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I have seen a photograph of his arm taken To ride abroad redressing human wrongs,at this time. The knotted coil of thews To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, and sinews looks like the magnificent ex
To lead sweet lives in purest chastity,
To love one maiden only, cleave to her, aggerations of antique sculpture.
And worship her by years of noble deeds, His person was strikingly prepossess- Until they won her”; ing. His form, though slight, - exact
and the rest, ly the Napoleonic size, - was very com
“high thoughts, and amiable words, pact and commanding; the head statu
And courtliness, and the desire of fame, esquely poised, and crowned with a lux- And love of truth, and all that makes a man." uriance of curling black hair; a hazel Such, in person and character, was eye, bright, though serene, the eye of Ellsworth, when he organized, on the a gentleman as well as a soldier; a 4th day of May, 1859, the United States nose such as you see on Roman medals; Zouave Cadets of Chicago. a light moustache just shading the lips, This company was the machine upon that were continually curving into the which he was to experiment. Disregardsunniest smiles. His voice, deep and ing all extant works upon tactics, he drew musical, instantly attracted attention ; up a simpler system for the use of his and his address, though not without sol- men. Throwing aside the old ideas of dierly brusqueness, was sincere and cour- soldierly bearing, he taught them to use teous. There was one thing his back- vigor, promptness, and ease. Discarding woods detractors could never forgive: the stiff buckram strut of martial tradition, he always dressed well; and sometimes he educated them to move with the loafwore the military insignia presented to ing insouciance of the Indian, or the him by different organizations. One of graceful ease of the panther. He tore these, a gold circle, inscribed with the off their choking collars and binding legend, Non NOBIS, SED PRO PATRIA, coats, and invented a uniform which, was driven into his heart by the slug of though too flashy and conspicuous for the Virginian assassin.
actual service, was very bright and dashHe had great tact and executive tal- ing for holiday occasions, and left the ent, was a good mathematician, possessed wearer perfectly free to fight, strike, a fine artistic eye, sketched well and rap- kick, jump, or run. idly, and in short bore a deft and skil- He drilled these young men for about ful hand in all gentlemanly exercise. a year at short intervals. His discipline
No one ever possessed greater power was very severe and rigid. Added to of enforcing the respect and fastening the punctilio of the martinet was the the affections of men. Strangers soon rigor of the moralist. The slightest exrecognized and acknowledged this pow- hibition of intemperance or licentiouser; while to his friends he always seem- ness was punished by instant degradation ed like a Paladin or Cavalier of the dead and expulsion. He struck from the rolls days of romance and beauty. He was at one time twelve of bis best men for so generous and loyal, so stainless and breaking the rule of total abstinence. brave, that Bayard himself would have His moral power over them was perfect been proud of him. The grand bead-roll and absolute. I believe any one of them of the virtues of the Flower of Kings con- would have died for him. tains the principles that guided his life ; In two or three principal towns of Illihe used to read with exquisite apprecia- nois and Wisconsin he drilled other comtion these lines :
panies: in Springfield, where he made
the friends who best appreciated what " To reverence the King as if he were
was best in him; and in Rockford, where Their conscience, and their conscience as their King,
he formed an attachment which imparted To break the heathen and uphold the
a coloring of tender romance to all the Christ,
days of his busy life that remained. This tragedy would not have been perfect with- wake, making bright the track of his out the plaintive minor strain of Love in journey. The leading journals spoke Death.
editorially of him, and the comic papers His company took the Premium Colors caricatured his drill. at the United States Agricultural Fair, So one thing was accomplished. He and Ellsworth thought it was time to had gained a name that would entitle show to the people some fruit of his drill. him hereafter to respectful attention, and They issued their soldierly défi and start- had demonstrated the efficiency of his ed on their Marche de Triomphe. It is system of drill. The public did not, of useless to recall to those who read news- course, comprehend the resistless moral papers the clustering glories of that blood- power which he exercised, - imperiously less campaign. Hardly had they left the moulding every mind as he willed, suburbs of Chicago when the murmur of inspiring every soul with his own unapplause began. New York, secure in resting energy. But the public recogthe championship of half a century, lis- nized success, and that for the present tened with quiet metropolitan scorn to was enough. the noise of the shouting provinces; but He quietly formed a regiment in the when the crimson phantasins marched upper counties of Illinois, and made his out of the Park, on the evening of the best men the officers of it. He tendered 15th of July, New York, with metropoli- its services to Governor Yates immeditan magnanimity, confessed herself utter-ately on his inauguration, "for any serly vanquished by the good thing that had vice consistent with honor.” This was come out of Nazareth. There was no the first positive tender made of an orresisting the Zouaves. As the erring ganized force in defence of the ConstiKnight of the Round Table said, - tution. He seemed to recognize more “ men went down before his spear at a
clearly than others the certainty of the touch,
coming struggle. It was the soldierly inBut knowing he was Lancelot; his great name stinct that heard “the battle afar off, the conquered.”
thunder of the captains, and the shouting." There were one or two Southern com- Still intent upon the great plan of mipanies that issued insulting defiances, but, litia reform, he came to Springfield. He after a little expenditure of epistolary val- hoped, in case of the success of Mr. Linor, prudently, though ingloriously, stay- coln in the canvass then pending, to be ed afar, - as is usual in New Gascony. able to establish in the War Department With these exceptions, the heart of the a Bureau of Militia, which would prove nation went warmly out to these young a most valuable auxiliary to his work. men. Their endurance, their discipline, His ideas were never vague or indefinite. their alertness, their élan, surprised the Means always presented themselves to sleepy drill-masters out of their propriety, him, when he contemplated ends. The and waked up the people to intense and following were the duties of the proposed cordial admiration. Chicago welcomed bureau, which may serve as a guide to them home proudly, covered with tan some future reformer: I copy from his and dust and glory.
own exquisitely neat and clear memoEllsworth found himself for his brief randum, which lies before me:hour the most talked-of man in the coun- " First. The gradual concentration of try. His pictures sold like wildfire in all business pertaining to the militia now every city of the land. School-girls conducted by the several bureaus of this dreamed over the graceful wave of his Department. curls, and shop-boys tried to reproduce “ Second. The collection and systemthe Grand Seigneur air of his attitude. atizing of accurate information of the Zouave corps, brilliant in crimson and number, arm, and condition of the miligold, sprang up, phosphorescently, in his tia of all classes of the several States, and tle-cry.
the compilation of yearly reports of the Mormon War, and the malignant prejusame for the information of this Depart- dice instigated by the covert treason that ment.
lurked in Southern Illinois, succeeded in “ Third. The compilation of a report staving off the passage of the bill, until of the actual condition of the militia and it was lost by the expiration of the term. the working of the present systems of the Many of these men are now in the ranks, General Government and the various shouting the name of Ellsworth as a batStates.
“ Fourth. The publication and distri- He came to Washington in the escort bution of such information as is impor of the President elect. Hitherto he had tant to the militia, and the conduct of all been utterly independent of external aid. correspondence relating to militia af- The time was come when he must wait fairs.
for the coöperation of others, for the ac“ Fifth. The compilation of a system complishment of his life's great purpose. of instruction for light troops for distribu- He wished a position in the War Departtion to the several States, including ev- ment, which would give him an opportuerything pertaining to the instruction of nity for the establishment of the Militia the militia in the school of the soldier, - Bureau. He was a strange anomaly at company and battalion, skirmishing, bay- the capital. He did not care for money onet, and gymnastic drill, adapted for or luxury. Though sensitive in regard to self-instruction.
his reputation, for the honor of his work, “Sixth. The arrangement of a system his motto always was that of the sage of organization, with a view to the es- Merlin, —“I follow use, not fame." An tablishment of a uniform system of drill, office-seeker of this kind was an eccendiscipline, equipment, and dress, through- tric and suspicious personage. The hunout the United States."
gry thousands that crowded and pushed His plan for this purpose was very at Willard's thought him one of them, complete and symmetrical. Though en- only deeper and slier. The simplicity thusiastic, he was never dreamy. His and directness of his character, his quick idea always went forth fully armed and sympathy and thoughtless generosity, and equipped.
his delicate sense of honor unfitted him Nominally, he was a student of law in for such a scramble as that which dethe office of Lincoln and Herndon, but grades the quadrennial rotations of our in effect he passed his time in complet- Departments. He withdrew from the ing his plans of militia reform. He made contest for the position he desired, and in October many stirring and earnest the President, who loved him like a speeches for the Republican candidates. younger brother, made him a lieutenHe was very popular among the country ant in the army, intending to detail him people. His voice was magnificent in for special service. melody and volume, his command of lan- The jealousy of the staff-officers of the guage wonderful in view of the deficien- regular army, who always discover in cies of his early education, his humor in- any effective scheme of militia reform the exhaustible and hearty, and his manner overthrow of their power, and who saw deliberate and impressive, reminding his in the young Zouave the promise of brilaudiences in Central Illinois of the ear- liant and successful innovation, was proliest and best days of Senator Douglas. ductive of very serious annoyance and
When the Legislature met, he prepared impediment to Ellsworth. In the midst an elaborate military bill, the adoption of of this, he fell sick at Willard's. While which would have placed the State in an he lay there, the news from the South enviable attitude of defence. The stupid began to show that the rebels were dejealousy of colonels and majors who had termined upon war, and the rumors on won bloodless glory, on both sides, in the the street said that a wholesome North
westerly breeze was blowing from the weeks what need to speak ? Every Executive Mansion. These indications day, by his unceasing tail and care, by were more salutary to Ellsworth than any his vigor, alertness, activity, by his genmedicine. We were talking one night erosity, and by his relentless rigor when of coming probabilities, and I spoke of duty commanded, he grew into the hearts the doubt so widely existing as to the loys of his robust and manly followers, until alty of the people. He rejoined, earnest- every man in the regiment feared him as ly,—“I can only speak for myself. You a Colonel should be feared, and loved know I have a great work to do, to which him as a brother should be loved. my life is pledged; I am the only earthly On the night of the twenty-third of stay of my parents; there is a young May, he called his men together, and woman whose happiness I regard as dear- made a brief, stirring speech to them, er than my own: yet I could ask no bet- announcing their orders to advance on ter death than to fall next week before Alexandria. “Now, boys, go to bed, and Sumter. I am not better than other men. wake up at two o'clock for a sail and a You will find that patriotism is not dead, skirmish.” When the camp was silent, even if it sleeps.”
he began to work. He wrote many hours, Sumter fell, and the sleeping awoke. arranging the business of the regiment. The spirit of Ellsworth, cramped by a He finished his labor as the midnight few weeks' intercourse with politicians, stars were crossing the zenith. As he sprang up full-statured in the Northern sat in his tent by the shore, it seems as gale. He cut at once the meshes of red if the mystical gales from the near etertape that had hampered and held him, nity must have breathed for a moment
his commission, and started for over his soul, freighted with the odor of New York without orders, without assist- amaranths and asphodels. For he wrote ance, without authority, but with the con- two strange letters: one to her who mourns sciousness that the President would sus- him faithful in death; one to his parents. tain him. The rest the world knows. I There is nothing braver or more pathetic. will be brief in recalling it.
With the prophetic instinct of love, he In an incredibly short space of time he assumed the office of consoler for the enlisted and organized a regiment, eleven stroke that impended. hundred strong, of the best fighting mate- In the dewy light of the early dawn rial that ever went to war. He divided he occupied the first rebel town. With it, according to an idea of his own, into his own hand he tore down the first rebel groups of four comrades each, for the flag. He added to the glories of that campaign. He exercised a personal su- morning the seal of his blood. pervision over the most important and The poor wretch who stumbled upon the most trivial minutiæ of the regimental an immortality of infamy by murdering business. The quick sympathy of the him died at the same instant. The two public still followed him. He became the stand in the light of that event – clearly idol of the Bowery and the pet of the revealed — types of the two systems in Avenue. Yet not one instant did he conflict to-day: the one, brave, refined, waste in recreation or lionizing. Indul- courtly, generous, tender, and true; the gent to all others, he was merciless to him- other, not lacking in brute courage, reckself. He worked day and night, like an less, besotted, ignorant, and cruel. incarnation of Energy. When he arrived Let the two systems, Freedom and with his men in Washington, he was thin, Slavery, stand thus typified forever, in hoarse, flushed, but entirely contented the red light of that dawn, as on a Mount and happy, because busy and useful. of Transfiguration. I believe that may
Of the bright enthusiasm and the solve the dark mystery why Ellsworth quenchless industry of the next few died.
REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES.
Chambers's Encyclopædia: A Dictionary of
Universal Knowledge for the People; on the Basis of the Latest Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co. Vols. I. and II.
An Encyclopædia is both a luxury and a necessity. Few readers now collect a library, however scant, without including one of some sort. Many of them, even in the absence of all other books, of themselves constitute a complete library. The Britannica, Edinburgh, Metropolitana, English, Penny, London, Oxford, and that of Rees, are most elaborate works, extending respectively to about a score of heavy volumes, averaging eight or nine hundred pages each. Such publications must necessarily be expensive. They are, moreover, to be regarded rather as a collection of exhaustive treatises,- great prominence being given to the physical and mathematical sciences, and to general history. For instance, in the Britannica, the publication of the eighth edition of which is just completed, the length of some of the articles is as follows : Astronomy, 155 quarto pages; Chemistry, 88; Electricity, 104; Hydrodynamics, 119; Optics, 176 ; Mammalia, 120; Ichthyology, 151; Entomology, 265 ; Britain, 300; England, 136; France, 284. Each one of these papers is equal to a large octavo volume; some of them would occupy several volumes; and the entire work, containing a collection of such articles, can be regarded in no other light than as an attempted exhibition of the sum of human knowledge, commending itself, of course, to professional and highly educated minds, but far transcending, in extent and costliness, the requirements and the means of the great class of general readers. For the wants of this latter class a different sort of work is desirable, which shall be cheaper in price, less exhaustive in its method, and more diversified in its range. In these particulars the Germans seem to have hit upon the happy medium in their famous “ Conversations-Lexicon," which has passed through a great many editions, and been translated into the principal languages of Europe. This is taken as the type, and in some respects as the
basis, of the present publication,- there being engrafted upon it new contributions from leading authors of this and other countries, together with such extensive improvements, revisals, rewritings, addi. tions, and modifications throughout, as to constitute a substantially new work, exhibiting in combination the results of the best labors of the German, English, and American mind. In the departments of statistics, geography, history, and science, the articles are all within readable limits, accurate, and up to the times; while in the biographical and literary articles there is a freshness and originality of criticism, and a vivacity of style, seldom met with in this class of publications.
The peculiar merit of this Encyclopædia is its convenient adaptedness to popular use. The subjects treated of are broken up and distributed alphabetically under their proper heads, so as to facilitate refer
We are thus furnished with a dictionary of facts and events, where we may readily find whatever properly appertains to any particular point, without being compelled to explore an entire treatise. This, by the way, makes it a sort of hand-book even for those who possess the more voluminous works. As a necessary result of such a method of treatment, it will be found, upon an actual count and comparison, to contain more separate titles than any other Encyclopædia ever published. Although the articles are generally brief, it must not be supposed that they are meagre, for they will be found to present a clear and comprehensive view of the existing information upon the particular topic, with a mastery which arises only from familiarity. Montesquieu said that Tacitus abridged all because he knew all; and no reader can peruse a number of this Encyclopædia without being convinced that the success in preparing the perspicuous abridgments it contains is due to thorough knowledge. Its excellence is not confined, however, to the letter-press; for we are furnished with a series of color. ed maps, embodying the results of the most recent explorations, and also with a profusion of admirable woodcuts, illustrating