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was slain by a Roman soldier. Marcellus was not a little grieved at his death. A passion for letters, at that time, began to prevail among the higher ranks of people at Rome. He therefore ordered his body to be honourably buried, and a tomb to be erected to his memory, which his own works have long survived. * Syracuse was twenty-two miles in com. pass, and the plunder of it immense.
The wars in Italy, during this time were attended with various success. Tarentum was betrayed to Hannibal, but the castle still held out. The Romans invested Capua, which foon after surrendered. The heads of the revolt were put to death, and the common people fold, This city, on account of the richness of the soil, was reserved for the use of husbandmen, labourers and artificers, without any Thew of government of its own, as it formerly had.
Valerius Lævinus, one of the consuls, for the next year, being sent into Sicily, reduced that island to the Roman obedience. This was the first time that the Romans had been masters of all Sicily. Marcellus also greatly harrassed Hannibal's troops and repulsed him in several rencounters; at last, however, he was flain in an ambuscade. Marcellus was called the sword, and Fabius the buckler, of Rome.
The Romans admired the character of these great men, but saw something more divine in the young Scipio. The fuccefs of this young hero confirmed the popular opinion, that he was of divine extraction,and held converse with the gods. Scipio was made conful, and sent into Africa. The Numidians also fent a powerful army under a second Afdrubal and Syphax. to the assistance of the Carthaginians. Scipio surprised the camp of the enemy in the night, and by this artifice gained a complete victory. Syphax was soon after taken prisoner by Masinissa, "king of Numidia, and carried to Rome. On this fuccess of the Romans in Africa, Hannibal was called home, after he had passed fifteen years in that country, to the great dread and terror of the Romans, On his return, Hannibal took the command of the African army at Zama, distant from Carthage about five days journey. The Roman army was also in a neighbouring plain, and the two generals had an interview, but nothing was agreed on. Scipio charged the Carthaginians with perfidy and injustice; upon which both fides prepared for battle,
The fate of Rome and Carthage was now to be decided. Never was a more memorable battle fought, whether we regard the generals, the armies, the two states that contended, or the empire that was in dispute, The disposition Hannibal * Hooke.
made of his men is said, by the skilful in the art of war, to be superior to any even of his former arrangements. He encouraged the various nations of his army, by the different motives which led them to the field; to the mercenaries, he promised a discharge of their arrears, and double pay with plunder in case of victory; the Gauls he inspired, by aggravating their natural hatred to the Romans; the Numidians, by representing the cruelty of their new king; and the Carthaginians, by reminding them of their country, their glory, the danger of servitude, and their defire of freedom.
Scipio, on the other hand, with a chearful countenance, desired his legions to rejoice, for that their labours and their dangers were now near at an end; that the gods had given Carthage into their hands; and that they should soon return triumphant to their friends, their wives, and their children. The battle began with the elephants on the side of the Carthaginians; these animals being terrified at the cries of the Romans, and wounded by the fingers and archers, turned upon their drivers, and caused much confusion in both wings of their army, in which the cavalry was placed. Being thus deprived of the affiftance of the horse, in which their greatest strength consisted, the heavy infantry joined on both sides.
The Romans were more vigorous and powerful in the shock, the Carthaginians more active and ready. However, they were unable to withstand the continued prefiure of the Roman fhields, but at first gave way a little, and this foon brought on a general Aight. The rear guard who had orders from Hannibal to oppose those who fled, now began to attack their own forces; so that the body of the infantry sustained a double encounter, of those who caufed their fight, and those who endeavoured to prevent it. At length the general finding it impossible to reduee them to order, directed that they should fall behind, while he brought up his fresh forces to oppose the pursuers. Scipio, upon this immediately founded a retreat, in order to bring up his men a second time in good order. And now the combat began afresh, between the Aower of both armies. The Carthaginians, however, having been deprived of the succour of their elephants, and their horse, and their enemies being stronger of body were obliged to give ground. In the mean time, Masiniffa, who had been in pursuit of their cavalry, returning and attacking them in the rear, compleated their defeat. A total rout enfued; twenty thousand men were killed in the battle or the pursuit, and as many were taken prisoners. Hannibal, who had done all that a great general, and an undaunted soldier could per
form, fed with a small body of horse to Adru:netum, fortune feeming to delight in rendering ineffectual his ability, his valour, and experience.
This victory brought on a peace. The Carthaginians, by Hannibal's advice, offered conditions to the Romans, which they dictated not as rivals, but as fovereigns. By this treaty, the Carthaginians were obliged to quit Spain, and all the iftands of the liediteranean fe. Thiy were bound to pay ten thousand talents in fifty years; to give hostag's for the delivery of their ihips and their el pharis; to restore Mafinifla all the territories that had been taken from him, and not to make war in Africa, but by the permission of the Romans. Thus ended the fecond Punic war, feventeen years after it had begun. Carthage still continued an empire, but without power to defend its poffefions, and only waiting the pleasure of the conqueror, when they should think proper to put a period to its continuance. After the depreffion of this mighty dominion, the Romans were seldom engaged, except in petty wars, and while they obtained great victories; whereas before, they had obtained but triling advantages, and were engaged in dangerous wars,
CHA P. XXXIII,
The Third Punic War, which terminated in the Destruction
of Carthage. HE ambition of the Romans now exceeded all bounds.
, world. War was declared avanit Philipsli, king of Macedon, who was defeated by Fiaminius, and fubjièted to the payment of tribute. By the subjection of Macedon, the Romans had an opportunity of thewing their generosity. They ordered freedom, and a liberty to live according to their own laws and institutions, to be proclaimed to all the states of Greece, that had been subjected to the dominion of the kings of Macedon.
Antiochus, king of Syria, was next brought to bow to the Roman eagles, though aided by Hannibal the avowed enemy of Rome. Peace was granted to Antiochus, on condition that he should pay fifteen thoufand talents for the expence of the war, and give up all the countries on this fide Mount
Taurus in Greece. The fate of the two generals, Hannibal and Scipio, was soon after determined. Scipio, was charged with taking money of Antiochus for the peace he lately made with him, and retired to Liternum in Campania, where he died, exclaiming in severe terms against his ungrateful country. His great rival Hannibal was demanded of Prusias, king of Bithynia, by the Roman ambassadors. Prusias was under the necessity of obeying; and Hannibal, rather than fall into the hands of his enemies, poisoned himself.
The war of Syria forms an important æra in the Roman hiftory. From this period the ancient Roman character began to decline. The age of fimplicity, frugality, and illustrious poverty, was past. A fevere people began to change their manners. The victorious nation at once adopted the vices of the vanquished; the spoils of the East introduced a taste for luxury; and, as frequently has happened in history, Asia corrupted Europe.
The evils that follow in the train of luxury began now to be felt. The wealth of the world had Aowed into Rome; but it centered in a few hands. Individuals at the head of armis, or in the government of Provinces, had amaffed riches; but an immense populace were in poverty. The splendor of foreign conquest could not conceal their domestic misery. From this mixture of private opulence, and public wretchedness, disorders daily increased, and new troubles afperwards arose that threatened a revolution to the republic.
In the year before Christ 166, a final period was put to the Macedonian empire, by Paulus Æmilius, in the eleventh year of Perseus, son of Philip. In an engagement at Pydna, Æmilius entirely defeated the army of the enemy, and besides many thousand prisoners, acquired an immense treasure.
The most exquisite statues, paintings, and other noble works of Greece, were sent to Rome. These graced the triumph of Æmilius; and a judicious historian observes, « that Rome was now the most magnificent spot in the
In these conquests, however, the Romans still allowed the ancient inhabitants to poffefs their territory. They did not even change the form of government. The conquered nations became the allies of the Roman people ; but this denomination, under a fpecious name, concealed a condition very ferwile, and inferred that they should submit to whatever was required of them.
The Third Punic War. Carthage still continued the main object of Roman jeaJoufy. A disagreement between Mafiniffa and the Carthaginians, about the limits of their territories, furnithed a freth pretence of quarrel. The decision was referred to the Romans, who obliged the Carthaginians to give up to Mafinissa the country in dispute. This gave rise to the third Punic war.
Carthage was now a state that only fubsisted by the mercy of the conquerors, and was to fall at the slightest breath of their indignation. Cato the censor, for some time past never spoke in the senate upon public business, but he ended his Speech by inculcating the necessity of its destruction *. His opinion prevailed. It was therefore declared in the senate, that Carthage must be destroyed; and both the Consuls were fent with orders to this purpose.
The Carthaginians, affrighted at the preparations of the Romans, immediately condemned those who had broken the league, and humbly offered any reasonable satisfaction. To these submissions, the senate only returned an evasive answer, demanding three hundred hostages within thirty days, as a security for their future conduct. The hostages were fent within the limited time; and on the arrival of the consuls at Utica, the Carthaginians sent deputies to wait upon them, in order to know their pleasure. The consul Censorinus demanded all their arms, which were immediately delivered up. They then, with tears and all possible submission, begged for mercy, and desired to know their last doom. The consuls told them, that they were commanded to leave their city, which they had orders to level with the ground; and that they had permission to build another in any part of their territories, within ten miles of the sea.
This severe command they received with all the concern and distress of a despairing people. They implored for a refpite from such a hard sentence. They used tears and lamentations. But finding the consuls inexorable, they departed with a gloomy resolution, prepared to suffer the utmost extremities, and to fight to the last for their seat of empire, and their ancient habitations.
Upon returning home, and devulging the ill fuccess of their commiffion, a general spirit of refiftance seemed to inspire the whole people. They, now too late, began to see the danger of riches in a state, when it had no longer power to defend them. Those vessels, therefore, of gold and silver, which