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which was about fix feet, terminated by a triangular point of steel of eighteen inches; the sword was short and doubleedged, suited alike to cut or thrust; and the fol ; Er in action was wisely instructed to prefer the latter use of it. The legion was drawn up eight deep; and the regular distance of three feet was left between the files and ranks.

The cavalry, without which this body would have been imperfect, was divided into ten squadrons; the first consisted of a hundred and thirty-two men, the other nine only of sixtyfix: the whole amounted to seven hundred and twenty-fix.

The camp of a Roman legion was alike celebrated for its perfect regularity, as the foldiers were for the exactness of their discipline. Its forin was a quadrangle; and a square of about seven hundred yards, we may calculate, was sufficient space for the encampment of twenty thousand men. The prætorium or General's tent, in the middle, rose above the rest; diftinct and different quarters were occupied by the cavalry, infantry, and auxiliaries. The streets were broad, and between the tents and surrounding rampart was left a vacancy of two hundred feet: the height of the rampart was generally twelve feet, defended by a ditch of the fame depth and breadth, and further secured by a strong line of palisades. The legions, early inured to labour, were accustomed to fortify their camp with their own hands, and were taught to consider the use of the pick-axe and spade equally necessary with the javelin or sword. When the lignal of departure was given by found of trumpet, the soldiers fell filently into their ranks, without delay or confufion. To the weight of their arms, were added kitchen furniture, the instruments of fortia fication, and provision for several days; yet, beneath this accumulated burthen, they were trained to march usually twenty miles within fix hours. On the appearance of an enemy, they disencumbered themselves of their baggage, and readily ranged themselves in order of battle: the singers and archers in the van, the military engines in the rear, the auxiliaries formed the first line, thé legions the second, and the cavalry covered the flanks.

The navy of Rome would have appeared in the cye of modern Europe, far inadequate to her greatness, and unworthy of her Empire. But the ambition of the Romans was confined to the land; nor did they possess that enterprizing spirit of navigation, so necessary to the establish:nent of a maritime power. In the Punic wars a naval force had been formed

with

224 Rome under the Emperor's Tiberius and Caligula. with difficulty, and was at last crowned with success; and the imprudence of Antony risked his fame and fortune on the engagent at Actium. Yet the Romans never could be induced to consider the sea as their proper department; and though their dominion over it was extensive and’undisputed, they still continued to regard the ocean as an object rather of terror than curiosity. The policy of their Emperors extended no farther than to secure the peaceful navigation of it; and content with protecting the necessary commerce of their subjects, they cautiously refrained from exploring the remote coasts of the unfrequented main.

CHAP. XLII.

Rome under the Emperors, Tiberius and Galigula-Degeneracy

and Luxury of the Romans. -- Appius the Epicure. - The Spintriæ.--Caligula's Treatment of his Horse.-Claudius. -Nero.-Galba.-Otho.-Vitellius-Conquest of Britain. Pætus and Arria.-Messalina.Seneca.- Perfecution of the Christians. ROM the death of Augustus to the reign of Vespasian,

the annals of Rome are stained with cruelty and blood; and history transinits a race of monsters which disgrace humanity. Authors have mentioned this fact, without attempting to assign the cause. If we consider the character of the Roman people, and the state in which the first Emperors found themselves on their accession to the throne, we will discover reasons that gave rise to this excess of cruelty and tyranny. In despotic governments, which have been long established, the subjects are dispofed to obey, as much as the monarch to command. But the descendants of the people who had given the law to Kings, and disposed of kingdoms, were not prepared for slavery. Their early education; the history of their country; the books which they read; the characters which they admired; all tended to infpire them with the admiration of patriotism, and the love of liberty *. Even the Emperor Antonius ranks Brutus among the models of perfect virtue.

Such being the spirit of the Romans, the situation of the Emperors, who were originally on a level with the people, tended to precipitate them into crimes. The forms of a long

* Logan.

established

A. D. 14.

established monarchy command veneration as well as obedience ; and hereditary succession removes the idea of competitors for the crown. But the Roman Emperors, having no rights but what they had usurped, saw a rival in every wealthy Patrician ; and, depending on the army, foreboded a successor whenever a General was victorious. Hence the assassination of the most illustrious citizens.

Augustus was succeeded by Tiberius his fonin-law, whose tyranny became insupportable, and he was aftaffinated in the 23d year of his reign.

The Romans were, at this time, arrived at the highest pitch of effeminacy and vice. The wealth of almost every nation of the empire, having for some time, circulated thro' the city, brought with it the luxuries peculiar to each country; so that Rome presented a detestable picture of various pollution.

In this reign lived Appicius, so well known for having reduced gluttony into a system. Some of the notorious in this way, thought it no shame to give near an hundred pounds for a single fish, and exhaust a fortune of fifty thousand pounds in one entertainment. Diffipation of every other kind kept pace with this; while the detestable folly of the times thought it was refining upon pleasure to make it unnatural.

There were at Rome men called Spintriæ, whose sole bufiness it was, to study new modes of pleasure; and these were universally favourites of the great.

The people had, for some years, been accustomed to live in idleness, upon the donations of the Emperor; and, being satisfied with subsistence, entirely gave up their freedom. “ After the death of Augustus,” says a celebrated historian, " the Roman people ran headlong into llavery."

In the eighteenth year of this monarch's reign, our SAVIour Jesus Christ suffered death on the cross. Soon after his death, Pilate wrote to Tiberius an account of his paffion, tesurrection, and iniracles; upon which the Emperor made a report of the whole to the senate, desiring that Christ might be accounted a God by the Romans. But the senate being displeased that the proposal had not come first from them felves, refused to admit of his apotheofis; alledging an ancient law, which gave them the superintendance in all matters of religion. They even went so far as, by an edict, to command, that all Christians should leave the city. But Tiberius, by another edict, threatened death to all such as should accuse them; by which means, they continued unmolested during the rest of his reign.

Q

Caius

Vol. I.

226 Rome under the Emperors Tiberius and Caligula.

Caius Caligula, the successor of Tiberius, exA. D. 33. ceeded his predecessor in all manner of diflipa

tion and profigacy; but in martial affairs he was much his inferior. He is famous, however, for a mock expedition that he made against the Germans.

After arriving at that part of the low countries opposite to Britain, he received into his protection a fugitive prince of that island, and fent pompous letters to the senate, giving an account of the happy conquest of the whole kingdom. Some time after, making the soldiers fill their helmets with pebbles and cocklefhells, which he called the spoils of the ocean, he returned to the city to demand a triumph; and, when that honour was denied him by the senate, he fell into the most extravagant cruelties. He was so far from entertaining any desire to benefit the public, that he often complained of his ill fortune, because no signal calamity happened in his time; and made it his constant wish, that either the utter destruction of an army, or some plague, famine, earthquake, or other extraordinary defolation might continue the memory of his reign to succeeding ages. He had another more comprehensive wish, that all the Romans had brut one neck, that he might strike it off at one blow, His common phrase was, “Let them hate me, « so they fear me."

The luxuries of former princes were fimplicity itself, when compared to those which Caligula practised. He contrived new ways of bathing, where the richest oils and most precious perfumes were exhausted with the utmost profusion. He found out dishes of immense value, and had even jewels, as we are told, diffolved among his sauces. He sometimes had services of pure gold presented before his guests instead of meat, observing, “That a man should be an economist or an « Emperor."

The expensive manner in which he maintained his horse will give some idea of his domestic economy. He built it a stable of marble, and a manger of ivory. Whenever this animal, which he called Incitatus, was to run, he placed fentinels near its stable, the night preceding, to prevent its flumbers from being broken. He appointed it an house, furniture, and a kitchen, in order to treat all its visitors with proper respect. The Emperor sometimes invited Incitatus to his own table, presented it with gilt oats, and wine in a golden cup. He often swore by the safety of his horse ; and it is faid he would have appointed it to the consullhip, had he not been prevented by death.

His behaviour compelled his subjects to cut him off, for the security of their own persons, after a short reign of three years, ten months, and eight days. “Nature seemed to have

< brought

u brought him forth,” says a philosophic writer, “to show « what was possible to be produced, from the greatest vice “ fupported by the greatest authority *."

As soon as the death of Caligula was made public, it produced the greatest confusion in all parts of the city. The conspirators, who only aimed at destroying a tyrant, without attending to a succeflor had all sought safety by retiring to private places.

The senate assembled, in the capitol, to debate about extinguishing the name and family of the Cæsars, and restoring the commonwealth to the old constitution. But one of the soldiers, who were employed to ransack the palace, lighting accidentally upon Claudius, uncle to the late Emperor, who had hid himself in a corner behind the hangings, pulled him out to the rest of his gang, and recommended him as the fittest person in the world to be Emperor. All were much pleased at the motion; and taking him along with them by force, they lodged him among the guards. But, as they could not agree among themselves, and the multitude cried out for one governor, they were at last obliged to confirm the election of the soldiers. To this they were the less averse, because they had pitched upon such an easy. A. D. 42. prince, as would be wholly at their command and disposal.

The conquest of Britain was the most remarkable act of his time, owing partly to an expedition which he made in person; but chiefly to the valour of his officers.

The Britons, under their king Caractacus, were the most formidable opponents the Roman generals had ever yet encountered. This brave barbarian not only made a gallant defence, but often seemed to claim a doubtful victory. Having removed the seat of war into the most inaccessible parts of the country, he kept the Romans in continual alarm, for nine years. The Britons, however, being at last entirely routed, the wife and daughter of Caractacus were taken prifoners; and he seeking refuge from Cartismandua, queen of the Brigantes, was treacheroully delivered up to the conquerors, When he was brought to Rome, nothing could exceed the curiosity of the people to behold a man who had, for so many years, braved the power of the empire. On his part, he testified no marks of base dejection; but, as he was led through the streets, happening to observe the splendour of every object around him; “ Alas,” cried he, « how is it possible, " that people possessed of such magnificence at home, could " think of envying Caractacus an humble cottage in Britain!” When he was brought before the Emperor, while the other

* Seneca
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captives

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