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of myrtle, with the pretexta, or usual habit of the magistrates, and was attended by the senate only.

The greater triumph was conducted with the utmost itate and magnificence of the citizens. Whenever a general demanded a triumph, he was obliged to resign his command of the army, and to keep at a distance from Rome, till the hou nour had been granted or refused him. He always wrote to the senate a detail of his conquests; and, if allowed of, a triumph was decreed; the general, on the day appointed, crowned with laurels, made a specch to the people; after which the senators, preceded by the lower degree of officers, began the march. The spoils taken from the enemy followed; and the conquered cities and nations were represented in gold, silver, and other metal, with the names of the places which the conqueror had subjected to the Roman empire. The priests assisted on this occasion, and led the oxen destined for the sacrifice, dressed with ribbands and garlands. . These were followed by chariots, whereon lay the crowns, and other enfigns of honour, which the provinces presented to the conqueror to adorn his triumph. The captive monarchs and generals, in gold or filver chains, made part of the procession; then followed the officers of the army, with the crowns or keys of the conquered cities. After this, preceded by his relations and friends, came the conqueror crowned with laurel, and seated on an ivory chariot, with an ivory sceptre, and an eagle of gold in his hand. An officer usually stood behind him; and, left he should be too much clated with this splendor, cried aloud, Remember that thou art a man. Before and after his chariot were carried perfuines, and every kind of musical instrument. The march was closed by the generals, and other officers of the army. The Roman Legions sung congratulatory songs in honour of the conqueror. The proceslion began without the walls of Rome, by the triumphal gate, and passed through the city, under many arches, erected and adorned in honour of the triumph to the Capitol. Here the conqueror offered a crown, and the Spolia Opima to Jupiter; then a sacrifice was made to the God, and the conqueror was reconducted with the like state to his palace.

Tarquin, ever restless, again prevailed on the Latins to espouse his cause, who found means to foment tumults within the walls of the city. Many of the poorer citizens and discontented Naves engaged in the conspiracy, but it was discovered by Sulpicius one of the confuls, who put the citizens to the sword in the forum, and condemned the slaves to be whipt with rods, and crucified. K 3


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Of the Dictator. Notwithstanding these fruitless attempts, Tarquin, affifted by his son-in-law Manilius OEtavius, entered into a general league with the people of Latium, and twenty-four cities 'declared war against the Romans. They had well-nigh fucceeded in their design, by the critical situation of the Roman people, .who could procure no auxiliaries from abroad, and were but ill supported at home,


Of the Dictator.-The Tribunes of the People.
HE diffentions about debts were a frequent source of

agitation and disorder in the Roman ftate. Ancient practice permitted the creditor to seize the person of the inTolvent debtor, to employ him in the meanest drudgery, to load him with chains, and to retain him in slavery. This complication of misery and ignominy excited the murmurs of the poor; and when the consuls came to raise the levies, the people refused to enrol their names for the war. The senate endeavoured to suspend the diffentions; but the people persisted in their refusal to enlist, until they had obtained an abolition of debts. Meanwhile the enemy approached to the gates of Rome. The consuls could not interpose their authority to enforce obedience; because, since the Valerian law had passed, every citizen condemned by a magistrate had a right of appealing to the people,

To elude this law, and save the commonwealth, the fenate had recourse to a temporary expedient, which, in extraordinary situations, became afterwards a standing practice. The consuls proposed to resign their authority, and to nominate a fingle magistrate, who should be invested with absolute power, and from whom there should be no appeal. To this the Plebeians confented, willing to give up their

own power, for the sake of abridging that of the fenate. This supreme magistrate was named Dictator, and his office was to continue no longer than six months. Lartius Flavius, one of the consuls, was appointed to this high office. The creation of a dictator frequently saved Rome; proved a remedy for the natural defects of a republican ftate, corrected its tardy motions, and gave it all the activity of monarchical, or even despotical government,


The new Dictator, having soon appeafed the clamours of the multitude, prevailed on the Latins to suspend the war, when a truce was agreed on for a year. He conducted himself with great dignity and wisdom, and resigned the dictatorial office before the end of fix months.

The late truce being expired, the Latins, by the instigation of Tarquin, and his sons, again prepared for war, and appeared on the frontiers of the republic with an army of forty thoufand foot, and three thousand horse. The main body was commanded by Titus; his brother Sextus commanded the left ; and Manilius, fon-in-law to Tarquin, the right. The Romans, upon this, appointed Pofthumius, one of their consuls, dictator, who advanced with all speed to oppose this formidable army of the enemy, with a body of twenty-four thoufard foot, and three thousand horse. The battle was fought near the lake Regillus about fourteen miles from Rome; and both sides behaved with great resolution and courage. At last, however, the victory fell to the Romans, and the army of the Latins was entirely routed. The two sons of Tarquin, and Manilius his son-in-law, were among the slain. Upon this bad success of their army, the enemy, in the most submissive manner, sued for peace, and laid the blame of their late behaviour on the nobles. This was the last war made in favour of Tarquin, who now, abandoned by all the neighbouring states, withdrew himself into Campania, and died at Cuma, in the ninetieth year of his age.

While Tarquin was alive, the senate saw the necessity of governing the people with some moderation, as in the hour of oppression they might recal their ancient king to the throne, But, as soon as they were delivered from this terror, they made a wanton use of their authority, and carried into rigorous execution the odious law concerning debts. The people had frequently made their complaints and remonstrances ; and, trusting to the faith of the fenate, had been often deceived.

There is a certain point, beyond which mankind will not bear opprefion. Deceived so often, the people had taken the last resolution. They threatened to abandon the city; and, under the pressure of the moment, the violent pointed to the sword. The army deserted secretly under the conduct of Sicinius Bellulus, and withdrew to a hill on the banks of the river Anio. Numbers followed them; and, although the gates of Rome were fhut, by orders from the senate, the inhabitants scaled the walls in the dead hour of the night; and, K4



The Tribunes of the People. in the morning, the Patricians faw, afar from the deserted city, the sacred mountain covered with the Roman people.

The senate was filled with consternation. What astonished them ftill more, was the order and discipline of the new camp. They beheld no tumult nor violence, but a moderation which announced a well-concerted enterprize. Ten perfons of the greatest dignity and popularity in the senate were invefted with plenary power to treat with the people. Menenius the consul, among other discourse, relared to them the following fable: « Once upon a time, the members of the “ human body, observing that the belly did not toil as they ç did, rebelled and refused the aliments necessary for its sup

port. Upon this, the members grew weak in proportion « as the belly became infirm, and foon found the need they « had of it; because the belly first received the nourishment, « and afterwards communicated it to the members.” Thus, says he, “as the fenate and people form but one and the same « body, that will be destroyed by divisions, and supported by © concord.”

The multitude were so pleased with this story, and the just application made of it to them by Menenius, that they were much disposed to treat with the deputies.

An immediate aflent was given to the abolition of debts. Instructed by the past, the people required security for the future, and demanded magistrates of their own, to guard their rights, and oppose the decrees which might be hostile to their interests. They obtained them; and the tribunes of the people were created.

These new magistrates were chofen annually by the people, from their own body. Five in number at the beginning, they were afterwards augmented to ten. Their doors stood open night and day, to receive complaints. Seats were placed for them at the gates of the fenate-house, and they were called in to confirm or annul the decrees of the senate. They demanded two inferior magistrates, to aid them in their functions, and the Ædiles were chosen, whose business it was to superintend the public buildings, to regulate the weights and meafures, and to see that the corn was not hoarded up, or the markets forestalled.

From this period the Plebeians became an order in the republic.

The leaders of the fedition would not allow the people to separate, before they had elected the new magistrates, Lucius Junius and Sicinius Bellulus, were chosen; who immediately named themselves three colleagues. A law was also passed


before they left the camp, whereby the persons of the tribunes were declared sacred; and to make this law perpetual, all the Romans were obliged to swear, for themselves and their pofterity, that they would inviolably observe it. After these regulations, the people erected an altar to Jupiter the Terrible, and having consecrated the place of their retreat, which, from this time, was called the sacred Mount, they followed the deputies of the fenate, and returned to the city,


Of the Banishment of Coriolanus, who goes over to the


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HE Romans being at war with the Volsci, the com

mons now readily enlisted themselves, under the consul Poithumius; and Corioli, the metropolis of that nation, was befieged by Lartius. The besieged made a strong fally, and the Romans were drived back to their trenches. On this success of the enemy, Caius Marcus, a valiant patrician, withstood the enemy's whole force, and drove them back into the town. He followed them so close, that he entered the gates with them, and let the Roman army into the city, and took it. The Volsci were so terrified at this heroic action, that they sued for a peace; and Caius Marcus had the firname of Coriolanus given him, for his noble conduct.

About this time, the neglect of agriculture was the cause of a great commotion at Rome. They fent to Sicily and other parts of Italy to buy grain; but the common people grew turbulent, and laid the blame of this scarcity upon the Patricians. On the arrival of corn from Syracuse, disputes arose between the patricians and tribunes, about the distribution of it to the public,

Coriolanus, incensed at the behaviour of the commons, advised the senators “ to keep up the price of the corn, and “ deliver it out sparingly, and not to give encouragement to 6 the infolence of the tribunes and the rabble, but wholly to “ suppress the tribuneship, as the only way to remedy the “ disorders of the state.' This unguarded behaviour of Coriolanus gave great offence, and the multitude were ready to fall upon the whole senate; but they were restrained by the tribun-s, who laid the blame on Coriolanus only:


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