which, as if rivalling the tropical zerland; and after a second short tour and tangled richness of the picture, he of six months in Europe he returned to threw together such heaps and masses of New York, and entered Mr. Aspin wall's gorgeous words that the reader was dazcounting-house. In the employ of the zled and bewildered. Pacific Steamship Company he went to The wild campaigning life was always Panama and resided for about two years, a secret passion with him. His stories of travelling, and often ill of the fevers of travel were so graphic and warm, that I the country. Before his return he trav- remember one evening, after we had been elled through California and Oregon,– tracing upon the map a route he had takwent to Vancouver's Island, Puget Sound, en, and he had touched the whole region and the Hudson Bay Company's station into life with his description, my younger there. At the Dalles he was smitten brother, who had sat by and listened with with the small-pox, and lay ill for six wide eyes all the evening, exclaimed with weeks. He often spoke with the warm- a sigh of regretful satisfaction, as the door est gratitude of the kind care that was closed upon our story-teller, “ It 's as good taken of him there. But when only par- as Robinson Crusoe!” Yet, with all lis tially recovered he plunged off again into fondness and fitness for that kind of life, the wilderness. At another time he fell or indeed any active administrative funcvery ill upon the Plains, and lay down, tion, his literary ambition seemed to be. as he supposed, to die; but after some the deepest and strongest. time struggled up and on again.

He had always been writing. In colHe returned to the counting-room, but, lege and upon his travels he kept diaries ; unsated with adventure, joined the dis- and he has left behind him several novastrous expedition of Lieutenant Strain, els, tales, sketches of travel, and journals. during which his health was still more The first published writing of his which weakened, and he came home again in is well known is his description, in the 1854. In the following year he studied June number of this magazine, of the law and was admitted to the bar. In March of the Seventh Regiment of New 1856 he entered heartily into the Fre- York to Washington. It was charming mont campaign, and from the strongest by its graceful, sparkling, crisp, off-hand conviction. He went into some of the dash and ease. But it is only the pracdark districts of Pennsylvania and spoke tised hand that can “dash off” effectiveincessantly. The roving life and its pic- ly. Let any other clever member of the turesque episodes, with the earnest con- clever regiment, who has never written, viction which inspired him, made the sum- try to dash off the story of a day or a mer and autumn exciting and pleasant. week in the life of the regiment, and he The following year he went to St. Louis will see that the writer did that little thing to practise law. The climate was un- well because he had done large things kind to him, and he returned and began carefully. Yet, amid all the hurry and the practice in New York. But he could brilliant bustle of the articles, the author not be a lawyer. His health was too un- is, as he was in the most bustling mocertain, and his tastes and ambition al- ment of the life they described, a speclured him elsewhere. His mind was brim- tator, an artist. He looks on at himming with the results of observation. His self and the scene of which he is part. fancy was alert and inventive, and he He is willing to merge his individuality; wrote tales and novels. At the same time but he does not merge it, for he could he delighted to haunt the studio of his not. friend Church, the painter, and watch So, wandering, hoping, trying, waiting, day by day the progress of his picture, thirty-two years of his life went by, and

race.

they left him true, sympathetic, patient. I do not wish to make him too much a The sharp private griefs that sting the hero. “Death,” says Bacon, “openeth the heart so deeply, and leave a little poison gate to good fame.” When a neighbor behind, did not spare him. But he bore dies, his form and quality appear clearly, everything so bravely, so silently, - often as if he had been dead a thousand years. silent for a whole evening in the midst of Then we see what we only felt before. pleasant talkers, but not impertinently Heroes in history seem to us poetic besad, nor ever sullen, — that we all loved cause they are there. But if we should him a little more at such times. The ill- tell the simple truth of some of our neighhealth from which he always suffered, and bors, it would sound like poetry. Wina flower-like delicacy of temperament, throp was one of the men who represent the yearning desire to be of some service the manly and poetic qualities that alin the world, coupled with the curious, ways exist around us, not great genius, critical introspection which marks every which is ever salient, but the fine fibre sensitive and refined nature and para- of manhood that makes the worth of the lyzes action, overcast his life and manner to the common eye with pensivenes and Closely engaged with his literary emeven sternness. He wrote verses in which ployments, and more quiet than ever, he his heart seems to exhale in a sigh of sad- took less active part in the last election. ness. But he was not in the least a sen- But when the menace of treason became timentalist. The womanly grace of tem- an aggressive act, he saw very clearly perament merely enhanced the unusual the inevitable necessity of arms. We all manliness of his character and impression. talked of it constantly, — watching the It was like a delicate carnation upon news, - chafing at the sad necessity of the cheek of a robust man. For his hu- delay, which was sure to confuse foreign mor was exuberant. He seldom laughed opinion and alienate sympathy, as has loud, but his smile was sweet and appre- proved to be the case. As matters adciative. Then the range of his sympathies vanced and the war-cloud rolled up thickwas so large, that he enjoyed every kind er and blacker, he looked at it with the seof life and person, and was everywhere cret satisfaction that war for such a cause at home. In walking and riding, in skat- opened his career both as thinker and acing and running, in games out of doors tor. The admirable coolness, the promptand in, no one of us all in the neighbor- ness, the cheerful patience, the heroic hood was so expert, so agile as he. For, ardor, the intelligence, the tough expeabove all things, he had what we Yan- rience of campaigning, the profound conkees call faculty, — the knack of doing viction that the cause was in truth “ the everything. If he rode with a neighbor good old cause,” which was now to come who was a good horseman, Theodore, to the death-grapple with its old enemy, who was a Centaur, when he mounted, Justice against Injustice, Order against would put any horse at any gate or fence; Anarchy, — all these should now have for it did not occur to him that he could their turn, and the wanderer and waiter not do whatever was to be done. Of " settle himself” at last. ten, after writing for a few hours in the We took a long walk together on the morning, he stepped out of doors, and, Sunday that brought the news of the from pure love of the fun, leaped and capture of Fort Sumter. He was thorturned summersaults on the grass, before oughly alive with a bright, earnest foregoing up to town. In walking about the cast of his part in the coming work. Reisland, he constantly stopped by the road turning home with me, he sat until late side fences, and, grasping the highest rail, in the evening talking with an unwonted swung himself swiftly and neatly over spirit, saying playfully, I remember, that, and back again, resuming the walk and if his friends would only give him a the talk without delay.

horse, he would ride straight to victory.

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