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terror, and hence all their wonted saga- the raw material it requires. As to city is now at fault. Lancashire is to be France, it would be most impolitic in her come a Sahara, because President Lin- to seek our destruction, unless she wishes coln, in accordance with the demands to see the restoration of England's mariof twenty million Americans, proclaims time supremacy. The French navy, great the ports of the rebels under blockade, and powerful as it now is, can be regardand enforces that blockade with a fleet ed only as the result of a skilful and most quite sufficient to satisfy even Lord John costly forcing process, carried on by BourRussell's notions as to effectiveness. We bons, Orléanists, Republicans, and Impehave never believed, and we do not now rialists, during forty-six years of maritime believe, that it is in the power of any peace. It could not be maintained against part of America thus to control the the attacks of England, which is a naval condition of England. We would not country by position and interest. We have it so, if we could, as we are sure never could be the rival of France, but that the power would be abused. If we could always be relied upon to throw America really possessed the ability to our weight on her side in a maritime rule England that her cotton-manufact- war; and while our policy would never urers assert she possesses, all Englishmen allow of our having a very large navy in should rejoice that events have occurred time of peace,

, have in abundance all here that promise to work out their coun- the elements of naval power. Nor should try's deliverance from so degrading a vas- England be indifferent to the aid which salage. But it is not so, and England we could afford her, were she to be aswill survive the event of our conflict, no sailed by the principal nations of Contimatter what that event may be. The nental Europe. Strike the American nation that triumphed over the Conti- Union out of the list of the nations, or nental System of Napoleon, and which cause it to be sensibly weakened, or treat was not injured by our Embargo Acts of it so as to revive in force the old Amerififty years ago, should be ashamed to lay can hatred of England, and it is possible so much stress upon the value of our cot- that the predictions of those who see in ton-crop, when it has its choice of the Napoleon III. only the Avenger of Nalands of the tropics from which to draw poleon I. may be justified by the event.



OUR BARRACKS AT THE CAPITOL. as they to see it. The Capitol was to be

our quarters, and I was pleased to notice We marched up the hill, and when that the top of the dome had been left the dust opened there was our Big Tent off for ventilation. ready pitched.

The Seventh had had a wearisome and It was an enormous tent, — the Sibley anxious progress from New York, as I pattern modified. A simple soul in our have chronicled in the June " Atlantic." ranks looked up and said, — " Tent! We had marched from Annapolis, while canvas ! I don't see it: that 's marble ! ” rumors to right of us, rumors to left of us, Whereupon a simpler soul informed us, volleyed and thundered.” We had not —“Boys, that 's the Capitol.”

expected that the attack upon us would And so it was the Capitol, as glad be merely verbal. The truculent citizens to see the New York Seventh Regiment of Maryland notified us that we were to


common defence, the conquests of Rome Christianity's early home, but now held in the East might have been early check- by the most bigoted and cruel of Mussuled, and her efforts have been necessarily mans; and it is only the circumstance that confined to the North and the West. But they cannot agree upon a division of the no international system then existed, and spoil that prevents the five great powers the rude attempts at mutual assistance of Europe - the representatives of the that were occasionally made, as the con- leading branches of the Christian religquering race strode forward, were of no ion — from partitioning the vast, but feeavail; and the swords of the legionaries ble Ottoman Empire. The Christian idea reaped the whole field. It is singular of man's brotherhood, so powerful in itthat what is so well known to the mod- self, is supported by material forces so vast, erns, and was known to them at times and by ingenuity and industry so comwhen they were far inferior to the best prehensive and so various in themselves races of antiquity, should have remained and their results, that it must supersede unknown to the latter. The chief rea- all others, and be accepted in every counson of this want of combining power in try where there are people capable of men who have never been surpassed in understanding it. From the time of the ability is to be found in the then prevail- first Crusade there has been a steady ing idea, that every stranger was an en- tendency to the unity of Christian counemy. There was a total want of confi- tries; and notwithstanding all their condence in one another among the peoples flicts with one another, and partly as one of the ante-Christian period. Differences of the effects of those conflicts, they have of race were augmented by differences " fraternized,” until now there exists a in religion, and by the absence of strong mighty Christian Commonwealth, the business interests. Christianity had not members of which ought to be able to been vouchsafed to man, and commerce govern the world in accordance with the had very in perfectly done its work, while principles of a religion that is in itself war was carried on in the most ruthless peace. Under the influence of these and destructive manner.

principles, the Christian nations, though The modern world differs in this mat- not in equal degrees, have developed ter entirely from the ancient world ; and their resources, and a commercial system though the change is perfect only in has been created which has enlisted the Christendom, the effect of it is felt in material interests of men on the same countries where the Christian religion side with the highest teachings of the does not prevail, but into which Christian purest religion. Selfishness and self-dearmies and Christian merchants have nial march under the same banner, and penetrated. Christendom is the leading men are taught to do unto others as they portion of the world, and is fast giving would that others should do unto them, law to lands in which Christianity is still because the rule is as golden economicalhated. It is the policy of Christendom ly as it is morally. This teaching, howthat orders the world. A Christian race ever, it must be allowed, is very imperrules over the whole of that immense fectly done, and encounters so many country, or collection of countries, which disturbing for to proper developis known as India. Another Christian ment the

of the course of race threatens to seize upon Persia.

be pardoned, if Christians from the extreme West of F

Thlre is little rope have dictated the terms of to

in the orderto the Tartar lords of China; a

dom, and tians from America have

sterial inbreaking through the

food. Still, of Japan. Christian

a generyear past acted

sendom, and


that no part of that division of the world picture that is presented by the bond of can be injured or improved without all nations. There is another side to the the other parts of it being thereby af- picture, which is far from being so agreefected. What is known as “the busi- able to us, and which may be called the ness world” exists everywhere, but it is Cotton side ; and it is because England, in Christendom that it has its principal and to a lesser degree France, is of opinseats, and in which its mightiest works ion that American cotton must be had, are done. It forms one community of that our civil troubles threaten to bring mankind; and what depresses or exalts upon us, if not a foreign war, at least grave one nation is felt by its effects in all na- disputes and difficulties with those Eurotions. There cannot be a Russian war, pean nations with which we are most deor a Sepoy mutiny, or an Anglo-French sirous of remaining on the best of terms, invasion of China, or an emancipation of and to secure the friendship of which all the serfs of Russia, without the effect Americans are disposed to make every thereof being sensibly experienced on the sacrifice that is compatible with the presshores of Superior or on the banks of the ervation of national honor. Sacramento; and the civil war that is From the beginning of the troubles in raging in the United States promises to this country that have led to civil war, produce permanent consequences to the the desire to know what course would be inhabitants of Central India and of Cen- pursued by the principal nations of Eutral Africa. The wars, floods, plagues, rope toward the contending parties has and famines of the farthest East bear up- been very strongly felt on both sides ; on the people of the remotest West. The but the feeling has been greater on the Oregon flows in sympathy with the Gan- side of the rebels than on that of the nages; and a very mild winter in New Eng- tion, because the rebellion has depended land might give additional value to the even for the merest chance of success upice-crop of the Neva. So closely identified on the favorable view of European gorare all nations at this time, that the hope ernments, and the nation has got beyond that there may be no serious difficulties the point of caring much for the opinions between the United States and the West- or the actions of those governments. The ern powers of Europe, as a consequence Union's existence depends not upon of the Federal Government's blockade ropean friendship or enmity; but without of the Southern ports of the Union, is the aid of the Old World, the new Contest based as much upon the prospect of the eracy could not look for success, bazilië European food-crops being small this year received twice the assistance it del tren as upon the sense of justice that may ex- the Buchanan administration, and ist in the bosoms of the rulers of France it formed of every Slavebilting Grat. and England. If those crops should prove with not a Union man in it to wound the to be of limited amount, peace could be susceptible minds of traiters by his perasy counted upon; if abundant, we might as ence. The belief among the friends of well make ample preparation for a foreign order was, that Europe and waters war. Nations threatened with scarcity a rigid neutrality, not so much fun , cannot afford to begin war, though they gard to this country as from súngus at the may find themselves compelled to wage character of the Confederacje pality, aná it. A cold season in Europe would be at the opinions avowed by its ollaan its the best security that we could have that orators, and its journals, pasist o'ti'1. we shall not be vexed with European in- bad been most forcibig illustrasi in actervention in our troubles ; for then Eu- vance by acis te guste SUVES ropeans would desire to have the privi- That any civilized salios sesund the lege of securing that portion of our fooding to afforzar santecesor, 2016 which should not be needed for home- sively on grounds of interest consumption. This is the fair side of the of ruffian iwas wel opussa VOL. VIII.



not now find open supporters in Bokhara mon. . Whether these taunts were well or Barbary, was what the American peo- deserved by us, we shall not stop to inple could not believe. Conscious that the quire; but it is the most melancholy of Southern rebellion was utterly without facts, that, no sooner have we given the provocation, and that it had been brought best evidence which it is in our power to about by the arts of disappointed politi- give of our determination to confine slacians, most of us were convinced that the very within its present limits, and to put rebels would be discountenanced by the an end to the abuse of our Government's rulers of every European state to whom power by the slaveholders, than the Govtheir commissioners should apply either ernment of Great Britain, acting as the for recognition or for assistance. We agent and representative of the British knew the power of King Cotton was nation, places itself directly across our great, though much exaggerated in words path, and prepares to tell us to stay our by his servile subjects; but we did not, hand, and not dare to meddle with the because we could not, believe that he was institution of slavery, because from the able to control the policy of old empires, success of that institution proceeds cotton, to subvert the principle of honor upon and upon the supply of cotton not being which aristocracies profess to rely as their interfered with depend the welfare and chief support, and to turn whole nations the strength of the liberty-and-order lovfrom the roads in which they had been ing and morality-and-religion worshipping accustomed to travel. That Cotton has race! So far as they have dared to do done this we do not assert; but it has it, the British ministers have placed their done not a little to show how feeble is country on the side of those men who have the regard of certain classes in Europe revolted in America because they saw for morality, when adherence to princi- that they could no longer make use of ple may possibly cause them some trou- slavery to misgovern the Union; and we ble, and perhaps lead to some loss. If must wait to see how far they are to be the Southern plant has not become the supported by the opinion of that country, tyrant of Europe, as for a long time it before a distinction can be made between was of America, it has certainly done the ministers and the people. Left to much in a brief time to unsettle English themselves, and unbiased by any of those opinion, and to convert the Abolitionists selfish motives that go to make up

the sum of Great Britain, the men who could tax of politics, we have not the slightest doubt the whites of their empire in the annual that the English people, in the proportion interest of one hundred million dollars of ten to one, would decide in behalf of in order that the slavery of the blacks in the supporters of freedom in this counthat empire might come to an end, into try; but we are by no means so sure the supporters of American slavery, and that the ministers would not be sustained, of its extension over this continent, which were they to plunge their country into a might be made into a Cotton paradise, if third American War, and sustained, too, the supply of negroes from Africa should in sending fleets to raise our blockade of not be interrupted; and the logical con- the American coast of Africa, and armies clusion from the position laid down by to fight the battles of Slavery in Virginia Lord John Russell is, that the slave-trade and the Carolinas, where British officers must be revived, as that is what his bel- stole negroes eighty years ago, and sent ligerent” friends of the Southern Con- them to the West India markets, and federacy are contending for. The Amers found that that kind of commerce flourican people had long been taunted by the ished well in war. A war for the mainEnglish with their subserviency to the tenance of American slavery, and to seslaveholding interest, and with their read- cure for slaveholders the full and perfect

sacrifice the welfare of a weak enjoyment of all the “ rights” of their

d race on the altars of Mam- " peculiar” property, would be no worse


than was the war which was waged against read of them long after the tormentors our ancestors of the Revolution, or than and the tormented have gone to their those wars which were carried on against last repose, are exhibited by the PalmerRepublican and Imperial France, ostensi- ston Ministry, — though it is but justice to bly for the preservation of order, but real- Lord Palmerston to say, that he has borne ly for the restoration of a despotism which bimself more manfully toward us than cannot now find a single apologist on have his associates. England treats us earth. There is often a wide distinction as she would not dare to treat any Euroto be made between a nation and its gov- pean power, making an exception in our ernment, as our own recent history but case to her general policy, which has too deplorably proves; and the men who been, since 1815, to truckle before her govern England may be enabled to do contemporaries. She has crouched bethat now which has more than once been fore France repeatedly, when she had done by their predecessors, array their much better ground for fighting her than country in support of evil against that she now has for taking preliminary steps country's sense and wishes. We should to fight us. We are not entitled to the be prepared for this, and should look the same treatment that she thinks is due to evil that threatens us fairly in the face, the nations of the continent of Europe. as the first thing to be done to prevent She cannot rid herself of the feeling that it from getting beyond the threatening- we still are colonists, and that the rules point. The words of Sir Boyle Roche, which apply to her intercourse with old that the best way to avoid danger is to nations cannot apply to her intercourse meet it plump, are strikingly applicable with us, the United States having been a to our condition. If we would not have portion of the British Empire within the a foreign war on our hands before we recollection of persons yet living. No shall have settled with the rebels, we sooner, therefore, had a state of things should make it very clear to foreigners arisen here that seemed to warrant a rethat to fight with us would be a sort of newal of the insulting treatment that was business that would be sure not to pay. a thing of course in 1807, than we were

That war may follow from the course made to see how hollow were those profeswhich England has elected to pursue to- sions of friendship for America that were ward the parties to our civil conflict will not uncommon in the mouths of British not appear a strange view of affairs to statesmen during the ten or twelve years those who know something of the bis- that preceded the advent of Secession. tory of Great Britain and the United So long as we were deemed powerful, we States in the early part of this century. received assurances of “the most distinThat which the British Government is guished consideration”; but we have at now doing bears strong resemblance to last ascertained that those assurances the course which the same Government, were as false as they are when they are with different ministers, pursued toward appended to the letter of some diplomathe United States during the war with tist who is engaged in the work of cheatNapoleon I., and which led to the con- ing some one who is neither better nor test of 1812, - a contest which Franklin worse than himself. It is positively morhad predicted, and which he said would tifying to think how shockingly have be our War of Independence, as that of been taken in, and that the “cordial un1775–83 had been our War of Revolution. derstanding” that had, apparently, been The same ignorance of America, and the growing up between the two nations was same disposition to insult, to annoy, and a misunderstanding throughout, though we to injure Americans, that were so com- were sincere in desiring its existence. Permon under the ministries of Pitt, Port- haps, when the evidences of the strength land, and Perceval, and which move both that we possess, in spite of Secession, shall our mirth and our indignation when we have all been placed before the rulers of

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