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dangerous illness, which made such an impresion upon the spirit of his father, that he performed a pilgrimage to the fhrine of St. Thomas Becket, to solicit his interposition for the recovery of young Philip:
When Lewis arrived at Canterbury, he met with a noble and generous reception from Henry, and on his return found his son recovered. But his own health now sunk under the united pressure of years and of anxiety. A fit of apoplexy, succeeded by a paralytic stroke, which deprived him of the use of his right fide, warned hiin of his approaching desolution. He therefore gave orders for the speedy co-' ronation of his son, which was performed by the archbishop of Rheims, with great folemnity: The marriage of Philip with Isabella, the daughter of the count of Hainault soon followed. But Lewis did not long survive either ceremony. No art of medicine being able to arrest the progress of his disorder, he died at Paris in the A. D. 1180. (ixtieth year of his age, and the forty-fourth of
It may not be improper to give some account of this prince's family, as several of their names may again occur, in the subsequent parts of this history. His first wife Eleanor, to whom he behaved fo generously, and who, by all accounts, was a woman of unbounded intrigue, died at an advanced period of life. The two daughters he had by her, were Mary, wife to Henry, count of Champagne, and Alice, who inarried Thibaut, count of Blois, brother to the faid count. Lewis, by his second marriage with Constantia of Castile, had likewise two daughters, Margaret, married to Henry the younger, king of England ; and afterwards, having no children by him, to Bela III. king of Hungary: This princess becoining a widow the second time; devoted the remainder of her life to be spent in the Holy Land, and she died at Potolemais, in 1197. The other sister, Alice, died unmarried. Lewis, by his third wife, Adelaide, daughter to Thibaut, count of Champagne, a princess of great inerit and beauty had, besides his successor, Philip Augustus, two daughters, Alice, whose history is so mysterious, and who had been long contracted to Ríchard of England; but was afterwards married to William, count of Ponthieu, and died in 1195. The name of his second daughter by the same enarriage, was Agnes. When she was but ten years of age, she was contracted to Alexis Comnenus, emperor of Conftantinople; and next year their marriage was celebrated with great magnificence. She afterwards married the murderer and fucceffor of her husband, Andronicus I. and he likewife being dethroned and murdered, the married TheoVOL. I.
Philip II. surnamed Auguftus. dore Bramas, lord of Adrianople. Adelaide, the third wife of Lewis, gave her husband a most magnificent interment in a monastery of his own founding, at Barbeau on the Seine. His body was put into the tomb with a golden cross at his breast, and rings on his fingers. His monument was afterwards opened by Charles IX. who found the body entire, with the above ornaments, and he himself wore the rings.
Philip 11. surnamed Augustus.--Distresses of the Asiatic Chris
tians. The third Crusade.-Philip marries a Danish Prin
cess.--His Chara&ter as a Legislator.-His useful Works. PHI
HILIP II. whose various epithets of the Gift of God,
Magnanimous, and Conquering, settled at last, into that of Augustus, was fifteen years of age at the time of his accession to the throne, and gave early proofs of his genius for government. The count of Flanders, acted as his tutor or first minister; but he took the executive power into his own hands, and began his reign with two popular acts.
The first was the banishment of all buffoons and jesters from his court, and of the Jews who were noted for usury. The nobility attempted to protect them ; but they were 06liged to yield to the king, who was supported by his people.
A court faction, however, foon interrupted the public tranquillity. Adelaide, the king's mother, jealous of the partiality he discovered for the count of Flanders, united with her brother William, the cardinal, and archbishop of Rheims, in intrigues to diffolve the marriage of her lon. But their efforts were vain, and Philip manifested his displeafure by appointing the coronation of himself and Isabella at the abbey of St. Dennis, and commanding the ceremony to be performed by the archbishop of Sens, instead of the archbishop of Rheiins. Adelaide afterwards folicited and obtained the aid of Henry of England, who met her in Normandy, and advanced with a numerous army to enforce her deinands; but a peace was soon after negotiated, in which the wisdom and moderation of Philip were conspicuous.
Upon the death of the countefs of Flanders, who had been heiress to the county of Verinandois, the emperor of Germany stept in to the allistance of the count, when Philip
offered to annex that county to his crown. This was another quarrel, excited by the jealousy of the nobility against the king. Philip affirmed that the alienation of the county of Vermandois from the crown, ought to last no longer than the efforts made by the count and his friends. Philip re-annexed it to his domain, and left nothing to the count of Flanders but the towns of Perron, and St. Quintin.
On the death of the younger Henry of England, who died in France without issue, Philip A. D. 1184. claimed from the elder Henry Gisors, and some other dependencies in Normandy, which had been given to his sister Margaret as a dowry. A reconciliation followed, by the elder Henry performing homage to Philip for all the lands he held in France, and promising that his son Richard should marry the princess Alice.
The unhappy passion which the elder Henry is supposed to have entertained for that princess, was a fruitful source of calamity to his reign and person. It gave the princes of his family, and his queen Eleanor, whoin he kept prisoner for twelve years before her death, a perpetual subject for complaint and diffatisfaction.
About this time, the Christians of Asia were in iinıninent danger of being driven from Jerufale.n. The Turks were determined to difpoffefs them of the holy city. With Noradin at their head, they began to put their design in execution; and Saladin, his successor, accomplished it.
Saladin had, in a short time conquered Egypt, Syria, Arabia, and Mesopotamia. In possession of these countries, he determined upon the conquest of Jerusalem, rent by the violence of faction. Guy de Lusignan, then king of Jerusalem, assembled the Christians, marched against Saladin, who, having drawn the Christian army into a narrow pass, obliged Guy and his troops to surrender prisoners of war. From the field of battle he marched to Jerusalem, which opened her gates to the conqueror, and put an end to that little kingdom, after it had exifted near a century.
The victories of the brave and generous Saladin filled Enrope with aların and trouble ; and the news of Jerusalem being taken proved fatal to Urban III. who died of grief. The Christian princes, eager to recover the holy land, sufpended their particular quarrels, and prepared a third crufade. Frederic Barbaroffa, one of the greatest emperors that ever reigned in Germany, a wise politician, well acquainted with the art of war, and whose arms had been often fuccessful, marched by land at the head of a hundred and fifty thousand warriors. Philip Augustus went by fea, followed by a well-appointed army. Richard Caur de Lion, king of England, the hero of the crysade, marched
The Third Crusades at the head of the English nobility, and a chosen body of troops.
Frederic was obliged to fight the Greeks, who, afraid of the crusaders; had made an alliance with Saladins. He
opened a passage into Thrace, though opposed by the emperor Isaac Angelus, and twice defeated the Sultan of Iconium; but having bathed while hot, in the river Cydnus, he died, and his victories became of no consequence. The arrival of Philip revived the hopes of the crusades. He defeated the Saracens, took feveral towns, and laid siege to Acre. Richard hastened to fecond his efforts. He had been neceffarily detained in Sicily, and during his stay, had regulated the affairs of that island. In his passage to the Archipelago, a storm and want of provisions obliged him to touch at Cyprus. He requested refreshments for his troops from Ifaac, king of that ifland, who had the inhumanity to deny him. Richard, provoked at his refusal, lands his troops ; defeats Isaac, puts him and his family in irons, and causes himself to be crowned king of the whole island. Having perforined this atchievement, he continued his route
to the holy land, where he arrived, covered with glory. Philip, jealous of Richard's superior talents for war, feigns fickness and returns to France, having promised, with an oath, not to moleft his rival's ters ritories during his absence. Richard, master of the field of honour, displayed the most heroic courage, took the city of Acre, defeated Saladin's generals in many battles, engaged Saladin himself, and had the honour to difarm him. In the midst of these successes, he was informed, that Philip Augustus, in contempt of his oath, had taken advantage of his abfence to seize part of Normandy, and had even excited his brother to rebel. This news induced him to conclude a truce with Saladin, by which the Christians of Palestine were to enjoy peace; but he was obliged to allow the Sultan to remain in poffefsion of Jerusalem, and to give up the end of the crusade. On his return he was inade prisoner by the duke of Austria, and confined in a dungeon in Germany, from whence he purchased his release by a very large Tansom.
Philip's queen, Isabella, having died in his absence, he married Ingerberge, daughter of Waldemar, and sister to Canute, king of Denmark. His motive for this match was mean and mercenary. He infifted upon Canute making over to him all the claims the Danes had upon England; and
upon his lending hiin a fleet for making it good; which Canute refused.
Ingerberge, whose virtues were incapable of fixing the affections of the insensible monarch, retired at his command to a monastery; whither she was followed by the esteein of
2 people who knew how to value her modesty, her piety, and her patience.
A divorce, under the common pretence of confanguinity, was granted by the subservient prelates : and the king, three years after his union with Ingerberge, had married Agnes, the daughter of the duke of Dalmatia. The Dane, fired by the indignity offered his sister, appealed to the Pope; and, after a variety of sentences, Philip was compelled to resign Agnes, and recal Ingerberge. Agnes, too sensible of her degradation, fell a victim to grief, and the Pope, who had exiled her from her husband, legitimated their fon and daughter,
The extensive possessions, which the royal family of England had in France, were perpetual sources of misfortunes to both kingdoms. Queen Eleanor of Guienne, formerly queen-consort of France, was yet alive, and, on the death of Richard, saw her youngest son John on that throne; which was also claimed by Arthur, the grandson of Henry II. by his third fon Geofrey. The inexperience of Arthur was directed by the vigorous counsels of his mother Constance; a princess of a haughty and implacable, bold and turbulent disposicion, Anjou, Touraine, and Maine acknowledged the authority of Arthur; and Agnes was delivered by the governor into his power.
While Philip, in support of the claim of Arthur, entered Normandy, John seized on the capital of Maine, and razed the walls, as an example of terror to other towns, which night be inclined to revolt
. Doubtful of his own strength, John wished to negotiate a peace; and offered to Lewis, ihe eldest son of Philip, his niece Blanche, the daughter of Alonzo king of Castile; promising to entail upon that princess, in case he died without issue, all his territories in France.
Hardly any vice, which can enter into the composition of a king, or a man, was a stranger to John. He liad repudiated the daughter of the duke of Gloucester, and had married Ifabel of Angouleme, who had been betrothed to the count of March, who resented the injury done himn. Tho' both Philip and the lady's father had at first approved of the match, yet on the representation which the count inade, Philip resolved to improve the disaffection that had been raised by the count against John to his own purpose; and encouraged young Arthur to march with an army to besiege his grandmother Eleanor, in the castle of Mirabeau. John paslıng from England with an arıny to her relief, defeated Arthur, took him prisoner, and sent him to the castle of Rouen, where he was murdered, some say, by Jolin's own hands. Philip did not fail to improve to his own advantage every circumitance of this barbarity, especially as the barons