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ple were louder and more fincere. The monks spoke the lenfe of the whole nation, when they deplored him in these words : “ We have last a father, who governed us in peace « We lived under him in security; for he did not oppress,

or suffer oppression. We loved him, and there was no“ body whom he feared."

Henry I. succeeded to the crown of his father at the age of twenty-seven, possessing the vigour of youth with the prudence and wisdom of mature years. His mother, ConItance, during the late reign, had acquired a considerable party in the itate, and, as she hated Henry, the withed to transfer his crown to her younger son, Robert.

The count of Flanders, and the turbulent Eudes, count of Champagne, were her chief abettors. Both of them had interested views in the part they acted; but the queen was willing to gratify their ambition, provided the could gratify her own revenge.

She promised to Eudes half the towns of Sens, which, together with Melun and Soitions, he im• mediately reduced. This struck the neighbouring places

with such confternation, that they threw open their gates upon his approach. Confounded, and unable to retilt this sudden torrent of ill fortune, Henry, forsaken by his lubjects, fled with only twelve attendants into Normandy; where he fought and found a generous friend and supporter in duke Robert, whose treatures and forces were einployed in his cause. While the duke in person led on the Normans to conquest on one side of the kingdom, the king appeared on the other, and thrice defeated the count of Champagne, who with difficulty escaped with his life. Peace was at length restored by the mediation of Fulk, count of Anjou ; Constance fell a victim to the violerice of her disappointed passions; prince Robert received the duchy of Burgundy; and the fubmission of the counts of Flanders and Champagne was followed by that of the rest of the nobles. Henry repaid the services of the duke of Normandy, by the duchies of Gisors, Chaumont, and Pontoise, and, by that portion of the Vexin which had till now belonged to France; and though this gift was an honourable testimony of his gratititude it effected a lamentable reduction of the doininions of the crown.

Though the settlement of the Normans in France had been of infinite service to the princes both of the Carlovingian and Capetine lines; yet most of them would have been glad of a specious pretext for reuniting that great duchy to their crown; nor could Henry, notwithstanding the powerful obligations he lay under to the blood of Rollo, resist the temptation. Robert duke of Normandy, swayed by the idle




Henry the First. fuperstitions of the age, had gone on a pilgrimage to the holy land, and had prevailed with the states of his duchy, before his departure, to receive and recognize as his succesfor, Williain, his natural fon; and put him under the tuition of Henry, and Alain duke of Bretagne : the dissatisfaction which this step gave was general, and the affairs of the duchy fell into the greatest disorder, so that had not William, young as he was, exerted prodigies of valour in his own defence, he muft have funk under the rebellion. Alain endeavoured to serve him, but was obliged to return to his own estate, where he soon after died, not without suspicion of slow poison. Henry, far from attempting to protect William, or to quell those commotions, invaded the frontiers, took posseffion of the castle of Thuileries, to which he pretended to have a right, and burnt the town of Argenton. Perceiving, however, that he could not obtain the succession, he listened to the ministers of young William, with whom he joined his troops, and engaging the rebel lords, completely defeated them in the valley of Dunes, and thus established the duke of Normandy in his dominions. In this battle the king, thrown from his horse in the fury of the charge, was saved only by the immediate affiftance of his attendants.

Henry married a princess of Russia ;* the daughter of Jaraslan, duke of Muscovy; a circumstance somewhat singular, in an age when the intercourse between nations was so little familiar. His chief motive for this matrimonial alliance feeins to have been, that the Pope might have no pretext for perfecuting him on account of confanguinity, which, if he had inarried an European princess, it would have been almost impossible for him to hare avoided, as it reached to the seventh degree of kindred. By this lady he had three fons; and the eldest, Philip, though but seven years of age, was, in an assembly of the states, and with their unanimous consent, solemnly crowned king by the archbishop of Rheims. Henry being at this time infirin, appointed Baldwin, count

of Flanders, to be guardian to his son in case of A. D. 1060. his decease, which happened foon after; some

fay by poison, and others by the indiscreet use of medicine.

The character of this monarch, distinguished for prudence and intrepidity, is shaded by his attacks against the feeble youth of William, duke of Normandy, whose genius soon rose fuperior to that of any prince of his age.




Philip I. - Regency of Baldwin.---The Rage for Crufading

breaks out, which is of great service to the French crown. Lewis VI.-His Character contrasted with that of Philip, Lewis VII. or the Young.St. Bernard, with some Account of the second Crusade. Two Kings hold the Stirrups of Pope Alexander on Horseback.

HILIP at the time of his acceflion to the throne of PHARMA

France, was about eight years of age ; and Henry had wisely committed him to the care of Baldwin the Pious, count of Flanders, his brother-in-law, in preference to his queen, who was a weak woman; or his brother, the duke of Burgundy, who was an ambitious prince. Henry's choice does honour to his memory.

Baldwin had all the abilities, and, what is more extraordinary, all the virtues, that were requifite for the faithful discharge of his trust. Though we can scarcely suppose a juncture more delicate than that of a minority amidst a barbarous, but ambitious, nobility; and a superstitious, but designing, clergy ; yet Baldwin kept both in awe, without losing the esteem and affection of either.

His adıninistration, however, did not wholly escape censure. He was condemned for suffering fo formidable a neighbour as the duke of Normandy to enlarge his domi-. nions, and atchieve the conquest of England. Whatever inight be his motives for this conduct, it was productive of fatal consequences, and a series of destructive wars.

The period is now approaching which united England with Normandy; and as the affairs of France and Englanl were after that event involved in one complicated system, it is necessary to give a slight sketch of the circumstances which illustrate the conquelt of England.

On the diffolution of the Roman government in Britain, the island was fucceffively harassed by the Scots, the Piets, the Danes, and the Saxons. Of thetc, the conquests of the latter were permanent, and the Saxon heptarchy was founded. The seven independent thrones that composed this heptarchy were united, in little more than three centuries under Egbert; and when William first aspired to the throne, it was occupied by Edward, furnamed the Confeffor, whose partiality for him might assist the report that he had bequeathed him his crown. Emma, the filter of Richard of Norinandy, was the mother of Edward; and, when the Danes compelled the British prince to flee, he found a shelter in the court of Normandy. Attached by the tics of


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Philip the First, blood and gratitude to his protector, it is reasonable to fup. pose he would have preferred him to an aspiring subject

, whose father had imbrued his hands in the royal blood of his brother, and whose own popularity encreased the eninity of the king. But William was absent in Normandy when Edward expired; and Harold, the son of earl Goodwin, immediately afcended the throne. William disdained to difguise his fenfe of the injury, or to yield his lofty hopes; and the refusal of the sceptre, which he demanded in a formal embassy, was the signal of war.

While Harold was in the north, repelling the invasion of Harpager, king of Norway, William landed at Pevensey in Sussex. Harold was recalled from a glorious viciory to oppose this formidable enemy, The fatal battle of Hastings, which was fought on the fourteenth of October, and in which the native valour of the English was very unequal to the discipline and artful manæuvres of the Norinans, established the dominion of William, Harold fell in the engagement, pierced in the brain by a randoin arrow; and thus the British crown, which had been successively worn by a Saxon for five hundred years, was in one day transferred to a Norman,

On the death of the count of Flanders, which happened soon after the conquest of England. Philip, in the fifteentla year of his age, assumed the peaceable government of his kingdom.

His reign is not so remarkable for any thing, as his mare siage with Bertrand de Montiord, duchess of Anjou, while her husband and his queen were both alive. For this irre, gularity he was excommunicated by Urban II. in the fa

mous council of Clermont, where the first cru, A. D. 1095. fade was preached for the recovery of the holy

land, of which I have already given a particu. lar account.

The rage for crusading, which now broke out, was of infinite service to the French crown in two respects. In the firit place, it carried off hundreds of thousands of its turbulent subjects, and their leaders, who were alınost independent of the king; and in the next, the king succeeded t the efates of numbers of the nobility, who died abroad without heirs.

In his wars with William the Conqueror, Philip was very succesful. Hoftilities were suspended for some time, when a jelt of the French monarch was the cause of their being renewed. The king of England being very fat, was incommoded by his corpulency, and obliged for some time to keep his bed. Philip naturally witty, said one day to his courtiers, “ When will this big man' be brought to-bed?" Williaın, being informed of this, was enraged. “ I will go,


faid he, “ and make my churching at Notre-Dame, in Paris, “ with ten thousand spears, instead of wax tapers *

Williain soon after rigorously fulfilled his word. He landed with a numerous army in France, poffeffed himself of the town of Mantes, and consigned it to the flames; but, as he withdrew from the heat of the fire, his horse, in leaping over a ditch, threw him on the pommel of the faddle, and a contufion he received proved fatal.

In consequence of the death of the queen of France, and Pope Urban II. Philip, who still continued to live with the countess of Anjou, was absolved by the new Pope, from the fentence of excommunication denounced in the council of Clermont. But although this absolution quieted in some measure his domestic troubles, his authority, which the thunder of the church, together with his indolent and licentious course of life, had ruined, was far from being restored. The nobility more and more affected independence, insulted him every hour, and plundered his subjects.

In order to remedy these evils, Philip affociated his son Lewis in the government; or, at least, declared hiin, with the consent of the nobility, his suc- A. D. 1200. ceffor. This young prince was, in all respects, the reverse of his father. Philip, besides being indolent, was. deficient in the virtues of the heart. His vices were not those of a noble mind, but the mean and odious propensities of a treacherous and avaricious nature. Lewis, on the other hand, was active, vigorous, affable, generous, and free from the vices incident to youth. He demolished the castles of the nobility, coinpelled thein to make restitution to such as they had pillaged, and thus restored order to the state.

When this prince was about thirty years of age, his father died, and he fucceeded without A.D. 1108. the least opposition. He is generally called, by the old historians, Lewis the Grois, from his great fize, and was the sixth Lewis that sat on the throne of France. Soon after his coronation, he engaged in a war against Henry I. of England, a powerful vallal, whoin it was his interest to humble. The war was carried on with a variety of fortunes, during the greatest part of this reign, but without producing any remarkable event.

Whilst Lewis was devoting himself to the regulation of the inferior polity of his kingdom, he fell a facrifice to the corpulency of his perfon. On his death-bed he ordered his son to be called to hiin, and gave him the following excellent adyiće. “ By this fign,” faid he, drawing the ring

* Abbé Millor.

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