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their luxury had taken fuch pride in, were converted into arms, as they had given up their iron, which was, in their present circumstances, the most precious metal. The women parted also with their ornaments, and even cut off their hair, to be converted into strings for the bowinen.

Afdrubal,who had been lately condemned for opposing the Romans, was now taken from prison to head their army; and such preparations were made, that, when the confúls came before the city, which they expected to find an caly conquest, they met with such resistance, as quite difpirited, their forces, and shook their resolution. Several engagements were fought before the walls with disadvantage to the assailants, so that the fiege would have been discontinued had not Scipio Æmilianus, the adopted fon of Africanus, who was appointed to command it, used as much skill to fave his furces after a defeat, as to inspire them with hopes of victory. But all his arts would have failed, had he not found' means to feduce Pharneas, the master of the Carthaginian horse, who came over to his side. He from that time went on successfully; that part of Carthage called Megara was the first that was taken, while the inhabitants were driven into the citadel. He then secured the isthmus that led into the city, and thus cut off all supplies of provisions from the country. He next blocked up the haven; but the besieged, with incredible industry, cut out a new passage into the fea, whereby, at certain times, they could receive necessaries from the army without. That army, therefore, was to be subdued, ere the city could be thoroughly invested.

With this view, Scipio fet upon them in the beginning of the ensuing winter, killed seventy thousand of their men, and took ten thousand prisoners of war. The unhappy townsmen, now bereft of all external succour, resolved upon every extremity, rather than submit. But they soon saw the enemy make nearer approaches. 'The wall which led to the haven was quickly demolished. Soon after, the forum was taken, which offered the conquerors a deplorable spectacle of houses nodding to the fall, heaps of men lying dead, hundreds of the wounded struggling to emerge from the carnage around them, and deploring their own and their country's ruin. The citadel soon after surrendered at discretion. All now but the temple was subdued, which was defended by deserters from the Roman army, and those who had been most forward to undertake the war. There, however, expecting no mercy, and finding their condition desperate, set fire to the building, and voluntarily perished in the flames. Afdrubal the Cartha



The Third Punic War. ginian general, delivered himself up to the Romans when the citadel was taken; but his wife and two children rushed into the temple while on fire, and expired with their country. Then was this magnificent city laid in alhes by the merciless conquerors, and so extensive was it, being twenty-four miles in compass, that the burning continued for seventeen successive days. The senate of Rome ordered that no part of it should bé rebuilt. It was demolished to the ground; fo that travellers are unable, at this day, to lay with certainty where Carthage stood.

All the cities which assisted Carthage in this war were ora dered to share the same fate, and the lands belonging to them were given to the friends of the Romans. The other towns of Africa became tributary to Rome, and were governed by an annual prætor ; while the numberless captives that were taken in the course of this war were sold as flaves, except fome few, that were adjudged to die by the hands of the executioner. This was the end of one of the most renowned cities in the world, for arts, opulence, and extent of dominion *. It had rivalled Rome for above an hundred

years, and, at one time, was thought to have the superiority. But all the grandeur of Carthage was founded on commerce alone, which is ever fluctuating, and, at best, ferves to dress up a nation, to invite the conqueror, and only to adorn the victim for its destruction t.

The same year, Corinth was reduced to ashes, and Greece became a Roman province under the title of Achaia. They then subdued Lusitania, now Portugal; and after that, the Numantines, the chief people of Spain. In the space of one century, the Romans extended their conquests over the three divisions of the continent. Thrace, Greece, Africa, Syria, and all the kingdoms of Asia Minor, became members of this vast empire.

A. C. 146.

► Universal History.



The Gracchi. ---Sylla and Marius.-Tyranny of Sylla. His

Resignation of the Dictatorship, and Death. HE fall of Carthage, and conquest of the Grecian the Roman history, contributed to the extinction of Roman liberty. No sooner were their fears from abroad removed, than the people grew altogether ungovernable. Effeminacy, debauchery, proXigacy, and every atrocious vice, fucceeded to temperance, severity of life, and public spirit. As the Romans gradually extended their victorious arins over the weaker Itates of Italy, they were accustomed to take a certain portion of the conquered lands into their own possession; part of which was fold by auction for the use of the public, and the rest divided ainong the poorer citizens on the payment of a small quit-rent to the treasury. For the better regulation of these distributions, various laws had been pafled from time to time, under the title of the Agrarian laws* By these laws it had been ordained, that no citizen should possess more than 500 acres; but the richer citizens getting poffeffion of large tracts of waste land, and adding to these likewise, either by force or purchase, the finaller pittances of their poor neighbours, by degrees became masters of territories instead of farms, threatening the utter ruin of the industrious husbandman, and the extinction of popular liberty.

While luxury and corruption were introduced, many citizens still retained the ancient simplicity. Cato, the Censor, attempted to reform the manners; but his rude hand was ill qualified for the task.

A nobler Roman, Tiberius Semphronius Gracchus, undertook the cause of his country. Melting with pity at the desolate view of the Hetrurian plains, and animated by the cries of the whole people, who importunately demanded the restitution of the alienated lands, he resolutely stood forth the advocate of their deserted cause. He proposed the execution of the Agrarian laws. This produced a civil war, in which he fell an illustrious victim to a rapacious and implacable sea nate. He was assassinated on the following occasion. Attalus, king of Pergamus, had by his last will left the Romans his

* They were called also Licinjan Laws, from the original author Licinus. 22



The Gracchi. heirs, and it was proposed, that the money so left should be divided among the poor ; in order to furnith them with proper utensils for cultivating the lands, which became their's by the late law of partition. This increased the disturbances, which before prevailed in the city. The fenate assembled, in order to consult the most proper methods of securing these riches to themselves, which they now valued above the safety of the commonwealth. They had numerous dependents, who were willing to give up liberty for plenty and'ease. These, therefore, were commanded to be in readiness, to intimidate the people, who expected no such opposition; and who were attentive to the harrangues of Tiberius Gracchus in the capitol. Here as a clamour was raised by the clients of the great on one side, and by the favourers of the law on the other, Tiberius found his speech entirely interrupted, and begged in vain, to be attended to; till at last, raising his hand to his head, to intimate that his life was in danger, the partizans of the senate gave out that he wanted a diadem. In consequence of this, an uproar spread itself through all ranks of people; the corrupt part of the senate were of opinion, that the conful would defend the commonwealth by force of arms; but this prudent magistrate declining such violence, Scipio Nasica, a kinsman to Gracchus, immediately rose up, and preparing himself for the contest, desired that all who would defend the dignity and authority of the laws, should follow him. Upon this, attended by a large body of fenators and clients, armed with clubs, he went directly to the capitol, striking down all who ventured to refift. Tiberius perceiving by the tumult that his life was in danger, endeavoured to fly; and throwing aside his robe, to expedite his escape, attempted to get thro' the throng. Bụt happening to fall over a perfon already on the ground, Saturnius, one of the colleagues in the tribune- · fhip, who was of the opposite faction, ftruck him dead with a piece of a seat: and no less than three hundred of his hearers thared the fame fate, being killed in the tumult.

Caius Gracchus, following his brother's footsteps, came likewise to an untimely end. Opimius the Conful was his profeffed enemy. Gracchus and his friend Fulvius were, accordingly, proscribed by the senate; and it was proclaimed, that whoever should bring the head of either of them, should receive its weight in gold, for a reward. Gracchus fled to a grove beyond the Tiber, where he made his servant kill him. The servant immediately after killed himself. One of the soldiers carried his head to Opimius; and it is said, that to make it weigh the heavier, he took out the brains and filled


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the full with lead. Fulvius flying to a friend's house, was betrayed and flain.

Before this period, arms had never been weilded in the forum, nor Roman blood fhed by Romans. Armed troops having been introduced into the public affembly, and violence crowned with success, an example is now set which will lead, to civil wars.

The Numidian war, which commenced in the year before
Christ 111, and lasted five

afforded many

instances of the injustice, infolence, and shocking corruption of the Roman senate.-— Jugurtha, who had usurped the kingdom of Numidia, was put to death, and that country, with all Mauritania, in Africa, fell under the Romans. Many of the renators had accepted bribes of Jugurtha, who, on his departure from Rome, upon a certain occasion, could not repress a farcasm against its venality, as he took leave. For looking back upon the city, as he passed through one of the gates, “O! Rome,” cried he, “how readily wouldīt thou fell « thyself, if there were any man rich enough to be the pur« chaser.”

Soon after the violence of civil war between Sylla and Marius, two artful aspiring påtricians shook the foundation of Rome. Factions were formed. The consul Sylla, after having defeated Mithridates, the most powerful and warlike monarch in the East, marched for Rome, here, during his absence, he had been superseded in the consulship by Mariusy and which now began to feel all the desolations of a civil war. The secret intrigues of corruption were carried on by both parties with great assiduity. The emiffaries both of Sylla and Marius were seen going diligently, during the whole winter, among the states of Italy, labouring by all the arts of bribery and persuasion, to gain over forces to their cause.

Sylla was particularly versed in the business of feduction, and great sums of that money, which had been plundered from the East, were employed all over the country, and even among the barbarous nations of Gaul, to extend nis interest.

The operations in the field began with great vigour, in the beginning of the spring. Marius, at the head of twentyfive cohorts, offered Sylla battle ; which this general, knowing how the troops against him were predisposed, readily accepted. At first the forcune of the day seemed doubtful, but, just at that period in which victory begins to waver, a part of the troops of Marius, which had been previously corrupted, filed in disorder, and thus decided the fate of the day. Marius baving endeavoured, but in vain, to rally his troops, was the VOL. I. N


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