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2 hundred new senators, whom he chose from the most diftinguished of the Plebeian families.

The Grecian magnificence and elegance began now to be introduced into Rome. The works which Tarquin erected became the admiration of after ages, and remain to this day monuments of the Roman grandeur. « Already," says a celebrated philosopher *, " they began to lay the foundation " of that city which was to be eternal.”

On the death of Tarquin, Servius Tullius, his son-in-law, succeeded to the throne. In consequence of early customs, which the Romans had adopted from necessity, the inhabitants of Rome increased at the end of every war.

It became requisite, therefore, to enlarge the boundaries of the city, and Servius Tullius extended the Pomeria from the Quirinal Mount to the Viminal and Esquiline Hills.

As it was now necessary to enlarge the city, it was no less requisite to alter the form of government. The changes which he introduced deserve to be studied, as they proved the fource of the dissensions in the republic, and prepared the way for the revolutions of Rome. Since the period that the Albans and Sabines were established at Rome, the tribes formed three nations, which had equally a share in the government. Every Curia voted in the public assemblies, and every citizen in the Curia. Hence the law was the voice of the majority, and the sovereign power resided in the people.

At first the foldiers of Romulus were equal in point of property. Two acres of land had been allotted to each in. dividual; and while there was an equality of fortune, there was an equality of power in the community. A part of the Roman territory had been reserved for the public domain. The Romans were continually making new conquests. By Sincroachments upon the public domain, and a larger division of the conquered lands to some than to others, an inequality of fortune was established, and a distinction of ranks took place.

To class the inhabitants according to their wealth, Servius instituted the Census. At the first numbering of the nation, twenty-four thousand men were inrolled fit to carry arms. He divided the people into fix classes, and every class into centuries, composed of an unequal number of citizens. He placed ninety-eight centuries in the first class. This com

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prehended

124

Rome under the Kings. prehended the richest citizens, that is, those who were poffeffed of an hundred minæ. Sixty-five minæ qualified for the fecond class, which consisted of twenty-two centuries. Fifty for the third, which was composed of twenty. Twentyfive for the fourth, confisting, like the fecond, of twentytwo; and twelve and a half for the fifth, which comprehended thirty. The fixth class formed only one century, in which Servius left all the poorer citizens.

All the people were divided into a hundred and ninetythree centuries. The five first classes bore all the burdens of the state ; but the partition was made according to the number of centuries. Thus, the first class, which confifted of ninety-eight centuries, contributed more than all the rest put together.

To recompence the rich for the services which they performed, and the taxes which they paid, Servius enacted, that, for the future, the people should aflemble by centuries; that. their fuffrages should be collected by centuries; and that the first class Thould give the first fuffrage. These were the affemblies, which, after this regulation, pafled into a law, elected magiftrates, made peace, decreed war, and exercised the fovereign power.

As all the centuries met in the public assemblies, all feemed to have an equal share in their deliberations; but, in fact, the whole power was secretly conveyed into the hands of the rich, and the right of suffrage postesled by the poorer citizens was merely nominal, and of no avail. As the whole nation was composed of a hundred and ninety-three centuries, if the ninety-eight centuries of the first class, which voted first, were unanimous, as generally happened, a majority of voices was declared. Thus, in the Comitia by centuries, the great body of the citizens, in a secret and insensible manner, were stripped of their authority.

Changes in the state of society produce changes in government. When an equality of fortunes prevailed, it was just that there should be an equality in the public aff-mblies, and that the majority of voices should determine. When a great inequality of fortune prevailed new arrangements became neceflary. Power naturally follows on property, and they who bear the expences of government are entitled to a proportional share of its privileges and honours.

Meditating greater changes in the government, Servius was bereaved of his crown and life by his son-in-law Tarquin, in the forty-fourth year of his reign.

Having

Having made his way to the throne by blood-thed, Tarquin supported by violence the power which he had acquired by injustice; and, from an ufurper, became a tyrant. Political, however, and enterprizing, he neglected no measure to fecure his authority and extend his power.

From the time of Servius the constitution of Rome became aristocratical. The object of Tarquin was to humble the aristocracy and exalt the regal power. The plebeians, who faw at first with joy the humiliation of the great families, groaned at last under the burdens with which they were loaded ; and, rather than submit to slavery, fome of them flew themselves in despair.

A general cause, however great or important, is insufficient to determine the minds of men to action, without the particular impression of a recent event. We have beheld how Hippias, the son of Pififtratus, lost the crown. Sextus, the son of Tarquin, had committed a rape upon Lucretia. The outraged matron affembled her father, her husband, her relations, her friends; she told her story; and, unable to survive the affront, plunged a poniard into her bofom. Brutus wrenched the bloody weapon from the bofom of Lucretia, and swore by the Gods to revenge the Roman matron. Grasping the poniard one after another, all the friends renewed the fame oath. Hence the liberty of Rome *.

After the expulfion of the kings, a form of government, in appearance republican, was established, though the senate referved by far the greatest share of authority to themselves. The consuls succeeded to the kings, and the consular dignity differed in nothing from the royal power, but that the exercise thereof was limited to a year.

CHAP. XXII.

Remarks on the Reigns of the Roman Kings.

of

HE different dispositions of the Kings of Rome were state. The aspiring temper of Romulus promoted the martial spirit of his companions, who, from different parts, allociated with him for refuge, and looked upon Rome as a place of protection, whence they might, with impunity, make ex

* Logan's Philosophy of History.

cursion

126 Remarks on the Reigns of the Roman Kings. cursions to the neighbouring country, and carry on their depredations.

Numa, in this light also, was a proper fucceffor to Romulus. This prince was better qualified to model and regulate than to found a state; his view was to foften the manners and rugged dispositions of the people, and to establish a subordination and mode of government among them. On this principle he instituted religious ceremonies, and introduced into the society the duties of religion, and the principles of urbanity : at the same time he endeavoured to impress them with the idea that the gods, in a particular manner, took them under their protection.

The reign of Tullus ferved to revive their valour, and inspired them with the thought of enlarging their dominion by the conquest of Alba, and other neigbouring states. These ftates, indeed, frequently opposed their designs, but never entered into a formidable association at once to suppress and abolish this infant colony:

On the increase of inhabitants, Ancus enlarged the city, joined a new fuburb to it by a bridge acrofs the Tyber, and opened a door for future inprovement in commerce, by the convenient port of Oftia.

The dignity and pomp of government, was greatly raised by the enligns of royalty introduced by Tarquinius Priscus, and by the splendor of his triumphs. Servius new-modelled the state, and divided the people into tribes and centuries. He also made a more equal distribution of impost among them; and was the first" Prince who established a regular coin, or currency of money. And lastly, if we look to the event, the tyranny of Tarquin was advantageous to a people, who provoked by his abuse of power, were incited and animated to be on their guard, and recover that liberty they had so long maintained; which otherwise, without a commotion in the Itate, they were on the point of losing entirely.

It may be farther remarked, that in this first age of the Romans, and under the reign of their kings, they made but little progress in the extention of their first settlement. A small spot, of fifteen miles only, made the whole circuit of the Roman territory, notwithstanding the great increase of inhabitants. War and agriculture were almost their sole employ. Arts and sciences were but little cultivated among them; and their professed poverty, and disregard for riehes, had not yet led them to commerce. Their chief wealth arose from conquest, and the spoil of their neighbours, which was always laid up in a public repository, and divided, ac

cording

cording to a stated disposition, among the whole body of the people.

These general remarks cannot be better concluded than in the words of a judicious Historian *, who observes from Cicero, “When we consider at one view the increase of this

infant state, which under the shadow of a monarchical but “ limitted government, grew insensibly to a degree of maturity “ and strength, by wise regulations and wholesome laws; the " Aruspices and religious ceremonies, the order of the affem“ blies, the power of the people owned and revered, the « august assembly of the senate, looked upon as the great "council of the nation, the military discipline and martial

courage carried to a surprizing and astonishing height, all " the parts of the commonwealth appear in so permanent and “ fettled a state, as to feem almost entirely perfect. And yet " this fame commonwealth, after shaking off the regal yoke, " and obtaining an extensive liberty, appeared ftill greatly a different, and by a swift progress rose to a perfection and * excellence hardly to be conceived."

CHA P. XXIII.

Rome under the Consuls.

RUTUS, the deliverer of his country, and Tarquinius

Consuls of Rome. They had no sooner taken possession of the government, than they filled ир.

the vacant seats in the fenate, and increased its number. . The whole senate and people took a solemn oath, never to suffer the Tarquins, or any other king to reign at Rome.

Tarquin, however, by means of his ambassadors, attached a party of the Roman youth to his cause, who concerted meafures to re-establish him on the throne. The conspirators, being detected, were brought before the confuls; and Brutus beheld his own sons. The father of his country, by a terrible example, fixed the foundation of Roman liberty. The people were summoned to the Comitia, where Brutus and his colleague sat on the tribunal of justice. The prisoners were brought and tied to stakes. Brutus began the trial with the

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