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ish charge has been brought against North- shifting panorama of evanescent governern energy in this contest, that was not ors; it was the sheer physical superiority urged equally in the time of the Revolu- of her Free-State emigrants, after they tion. The royal troops thought Massa- took up arms. Kansas afforded the imchusetts as easy to subdue as the South portant discovery, as some Southern offiCarolinians affect to think, and expressed cers once naïvely owned at Lecompton, it in almost the same language:-“When that “ Yankees would fight.” Patient to ever it comes to blows, he that can run the verge of humiliation, the settlers rose the fastest will think himself best off.” at last only to achieve a victory so abThe revolutionists admitted that “the surdly rapid that it was almost a new dispeople abroad have too generally got the appointment; the contest was not so much idea that the Americans are all cowards a series of battles as a succession of steepleand poltroons." A single regiment, it chases, of efforts to get within shot, was generally asserted, could march tri- Missouri, Virginia, and South Carolina umphant through New England. The invariably disappearing over one prairiepeople took no pains to deny it. The swell, precisely as the Sharp's rifles of guard in Boston captured thirteen thou- the emigrants appeared on the verge of sand cartridges at a stroke. The people the next. The slaveholders had immense did not prevent it. A citizen was tarred advantages: many of the settlers were in and feathered in the streets by the royal league with them to drive out the resoldiery, while the band played “Yankee mainder; they had the General GovernDoodle.” The people did not interfere. ment always aiding them, more or less "" John Adams writes, there is a great openly, with money, arms, provisions, hors. spirit in the Congress, and that we must es, men, and leaders; they had always furnish ourselves with artillery and arms the Missouri border to retreat upon, and and ammunition, but avoid war, if pos- the Missouri River to blockade. Yet they sible, - if possible.” At last, one day, failed so miserably, that every Kansas boy these deliberate people finally made up at last had his story to tell of the comtheir minds that it was time to rise, — and pany of ruffians whom he had set scamwhen they rose, everything else fell. In pering by the casual hint that Brown or less than a year afterwards, Boston being Lane was lurking in the bushes. The finally evacuated, one of General Howe's terror became such a superstition, that the mortified officers wrote home to England, largest army which ever entered Kansas in words which might form a Complete three thousand men, by the admission Letter-Writer for every army-officer who of both sides — turned back before a rehas turned traitor, from Beauregard down- doubt at Lawrence garrisoned by only ward, — “Bad times, my dear friend. two hundred, and retreated over the borThe displeasure I feel in the small share der without risking an engagement. I have in our present insignificancy is so It is idle to say that these were not fair great, that I do not know the thing so specimens of Southern companies. They desperate I would not undertake, in or- were composed of precisely the same mader to change our situation.”
terial as the flower of the Secession army, It is fortunate that the impending gen- - if flower it bave. They were memeral contest has also been recently pre- bers of the first families, planters' sons ceded by a local one, which, though waged and embryo Wigfalls. South Carolina under circumstances far less favorable to sent them forth, like the present troops, the North, yet afforded important hints with toasts and boasts and everything but by its results. It was worth all the cost money. They had officers of some reof Kansas to have the lesson she taught, pute; and they had enthusiasm with no in passing through her ordeal. It was limit except the supply of whiskey. Slanot the Emigrant
Aid Society which gave very was divine, and Colonel Buford was peace at last to her borders, nor was it her its prophet. The city of Atchison was before the close of 1857 to be made the cap- it a region of the earth to be avoided, so ital of a Southern republic. Kansas was far as convenient.” to be conquered: “We will make her a “But how," persisted the patriot,“ if Slave State, or form a chain of locked you listened to what its natives say of it?” arms and hearts together, and die in the " Then, Sir,” roared Old Obstinacy, attempt." Yet in the end there were no “I should avoid it altogether." chains, either of flesh or iron, - no chains, Take the seceded States upon their and little dying, but very liberal running own showing, and it is absurd to suppose away. Thus ended the war in Kansas. that they can ever resume their former It seems impossible that Slavery should standing in the nation. Are there any not make in this case a rather better fight, stronger oaths than their generals have where all is at stake. But it is well to broken, any closer ties to honesty than remember that no Border Ruflian of Se- their financiers have spurned, any deeds cession can now threaten more loudly, more damning than their legislatures swear more fiercely, or retreat more rap- have voted thanks for? No one supidly, than his predecessors did then. poses that the individual traitors can be
One does not hear much lately of that restored to confidence, that Twiggs can pleasant fiction, so abundant a year or re-dye his reputation, or any deep-seatwo ago, that North and South really on- soundings fish up Maury's drowned honly needed to visit each other and become or. But the influence of the States is better acquainted. How cordially these gone with that of their representatives. endearing words sounded, to be sure, from They may worship the graven image of the lips of Southern gentlemen, as they President Lincoln in Mobile; they may sat at Northern banquets and partook do homage to the ample stuffed regimenunreluctantly of Northern wine! Can tals of General Butler in Charleston ; but those be the gay cavaliers who are now it will not make the nation forget. Could uplifting their war-whoops with such a their whole delegation resume its seat in modest grace at Richmond and Mont- Congress to-morrow, with the three-fifths gomery? Can the privations of the camp representation intact, it would not help so instantaneously dethrone Bacchus and them. Can we ever trust them to build set up Mars? It is to be regretted ; they a ship or construct a rifle again? No appeared more creditably in their cups, time, no formal act can restore the past and one would gladly appeal from Philip relations, so long as slavery shall live. It sober to Philip drunk. Intimate inter- is easy for the Executive to pardon some course has lost its charm. New York convict from the penitentiary; but who merchants more than ever desire an in- can pardon him out of that sterner priscreased acquaintance with the coffers of on of public distrust which closes its distheir repudiating debtors; but so far as embodied walls around him, moves with the knowledge of their peculiar moral his motions, and never suffers him to traits is concerned, enough is as good walk unconscious of it again ? Henceas a feast. No Abolitionist has ever dar- forth he dwells as under the shadow of ed to pillory the slave-propagandists so swords, and holds intercourse with men conspicuously as they are doing it for only by courtesy, not confidence. And themselves every day. Sumner's “Bar- so will they. barism of Slavery" seemed tolerably Not that the United States Governgraphic in its time, but how tamely it ment is yet prepared to avow itself antireads beside the “ New Orleans Del- slavery, in the sense in which the South
is pro-slavery. We conscientiously strain A Scotchman once asked Dr. Johnson at gnats of Constitutional clauses, while what opinion he would form of Scotland they gulp down whole camels of treason. from what strangers had said of it. We still look after their legal safeguards
** Sir," said the Doctor, “I should think long after they have hoisted them with their own petards. But both sides have nocent man. “ But you don't, you trusted themselves to the logic of events, know,” quoth the straightforward Tradand there is no mistaking the direction in dles; "therefore, if you please, we won't which that tends. In times like these, suppose any such thing." They cannot men care more for facts than for phrases, deceive us, for they do not deceive themand reason quite as rapidly as they act. selves. Every traveller who has seen It is impossible to blink the fact that Sla- the faces of a household suddenly grow very is the root of the rebellion ; and so pale, in a Southern city, when some War is proving itself an Abolitionist, street tumult struck to their hearts the whoever else is. Practically speaking, fear of insurrection, - every one who the verdict is already entered, and the has seen the heavy negro face brighten doom of the destructive institution pro- unguardedly at the name of John Brown, nounced, in the popular mind. Either though a thousand miles away from Harthe Secessionists will show fight hand- per's Ferry, — has penetrated the final somely, or they will fail to do so. If they secret of the military weakness which fail to do it, they are the derision of the saved Washington for us and lost the world forever, — since no one ever spares war for them. a beaten bully,—and thenceforward their It is time to expose this mad inconsocial system must go down of itself. If, sistency which paralyzes common sense on the other hand, they make a resist- on all Southern tongues, so soon as Slaance which proves formidable and costly, very becomes the topic. These same then the adoption of the John-Quincy- negroes, whom we hear claimed, at one Adams policy of military emancipation is moment, as petted darlings whom no alan ultimate necessity, and there is nobody lurements can seduce, are denounced, more likely to put it in effective opera- next instant, as fiends whom a whisper tion than a certain gentleman who lately can madden. Northern sympathizers wrote an eloquent letter to his Governor are first ridiculed as imbecile, then on the horrors of slave-insurrection. No lynched as destructive. Either position doubt insurrection is a terrible thing, but is in itself intelligible, but the combinaso is all war, and every man of humanity tion is an absurdity. We can underapproaches either with a shudder. But stand why the proprietor of a powderif the truth were told, it would be that house trembles at the sight of flint and the Anglo-Saxon habitually despises the steel; and we can also understand why negro because he is not an insurgent, for some new journeyman, being inexpethe Anglo-Saxon would certainly be one rienced, may regard the peril without in his place. Our race does not take nat- due concern. But we should decide urally to non-resistance, and has far more either to be a lunatic, if he in one breath spontaneous sympathy with Nat Turner proclaimed his gunpowder to be incomthan with Uncle Tom. But be it as it bustible, and at the next moment assasmay with our desires, the rising of the sinated a visitor for lighting a cigar on slaves, in case of continued war, is a the premises. A slave population is eimere destiny. We must take facts as ther contented and safe, or discontented they are.
and unsafe; it cannot at the same time be Insurrection is one of the risks volunta- friendly and hostile, blissful and desperate. rily assumed by Slavery,— and the great- The result described is inevitable, est of them. The slaves know it, and so should the Secessionists dare to tempt the do the masters. When they seriously ordeal by battle long enough. If it assert that they feel safe on this point, stop short of this, it will be because the there is really no answer to be made but prestige of Southern military power is that by which Traddles in “ David Cop- so easily broken down that there is no perfield” puts down Uriah Heep's wild temptation to declare the Adams policy. hypothesis of believing himself an in. But even this consummation must have the most momentous results, and entirely very struck down all political safeguards, modify the whole anti-slavery movement and appealed to arms.
The nation has of the nation. Should the war cease to- risen again, ready to meet it with any morrow, it has inaugurated a new era weapons, sure to conquer with any. in our nation's history. The folly of the Twice conquered, what further claim Gulf States, in throwing away a political will this defeated desperado have? If condition where the conservative senti- it was a disturbing element before, and ment stood by them only too well, must so put under restriction, shall it be spared inevitably recoil on their own heads, when it has openly proclaimed itself a whether the strife last a day or a gener destroying element also ? Is this to be ation. No man can estimate the new the last of American civil wars, or only measures and combinations to which it the first one? These are the questions is destined to give rise. There stands which will haunt men's minds, when the the Constitution, with all its severe con- cannon are all hushed, and the bells are ditions, – severe or weak, however, ac- pealing peace, and the sons of our hearthcording to its interpretations; - which stones come home. The watchword “Irreinterpretations, again, will always prove pressible Conflict" only gave the key, but plastic before the popular will. The War has flung the door wide open, and popular will is plainly destined to a four million slaves stand ready to file change; and who dare predict the re- through. It is merely a question of time, sults of its changing? The scrupulous circumstance, and method. There is not may still hold by the letter of the bond; a statesman so wise but this war has .but since the South has confessedly prized given him new light, nor an Abolitionist all legal guaranties only for the sake of so self-confident but must own its promSlavery, the North, once free to act, will ise better than his foresight. Hencelong to construe them, up to the very forth, the first duty of an American verge of faith, in the interest of Liberty. legislator must be, by the use of all legitWas the original compromise a Shylock imate means, to weaken Slavery. Debond ? - the war has been our Portia. lenda est Servitudo.
What the peace Slavery long ruled the nation politically. which the South has broken was not The nation rose and conquered it with doing, the war which she has instituted votes. With desperate disloyalty, Sla-' must secure.
THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE.
The modern world differs from the rule, every monarchy or people had its world of antiquity in nothing more than own system, to which it adhered until it in the existence of a brotherhood of na- was worn out by internal decay, or was tions, which was unknown to the ancients, overthrown by foreign conquest. It was who seem to have been incapable of un- owing to this exclusiveness, and to the derstanding that it was impossible for ei- inability of ancient statesmen to work out ther good or evil to be confined within an international system, that the Romans certain limits. The attempts of the Per- were enabled to extend their dominion sians to extend their dominion into Eu- until it comprehended the best parts of rope did for a time cause some faint ap- the world. Had the rulers and peoples proach to ideas and practices that are com- of Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and Syrmon to the moderns; but, as a general ia been capable of forming an alliance for common defence, the conquests of Rome Christianity's early home, but now held in the East might have been early check- by the most bigoted and cruel of Mussuled, and her efforts have been necessarily mans; and it is only the circumstance that confined to the North and the West. But they cannot agree upon a division of the no international system then existed, and spoil that prevents the five great powers the rude attempts at mutual assistance of Europe - the representatives of the that were occasionally made, as the con- leading branches of the Christian religquering race strode forward, were of no ion— from partitioning the vast, but feeavail; and the swords of the legionaries ble Ottoman Empire. The Christian idea reaped the whole field. It is singular of man's brotherhood, so powerful in itthat what is so well known to the mod- self, is supported by material forces so vast, erns, and was known to them at times and by ingenuity and industry so comwhen they were far inferior to the best prehensive and so various in themselves races of antiquity, should have remained and their results, that it must supersede unknown to the latter. The chief rea- all others, and be accepted in every counson of this want of combining power in try where there are people capable of men who have never been surpassed in understanding it. From the time of the ability is to be found in the then prevail- first Crusade there has been a steady ing idea, that every stranger was an en- tendency to the unity of Christian counemy. There was a total want of confi- tries; and notwithstanding all their condence in one another among the peoples flicts with one another, and partly as one of the ante-Christian period. Differences of the effects of those conflicts, they have of race were augmented by differences " fraternized,” until now there exists a in religion, and by the absence of strong mighty Christian Commonwealth, the business interests. Christianity had not members of which ought to be able to been vouchsafed to man, and commerce govern the world in accordance with the had very inperfectly done its work, while principles of a religion that is in itself war was carried on in the most ruthless
peace. Under the influence of these and destructive mar
principles, the Christian nations, though The modern world differs in this mat not in equal degrees, have developed ter entirely from the ancient world; and their resources, and a commercial system though the change is perfect only in has been created which has enlisted the Christendom, the effect of it is felt in material interests of men on the same countries where the Christian religion side with the highest teachings of the does not prevail, but into which Christian purest religion. Selfishness and self-dearmies and Christian merchants have nial march under the same banner, and penetrated. Christendom is the leading men are taught to do unto others as they portion of the world, and is fast giving would that others should do unto them, law to lands in which Christianity is still because the rule is as golden economicalhated. It is the policy of Christendom ly as it is morally. This teaching, howthat orders the world. A Christian race ever, it must be allowed, is very imperrules over the whole of that immense fectly done, and it encounters so many country, or collection of countries, which disturbing forces to its proper developis known as India. Another Christian ment that an observer of the course of race threatens to seize upon Persia. Christian nations might be pardoned, if Christians from the extreme West of Eu- he were at times to suppose there is little rope have dictated the terms of treaties of the spirit of Christianity in the orderto the Tartar lords of China; and Chris- ing of the policy of Christendom, and tians from America have led the way in also that the true nature of material inbreaking through the exclusive system terests is frequently misunderstood. Still, of Japan. Christian soldiers have for a it is undeniable that there is a gener
ar past acted as the police of Syria, al bond of union in Christendom, and