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milchweissen Hirschkuh ihre Gerechtsame gegen die protestantische, welche als ein Panther vorgestellt wird, vertheidigen lässt. Ein seltsamer Gedanke, welcher der Gegenpartey Stoff zur Satyre geben musste. Und wirklich erschien bald eine bittere Parodie unter dem Titel the country mouse and the city mouse, wozu sich Prior und Montagu, nachmaliger Graf von Halifax, bekannten. Die von Jacob II. herbeigeführten goldenen Zeiten der katholischen Kirche gingen bald vorüber. Unser Dichter büfste den Lorbeer ein; worauf er zur Schriftstellerei als zu einem Erwerbsmittel seine Zuflucht nehmen musste.l' Er arbeitete von nun an rüstiger als sonst, und zuweilen etwas fabrikmässig, wie ein von Johnson angeführter und auch in der neuen Ausgabe der prosaischen Schriften Dryden's abgedruckter Kontrakt beweiset, in welchem er sich anheischig macht, dem Buchhändler Tonson 10000 Verse für 250 Guineen zu liefern. Indessen tragen doch alle seine spätern Produkte das Gepräge seines grossen Geistes an sich. 1693 erschien sein Persius und Juvenal. Den ersten übersetzte er ganz, von dem letztern aber nur die 1, 3, 6, 10 und 16te Satyre. i6g7 gab er seinen Virgil heraus, der zu den meisterhaftesten Uebersetzungen gehört, die irgend eine neuere Nation aufweisen kann. Sein letztes Werk waren seine aus Homer, Ovid, Boccaz und Chaucer entlehnten und theils übersetzten, theils modernisirten fables ancient and modern, translated into verse with original poems; öfters gedruckt, unter andern London 1774; 8. In dieser Sammlung steht seine sogepriesene Ode Alexander's feast, or the power of music, in honour of St. Cecilia's day, die von Händel 1725 vortrefflich komponirt ist, und Pope's und Congrève's ähnliche Arbeiten weit hinter sich zurück lässt. Ramler hat sie 1770 übersetzt; auch findet man'eine wohlgerathene Nachbildung derselben in Schiller's MusenAlmanach für das Jahr 1800; der Verfasser derselben ist Herr Ko segarten. Dryden's prosaische Arbeiten bestehen aus Versuchen, kritischen Abhandlungen, Vorreden u. 5. w. und sind eben so geistreich an Inhalt, als korrekt und zierlich an Sprache. Wir theilen hier einige derselben mit; im zweiten Theile dieser Sammlung wird der Leser einige poetische Stücke von diesem berühmten Dichter finden, namentlich seine Ode auf den Tod der Mrs. Killegrew, die nach Johnson's Urtheil zu den Meisterstücken der Englischen Poesie gehört, ferner Alexander's feast und die Erzählung

den prosai

Theodore and Honoria. Dryden starb den Isten Mai 2701 und wurde in der Westminster-Abtei zwischen Chaucer und Cowley beigesetzt. Auf seinem Monument steht nichts, als der Name Dryden. Was den Charakter dieses grossen Mannes betrifft, so verdient darüber ganz vorzüglich sein Freund Congreve, in einer der oben angeführten Ausgabe der dramatic works vorgesetzten, Zueignungsschrift und Johnson ima aten Bande seiner Lives of the English poets nachgelesen zu werden. Biographische Nachrichten von ihm findet man unter andern in dem oben angeführten Werke, wie auch in Birch's heads of the illustrious persons of great Britain, und im 4ten Theile des Brittischen Plutarch S. 205. 1. ff. Unter den zahlreichen Ausgaben seiner Ge dichte zeichnet sich besonders die vom Jahre 1760 durch Korrektheit und Eleganz aus; in der Johnsonschen Sammlung nehmen seine Werke den 13 bis 19ten Theil ein. Die erste ganz vollständige Ausgabe seiner poetischen Werke, mit Johnson's Leben desselben und zahlreichen Anmerkungen, ist folgende: Poetical works of John Dryden Esq. containing original Poems, Tales and Translations, with notes, by the late Rev. Jos. Warton D. D., the Rev. John Warton and others, in 4 Vols. 3. London 1812. Von schen Schriften Dryden's ist eine Ausgabe von Malone unter folgendem Titel veranstaltet worden: The critical and miscellaneous Prose works of John Dryden, now first collected with notes and illustrations; an account of the life and writings of the author, grounded on original authentic documents, and a collection of his letters, the greater part of which has never before been published, by Edmond Malone, Esq. III Vol. (der erste Theil besteht aus 2 Bänden). London 1800,

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-2) TRAGEDY COMPARED WITH Epic PQETRY). To raise, and afterwards to calm the passions : to purge the soul from pride, by the examples of human miseries, which befall the greatest; in few words, to expel arrogance, and introduce, compassion, are the great effects of tragedy: Great,

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Aus der vor der Uebersetzurg der dencis befindlichen Zueignungsschrift to the most honourable John, Lord Mar. quis of Normandy, Earl of Mulgrave etc. enlehnt.

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I must confess, if they were altogether as true as they are pompous. But are habits to be introduced at three hours warning? are radical diseases so suddenly removed? A mountebank may promise such a cure, but a skilful physician will not undertake it. An epic poem is not so much in haste: it works leisurely; the changes which it makes are slow; but the cure is likely to be more perfect. The effects of tragedy, as I said, are too violent to be lasting. If it be answered, that for this reason tragedies are often to be seen, and the dose to be repeated; this is tacitly to confess, that there is more virtue in one heroic poem, than in many tragedies. A man is humbled one day, and his pride returns the next Chymical medicines are observed to relieve oftener than to cure: for it is the nature of spirits to make swift impressions, but not deep. Galenical decoctions, to which I may properly compare en epic poem, have more of body in them; they work by their substance and their weight. It is one reason of Aristotle's to prove that tragedy, is the more noble, because it turns in a shorter compass; the whole action being circumscribed within the space of four and twenty hours. He might prove as well that a mushroom is to be preferred before a peach, because it shoots up in the .compass of a night. A chariot may be driven round the pillar in less space than a large machine, because the bulk is not so great. Is

more noble planet ,than Saturn, because she mikes her revolution in less than thirty days, and he in little less than thirty years ? Both their orbs are in proportion to their several magnitudes; and, consequently, the quickness or slowness of their motion, and the time of their circum. volutions, is no argument of the greater or less perfection. And besides, what virtue is there in a tragedy, which is not contained in an epic poem? where pride is bumbled, virtue rewarded, and vice punished; and those more amply treated, than the narrowness of the drama can admit? The shining quality of an epic hero, his magnanimity, his piety, or whatever characteristical virtue his poet gives him, raises first our admiration: we are naturally prone to imitate what we admire: and frequent acts produce a babit. If the hero's chief quality be vicious, as for example, the choler and obstinate desire of vengeance in Achilles, yet the moral is instructive:

we are informed in the very proposition of the Riad, that his anger was pernicious; that it brought a thou

the Moon a

and besides,

sand ills on the Grecian camp. *) The courage of Achilles is proposed to imitation, not his pride and disobedience to his general, nor his brutal cruelty to his dead enemy **), nor the selling his body to his father ***). We abhor these actions while we read them, and what we abhor we never imitate: the poet only shews them like rocks or quicksands, to be shunned.

By this example, the critics have concluded that it is not necessary the manners of the hero should be vistuous. They are poetically good if they are of a piece. Though where a character of perfect virtue is set before us, it is more lovely: 'for there the whole hero is to be imitated. This is the Eneas of Virgil: this is that idea of perfection in an epic poem, which painters and statuaries have only in their minds, and which no hands are able to express.

These are the beauties of a god in a human body. When the picture of Achilles is drawn in tragedy, he is taken with those warts, and moles, and hard features, by those who represent him on the stage, or he is no more Achilles; for his creator Homer has so described him. Yet even thus he appears a perfect hero, though an imperfect character of virtue. Horace paints him after Homer, and delivers him to be copied on the stage with all those imperfections t). Therefore they are either not faults in an heroic poem, or faults common to the drama. After all, on the whole merits of the cause, it must be acknowledged that the epic poem is more for the manners, and tragedy for the passions. The passions, as I have said, are violent: 'and acute distempers require medicines of a strong and speedy operation. Ill habits of the mind are, like chronical diseases, to be corrected by degrees, and cured by alteratives: wherein though purges are sometimes kecessary, yet diet, good air, and moderate exercise, have the greatest part. The matter being thus stated, it will appear that both sorts of poetry are of use for their proper ends.

*) S. Ilias 1. 1-5; nach der Uebersetzung von FOSS: Singe den Zorn, o Göttinn, des Peleiaden Achilleus, Ihn der entbrannt den Achaiern unnennbaren Jammer erregte, Und viel tapfere Seelen der Heldensöhne zum Aïs Sendete, aber sie selbst zum Raub darstellte den Hunden, Und dem Gevögel umher.

**) Hector. ***) Priamus. t) Horat. ars poetica v. 120-123.

The stage is more active, the epic poem works at greater leisure, yet is active too, when need requires. For dialogue is imitated by the drama, from the more active pars of it. One puts off a fit like the quinquina, and relieves us only for a time'; the other roots out the distemper, and gives a healthful habit. The sun enlightens and chears us, dispels fogs, and warms the ground with his daily beams; but the corn is sowed, increases, is ripened, and is reaped for use, in process of time, and in its proper season. I proceed from the gratness of the action, to the dignity of the actors, I mean the persons employed in both poeins. There likewise tragedy will be seen to borrow from the epopee; and that . which borrows is always of less dignity, because it has not of its own. A subject, it is true, may lend to his sovereign, but the act of borrowing makes the king inferior, because he wants, and the subject supplies. And suppose the persons of the drama wholly fabulous, or of the poet's invention, yet heroic poetry gave him the examples of that invention, because it was first, and Homer the common father of the stage. I know not of; any one advantage which tragedy can boast above heroic poetry, but that it is represented to ihe view, as well as read; and instructs in the closet, as well as on the theatre. This is an uncontested excellence, and a chief branch of its prerogative; yet I may be allowed to say, without partiality, that herein the actors share the poet's praise.' Your Lordship knows some modern tragedies which are beautiful on the stage, and yet I'am confident you would not read them. Tryphon *), the stationer, complains they are seldom asked for in his shop. The poet who flourished in the scene, is damned in the ruelle; nay more, he is not esteemed a good poet by those who'sce and hear his extravagancies with delight. They are a sort of stately fustian, and lofty childishness. · Nothing but nature can give a sincere pleasure; where that is not imitated, it is grotesque painting, the fine woman ends in a fish's tail **).

in Wahrscheinlich ein erdichteter Name. **) Anspielung auf Horazens ars poetica, v. 4.

Desinat in piscem mulier formosa superne.

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