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whenever he went out to fupper, there should be a band of music to attend him. This victory was obtained by the Romans in the year before Christ 259.
The year after the islands of Corsica and Sardinia were luba dued, and the Romans put to sea with a feet of more than three hundred fail. They engaged the Carthaginian fleec under Hamilcar, and to entirely routed the enemy, that nothing remained for conqueft but Africa itfelf.
Attilius Regulus was appointed pro-consul in Africa. He defeated the Carthaginian army, and took five thousand prisoners. He reduced Clypea, a famous sea port, also Tunetum, and other cities of Africa; and no peace could be obtained by the Carthaginians, from Regulus, but on the most hard conditions. The Lacedæmonians fent Greek troops to their aslistance, under Xantippus, a brave and experienced general. Fortune now favoured the Carthaginians. Regulus was defeated and taken prisoner, with five hundred Romans the companions of his misfortune. The Romans allo fustained great loss by sea; for on their return to Italy, the greatest part of their Acet, consisting of three hundred and fifty fail, were destroyed by a storm, and both their confuls perished. The following year, a fimilar misfortune befel them; when they lost one hundred and fifty thips. The Romans were so much discouraged by this repeated series of unfavourable events, that they declined farther naval engagements, and resolved, that fixty thips only should be kept at fca to guard the Italian coasts. The consul Metellus, on the other fide, raised the spirits of the Romans, by a dreadful overthrow, in Sicily, of the Carthaginians under Afdrubal their general. Twenty thousand men were killed, and twenty-fix elephants were taken; for this action a splendid triumph was decreed Metellus; and Asdrubal, on his return to Carthage, was condemned and executed.
The Carthaginians, wearied out with this tedious war, fent ambassadors to Rome, to make overtures of peace. Regulus had now been a prisoner in Carthage five years; and the Carthaginians .engaged him to plead their cause; but they first exacted a promile from him to return to Carthage, in case the embally proved unsuccessful. It was at the fame time hinted to him, that his life depended on the success of his negociation. On his arrival at Rome, he acquainted the fenate with the motive of his journey, and at the fame time used every argument to dissuade the Romans from poace, or an exchange of prilonces.
The First Punic War. He assured the senate, that the Carthaginian resources were almost exhausted; their populace harrafied out with fatigues, and their nobles with contention; that all their best generals were prisoners with the Romans, while Carthage had none but the refuse of the Roman army: that not only the interest of Rome, but its honour also was concerned in continuing the war, for their ancestors had never made peace till they were victorious. So unexpected an advice gave the senate no little disturb
They saw the justice of his opinion, but they also saw the dangers he incurred by giving it. They feemed entirely satisfied of the expediency of prolonging the war; their only obstacle was how to secure the safety of him, who had advised its continuance. They pitied, as well as admired, a man who had used such eloquence against his private interest, and could not conclude upon a measure which was to terminate in his ruin. Regulus, however, soon relieved their embarrassment by breaking off the treaty, and by rising in order to return to his bonds and confinement. It was in vain that the fenate and all his dearest friends entreated his stay; he still repressed their solicitations. Marcia, his wife, with her little children, filled the city with lamentations, and vainly entreated to be permitted to see him. He still obstinately persisted in keeping his promife; and though sufficiently apprised of the tortures that awaited his return, without embracing his family, or taking leave of his friends, he departed with the ambassadors for Carthage.
Nothing could equal the fury and the disappointment of the Carthaginians, when they were informed by their ambalfadors that Regulus, instead of promoting a peace, had given his opinion for continuing the war. They accordingly prepared to punish his conduct with the most studied tortures. · First his eyelids were cut off, and then he was remanded to prison. He was, after some days, expofed with his face opposite to the burning sun. At last, when malice was fatigued with studying all the arts of torture, he was put into a barrel stuck full of nails that pointed inwards, and in this painful polition he continued till he died. By this one act only did the Carthaginians bring an eternal infamy on themselves and their country.
The Romans hearing of the horrid deed, were greatly enraged, and delivered Hamilcar the Carthaginian general, and other prisoners, to Marcia, the wife of Regulus, who shut them up in an armory-filled with spikes in order to torture them, and inflict the same punishment on them, that had been
inflicted on her husband. The magistrates, however, interfered, and they were treated with greater moderation.
The war between the two republics was now renewed, and carried on both by sea and land, with various success, till at length a peace was concluded between them, in the year before Christ 239. Sicily was made a Roman province, and the Carthaginians engaged to deliver up all their prisoners without ransom. Thus ended the first Punic war, which had lasted twenty four years, and, in some measure, had drained both nations of every resource to renew hoftilities.
The Second Punic War.
NARTHAGE, though corrupted, was not deficient in
great men. Of all the enemies the Romans ever had to contend with, Hannibal the Carthaginian was the most inflexible and dangerous. His
father Hamilcar had imbibed an extreme hatred against the Romans, and having settled the intestine troubles of his country, he took an early opportunity to inspire his son, though but nine years old, with his own sentiments. For this purpose he ordered a solemn sacrifice to be offered to Jupiter, and leading his son to the altar, asked him whether he was willing to attend him in his expedition against the Romans; the courageous boy not only consented to go, but conjured his father by the gods present, to form him
to victory, and teach him the art of war. That I will joyfully do, replied Hamilcar, and with all the care of a father who loves if
the altar to be an eternal enemy to the Romans. Hannibal readily complied; and the solemnity of the ceremony, and the sacredness of the oath, made such an impression upon his mind as nothing afterwards could efface. Being appointed general at twentyfive years of
he over-run all Spain; and, being intent on the ruin of the Roman state, he determined to carry the war into Italy. He surmounted all difficulties. He pafled the Alps with an army of one hundred and forty thousand horse and foot, in the winter season; and, with a resolution almost incredible, he vanquished the Roman army under the consuls
Scipio and Sempronius. He afterwards engaged Flaminius the Roman general, at the Lake Thrasymenus. In this battle Flaininius was slain, and his army entirely defeated. Rome was in the utmost consternation on this success of the enemy; and Fabius Maximus was sent with four legions in quest of Hannibal, but constantly avoided coming to an engagement with him. This cautious conduct of Fabius* greatly distressed Hannibal, who frequently offered him battle.
The following year, the armies came to a general engagę.. ment at Cannæ, a town in Apulia. This battle was fought with prodigious fury on both sides; and Hannibal had placed his men with such art, that the Romans were not only forced to fight with wind, dust, and fun, but, on their pressing forward, they were in a short time almost surrounded. The abilities of the Punic general never appeared so much as on this occasion. His skill much more than over-matched the superior number of the Romans, of whom a most dreadful slaughter was made, till Hannibal, quite weary of it, commanded his soldiers to give over.
The consul Æmilius was killed, and with him fifty thousand men.
A celebrated ancient historian + informs us, that no less then seventy thoufand were put to the sword; among whom were two quæstors, twenty-one tribunes, eighty of the senatorial order, and so many knights, that it is said three bushels of their rings were sent to Carthage. The enemy lost only five thousand feven hundred men.
The consternation of Rome, upon the news of this dreadful disaster, is more easy to be imagined than defcribed. It was such, that it was thought necefiary to create a dictator I to preserve order in the city, and to set ftrict guards at the gates to keep the people from quitting it.
If Hannibal, after this victory, had marched directly to Rome, he might, in all probability, have put an end both to the war, and to the Roman state ; but, as Maherbal, captain of his horse told him, that he knew perfectly how to gain a vittory, but not how to use and improve it. His negligence that sunmer gave the Romans an opportunity of recovering themfelves, when they were almost reduced to a despairing condition. But what proved most fatal to him, was his wintering
Ennius compliments him thus : « Unus homo nobis cunétando reftituit rem.” † Polybius. Fabius Maxinus was made Dictator.
at Capua, a wealthy and most luxurious city, which, among many others, had surrendered to him since his last victory. Here he utterly spoiled an excellent and hardened army. His men, before inured to toil and labour, were now so enervated by their immoderate use of the pleasures, and effeminacies of that place, that they could not bear fatigue, nor the strictness of the ancient military discipline. Capua proved as fatal to Hannibal's Coldiers, as Cannæ had been to the Romans. From this time his fortune began to change. For, in the next campaign, against which the Romans had made all poffible preparations, having even armed several thousand saves, he was worsted by the prætor Marcellus in a sally out of Nola. He was also repulfed at Casilinum, after he had brought the place to great extremitics; and, not long after, Marcellus gained a considerable advantage over him, in the neighbourhood of Nola.
At this time Caius Scipio, 2 tribune of the soldiers, undertook the cause of his country. This young man, being informed that some of the best families of Rome, despairing to save the commonwealth, had agreed to abandon Italy, and settle in some other place, went directly to the assembly and, with his sword drawn, swore, that if they did not lay afide that inglorious resolution, and take on oath not to abandon the republic in its present distress, they Thould all be immediately cut to pieces. These threats, added to the courage and spirit of Scipio, brought them all into engagement, and they mutually plighted their faith to each other to deliver their country, or to die in its ruins.
Afdrubal, being sent to the asistance of his brother Hannibal in Italy, was surrounded by the enemy, and killed. His whole army was entirely routed, and cụt to pieces,
Scipio, the younger, recovered Spain. In Sardinia too, a battle was fought, in which twelve thousand Carthaginians were killed, and a great many taken prisoners, among whom were some of great distinction.
Marcellus besieged Syracuse by sea and land, but could not get poffeffion of it, his efforts of every kind being always baffled by the skill of that great mathematician Archimedes, who contrived such engines as demolished all the batteries and some of the ships of the Romans, He also made use of burning glasses, which, at the distance of some hundred yards, set the Roman ships and wooden towers on fire. At last, however, the town was taken, on a great festival, by surprise.' The inhabitants were put to the sword; and among the rest, Archimedes, who was found meditating in his study, M4