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Map of Hadramawt
The Origins of the Hadrami Community in the Indies
Nahḍah The Hadrami Awakening
The Arab Association for Reform and Guidance
Education and Identity The AlIrshad Schools
Competing Visions of HadramiNess The AlawiIrshadi Conflict
Awakening the Homeland
Hadrami or Indonesian?
According activities Aden Ahmad al-Irshad school Alawi appears Arab argued association August authorities awakening Baswedan Batavia become branch British century chapter Chinese cited in IPO colonial committee congress considered continued discussed Dutch early East established example fact February foreign formed Hadramawt Hadrami hand held History homeland identity important Indies indigenous Indonesian Ingrams interest involved Irshadis ISBN Islam issue Jakarta Jam'iyyah Khayr January Java July language late leaders London Malay March meeting movement Muhammad Muslims muwallad nahdah nationalist newspaper noted November Number observed October official organization origins peranakan peranakan Chinese period political position Press promoted published question Qur'an reform religious remained reported respect returned Sarekat Islam Sayyids sense September Shaykh social society Soerabaia spread Studies subjects Surabaya Surkati teachers towns traders traditional Umar University