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We also have a bill to authorize the creation of a National Amri' Forces Museum and Park, and a number of other bills, all of whil would expand the scope of the Smithsonian and increase its activis, The Congress cannot judge the relative merits of all these bills with out a clear picture of what the Smithsonian is in the contest it. total effort in this country in the area of art, history, the humanis and science. These hearings will serve another important purpose. In to ' months and, indeed, throughout the history of the Institution, to has been criticism from outside the Smithsonian directed towards management, its financial activity, and its policies. No o Org nization is ever free of criticism, founded or unfounded. This so committee cannot weigh criticism of Smithsonian activities witho' ' first knowing both i. ... . . Hopefully, these hearings will provide the subcommittee with: context in which criticism, whether good or bad, can be judged at action taken accordingly, I do not know whether any new legislation will stem from * hearings, but I feel the subcommittee will come out of them to equipped to handle existing proposals more knowledgeably Ali efficiently. in . I believe, and I am sure most people will agree, that the Smith. Sonian has contributed heavily to all fields of study and has log | its exhibits, done much to further its original purpose, which simply put: “For the increase and diffusion of knowledge among!" I believe the Smithsonian is a viable organization, and that its to growth is related to this Nation's growth in culture and Scient. While the Congress should routinely oversee the activities of t Smithsonian, these hearings should not be construed as a lack of o fidence in the purposes or the leadership of the Smithsonial." o t same sense, we should encourage criticism, without allowing "" obscure our goals. - so With that, I would like to introduce Dr. S. Dillon Ripley, to retary of the Institution.

STATEMENT OF S. DILLON RIPLEY, SECRETARY, so INSTITUTION; Accompan[ED BY JAMES BRADLEY, so SECRETARY, AND PETER POWERS, GENERAL COUNSEl

Dr. RIPLEY. Good morning, Mr. Chairman.

Good morning, Congressman Brademas. . fore you

I am very pleased to have this opportunity to come before s this morning and to begin testifying about the origins and so of the Smithsonian Institution. We Welcome this opportuns". de we feel that it is entirely consonant with our purpoš to be o touch with your committee and to have an opportunity for?" o in of views, especially in regard to pending legislation, " " regard to the purposes and programs of the Institution. ... task, and | ... We feel we have far too few opportunities to perform. o of It is a very hopeful and helpful sign of the continuing into do Congress of the United States, which has since the beginning

and discussed and encouraged the Smithsonian mightily.

I should say that I am happy to quote the fact that, in my recent Smithsonian annual report of 1969, I said as follows:

The Smithsonian has not been invaded by angry protesters or disrupted by dissidents, but it cannot escape the need, which is becoming so general in our time, to subject its activities to the most searching review and to reappraise its objectives in the light of the more rigorous expectations of the day. No institution is too venerable or too valuable to be exempted from such scrutiny. In government jargon the phrase is, “Let us get back to the base.” An “open” university such as ours should thrive on self-examination.

In previous discussions of the scope of this set of hearings, you have suggested that I begin today with a résumé of the background, origins, and govermance of the Institution, and that I should then proceed to some discussion of the present activities and my particular interest at present, and should conclude my testimony for today with A discussion about the future as we see it and, of course, the possibilities that we feel are embodied in our construct.

So I would like to proceed on this basis, if I may.

I have a statement, sir, which I would like to submit for the record, and I would like to highlight and outline that statement and then Proceed with individual remarks. -

Mr. Thompsos. Without objection, the statement will be printed in fullin the record at this point.

. RPLEY. Thank you, sir. (Dr. Ripley's prepared statement follows :)

SortARY S. Dillon RIPLEY's INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT ON THE o: jo, AND LEGISLATIVE Record or THE SMITH sonIAN INSTITUTION, JULY 1%

INTRODUCTION

"morning, Mr. Chairman Let me begin by saying that we welgoo this ''''''''''"nity to appear before you and ào. §on has, in fact, been giving "reasing thought in recent years to the need and desirability Of ... *ional review of its activities, we commented on this need, espe" o o to time of rapid social change, in my opening statement to . §: as o Smithsonian Year 1963, or our annual report to the Con**** o: Smithsonian has not been invaded by angry protesters of o'. tim ..", but it cannot escape the need, which is becoming so genero. se its o, *ject its activities to the most searching review and to opo nstitution * in the light of the more rigorous expectations of the day. utiny. In govern * too venerable or too valuable to be exempted from such scru no uniVersit o jargon the phrase is, ‘let us get back to the base. An "Ope †. "**sours should thrive onscifoxamination.” - I think " * or “to get back to the baso in terms of these o, Smith

it woul - - Sonian. $o to begin with a brief attempt at a do.",. Chairman.

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t is my impression from our previous meetings, Specifically welcome some basic information i". t ly diverse elements of the Institution are and W*

- mithsonian is a . * this, I am aware that it is not an easy task. The Å

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entist or natural philosopher and the illegitimate son of the first Duke of Northumberland, whose munificence created the Smithsonian. We don't necessarily agree with our British writer friend, but, leaving aside for a moment the subject of Smithson's will, his remarks do perhaps offer a convenient starting point for a definition of the Smithsonian and something of its history. Mr. Chairman, you probably recognize the reference to the Gothic building in blood red sandstone as our original Smithsonian building on the south side of the Mall, or the “castle” as we call it. This was for many years the Smithsonian's only building and the first home of the National Museum, about which I will have more to say later. Today it is the administrative heart of the Institution, so to speak, providing office space for many of us here with you today. You may not, however, recognize the reference to the trilithons of Stonehenge as an activity of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. In addition to its better known tasks in radio astronomy, satellite geodesy and orbit predictions, the Observatory is also a great center for theoretical work and basic research in the broadest sense. It happened that a few years ago one of SAO's leading astronomers, Dr. Gerald Hawkins, got extremely interested in the great stone slabs at Stonehenge, in England, previously thought to be religious monuments of some unknown people who dwelled there around 2,000 B.C. Using a computer and modern analytical techniques, Dr. Hawkins found that the positioning of the stones and the line of sight slots they made showed a distinct and remarkable correlation with the position of celestial bodies—the sun, moon, certain stars and planets—as they rose and set over a great span of years, especially during the times of equinoxes. He also discovered that the many white stone rings on the ground surrounding the dolmens could have been used for eclipse prediction. Dr. Hawkins thus confirmed what others had only vaguely suspected; namely, that Stonehenge was, in fact, a highly sophisticated astronomical center. This is a good example of the kind of research activity, so much a part of the Smithsonian, that is difficult to put in PERT and PPB charts, or in terms of five or ten year goals, since it really depends on the individual interests of our scientists. It is true, of course, that we have many programmatic research efforts, complete with task forces and definable objectives, but we have also been and should continue to be a stronghold of basic research in the purest sense. By this I mean that the Smithsonian should continue to be a center where scholars and scientists can pursue their individual research interests in the freest possible circumstances. We say this because such individual research efforts generally produce as many discoveries or significant contributions to knowledge as our more programmed or mission oriented efforts do. Dr. Hawkins is a case in point. His Stonehenge discoveries have helped to found a new science, generally referred to as astroarcheology, since a number of unusual archeological sites, such as the stone lines on the Nasca deserts of Peru, are now being restudied in the Stonehenge context, or in relation to their possible use as astronomical centers. But to get back to the arcane references of our British critic, the island in Panama Canal is, of course, Barro Colorado island in Gatun Lake, which is the center or major study area of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. It was set aside as a tropical wildlife reserve in 1940, at first as an independent agency governed by various cabinet heads and later, through an executive reorganization plant in 1946, as a bureau of the Smithsonian, with the general charge that the island's “natural features be left in their natural state for scientific observation and investigation.” Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute or STRI, as we call it, illustrates another long standing principle of Smithsonian research activity; that is, to concentrate on what is relatively neglected, or to do the long term, demanding and often unglamorous basic research on which applied research, to be productive, must be firmly based. To explain STRI, Mr. Chairman, it is necessary to bear in mind that ecologists have long concentrated on arctic, sub-arctic and temperate zones. This is because the ecology of these zones is easy to understand compared with the tropics. To be more charitable, instead of “easy,” I should say that the principles of ecology—the delicate interrelationships of all living things—can be more readily discerned in the Arctic, where there are very few species, but enormous populations within the species, than in the tropics, where the number of different species, if not their populations, may be enormous. So the tropical ecosystems are very complex and difficult. We say, nonetheless,

entist or natural philosopher and the illegitimate son of the first Duke of Northumberland, whose munificence created the Smithsonian. We don't necessarily agree with our British writer friend, but, leaving is;

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convenient starting point for a definition of the Smithsonian and somethings

its history. Mr. Chairman, you probably recognize the in blood red sandstone as our original Smiths

of the Mall, or the “castle" as we call it. This was for many years the Smith

sonian's only building and the first home of th

reference to the Gothic bility onian building On the south Nik

e National Museum, about which

I will have more to say later. Today it is the administrative heart of the lo stitution, so to speak, providing office space for many of us here with you today. ' You may not, however, recognize the reference to the trilithons of Stonehens,

as an activity of the Smithsonian Astrophysical In addition to its better known tasks in radio orbit predictions, the Observatory is also a g and basic research in the broadest sense.

Observatory in Cambridge, Mis astronomy, satellite geodes as reat center for theoretical Wū

It happened that a few years ago one of SAO's leading astronomers, Dr. Gon. | Hawkins, got extremely interested in the great stone slabs at Stoneheng, i. England, previously thought to be religious monuments of some unknown Pok

who dwelled there around 2,000 B.C. Using a techniques, Dr. Hawkins found that the positi of sight slots they made showed a distinct and

computer and modern analysii oning of the stones and the lio remarkable correlation with to

position of celestial bodies—the sun, moon, certain stars and planes—as to rose and set over a great span of years, especially during the times of equinole

He also discovered that the many white stone the dolmens could have been used for eclips

rings on the ground surmio e prediction. Dr. Hawkins to

confirmed what others had only vaguely suspected; namely, that Stonehengewis in fact, a highly sophisticated astronomical center.

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Smithsonian, that is difficult to put in PERT and PPB charts, or in terms off" or ten year goals, since it really depends on the individual interests of our so tists. It is true, of course, that we have many programmatic research to complete with task forces and definable objectives, but we have also tool and

should continue to be a stronghold of basic resea mean that the Smithsonian should continue to

scientists can pursue their individual research interests in the freest possilk t

circumstances.

rch in the purest sense. By this be a center where scholars an

We say this because such individual research efforts generally produce as" discoveries or significant contributions to knowledge as our more o: or mission oriented efforts do. Dr. Hawkins is a case in point. His Stonehenge

coveries have helped to found a new science,

generally referred to as as!!!

archeology, since a number of unusual archeological sites, such as the st" . on the Nasca deserts of Peru, are now being restudied in the Stonehenge" or in relation to their possible use as astronomical centers.

But to get back to the arcane references of

on British critic, the islao

Panama Canal is, of course, Barro Colorado island in Gatun Lake, whi. is the

center or major study area of the Smithsonian

Tropical Research Instit". st

was set aside as a tropical wildlife reserve in 1940, at first as an independer

agency governed by various cabinet heads and organization plant in 1946, as a bureau of the charge that the island's “natural features be left tific observation and investigation.”

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute or STRI, as we cal another long standing principle of Smithsonian research activi concentrate on what is relatively neglected, or to do the long term.

and often unglamorous basic research on which tive, must be firmly based.

To explain STRI, Mr. Chairman, it is necessary to bear in min

have long concentrated on arctic, sub-arctic and t the ecology of these zones is easy to understand

be more charitable, instead of “easy," I should say tha

ecology—the delicate interrelationships of all livi

discerned in the Arctic, where there are very few species, but “ tions within the species, than in the tropics, where the num

Species, if not their populations, may be enormous. So the tropical ecosystems are very complex an

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emperate zones, This is becaus

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d difficult. We say, nonetheles

that they must be better studied. They comprise, after all, two-thirds of the land surface of the globe, and every day we hear of new schemes, sometimes forwarded by our own foreign aid planners, for converting supposedly lush and fertile tropical rainforests to agriculture, or for turning the Amazon basin into a vast inland sea in the name of better communications, which action, incidentally, would have a drastic effect on hemispheric and world weather conditions.

The fact is that we do not yet know enough to assume automatically that agricultural productivity will be high in tropical forest systems. Experience to date suggests the contrary. What is needed, therefore, is more basic knowledge of tropical ecosystems. We have to take complete biological inventories of these systems, determine what they are now through what is called benchmark studies and then try to measure changes and determine what may happen in the future.

This is the basic task of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. It has by now a reputation as the most convenient and most thoroughly studied piece of tropical rainforest in the world, and we hope that it will continue to play * Tojor role in encouraging greater efforts in tropical biology.

With these two examples of Smithsonian research efforts in mind, let us go lock quickly to the legislative basis of it all, or Smithson's will and the action which Congress took on it.

HISTORY

(1) James Smithson's Will

In the year 1826, James Smithson, the natural philosopher, man of science, * specialist in mineralogy, who had never set foot in the United States, nor * contacts with American scientists, wrote an unusual last will and Stament. *tially, he bequeathed almost his entire fortune to a nephew, but with the *ipulation that should his nephew die without leaving any children, he would then bequeath the whole of his estate: ... to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under.the *me of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase and diffu"...of knowledge among men.” These are the exact words and the only words James Smithson employed to o: direction to the institution that today bears his name. * died in Genoa, Italy, some three years later, on June 26, 1829. die wo six years later his nephew, Henry James Hungerford, did in fact ted thi o issue. An alert Secretary in the American Embassy in London o: i. *nd advised the United states Government that it was entitle? !. t .."olliest, Less than a year later. Richard Rush, the eminent."; o; i...oney General of the United states, and son of Benjami, . to pr adelphia, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was sent to o o the will. This he did successfully. By 1838 the British Court of f gold ...olded the suit in favor of the inited states, and eleyenoo. o . Were deposited with the United States Mint in Philolo. oo: recoined into American money, with * * .* followed some eight years—eight extremely interesting ove-fi in.". or, *: be more accurate, the P S0nian. ** vur not and so "increase and diffusion of knowledge among men w". to ... losinitive ring. But it must no admitted, it was..."...g. ox.miao, it the co" - *** * * * On the subject of its true intent. hich o: !'"oals were forwarded, some favored a university, . ...'..." ibra ** United states nor Europe had ever seen. Others o . notably Con o there being no Library of Congress at the time. Still ot ong a kind o. Robert Dale owen of Indiana, proposed a bill embra hro *hers college or normal school. ident and the "... ol, John Quincy Ajinon serving as an o’.

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(2 *the matter of the Smithson estate almost won the do !"anic Act of 1846

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ed by Act of

oviding al .* historians sa, - - eal interpretatio by pr intent retary and a o#...". o: them best decide the

Smithson's will. Another point of view is that Congress had the foresight to see the need for a center for basic research and public education with just such a broad charter as “the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men,” witness the fact that Smithson's mandate was written into the bill, both in the preamble and in the first section on the establishment of the Institution. The principal provisions of the organic act of 1846: (a) Provided that the President, the Vice President, the various cabinet heads, the Commissioner of the Patent Office and the Mayor of Washington constituted an “Establishment” by the name of the Smithsonian Institution. (b) Authorized private funding of the Institution by having the principal of Smithson's gift deposited with the Treasury, with six percent annual interest to the Smithsonian. (c) Provided that the business of the Institution be conducted by a Secretary and a board of Regents, the general composition of which has been maintained to the present day. (d) Provided for an Executive Committee to be formed by members of the board of Regents. (e) Instructed the Regents to choose a site and erect a building “of plain and durable materials and structure . . . and with suitable rooms and halls for the reception and arrangement, upon a liberal scale, of objects of natural history, including a geological and mineralogical cabinet; also a chemical laboratory, a library, a gallery of art and the necessary lecture rooms.” (f) Authorized the transfer to the Institution of “all objects of art and of foreign or curious research, and all objects of natural history—belonging, or hereafter to belong, to the United States,” as well as the minerals, books, manuscripts and other properties of James Smithson. (g) Provided for the gradual establishment of a Library. (h) Authorized the managers of the Institution to spend income of the Smithson fund “as they shall deem best suited for the promotion of the purpose of the testator.”

(3) The Henry Administration

Joseph Henry of Princeton University, the most eminent physical scientist of his day and the discoverer of the principles of electro-magnetism, along with Faraday of England, was appointed by the Regents as first Secretary of the SmithSonian. When he arrived in Washington, he had already prepared at the suggestion of the Regents a plan for the general purposes and organization of the Smithsonian. The objectives of the Institution, he maintained, were very clear: —first, to increase, and, second, to diffuse knowledge among men. Increase meant original investigations or research in any field, inasmuch as Smithson's will did not define or restrict fields of knowledge. As Henry expressed it “Smithson was well aware that knowledge should not be viewed as existing in isolated parts, but as a whole, each portion of which throws light on all the other, and that the tendency of all is to improve the human mind, and to give it new sources of power and enjoyment.” To increase knowledge, Henry provided grants for men of talent to make original researches and, in effect, converted the original Smithsonian Building to a residential center for scholars. He himself engaged in meteorological observations, which later led to the formation of the Weather Bureau, and he encouraged studies in archeology, anthropology, and natural history. Henry also gave equal weight to the diffusion of knowledge and therefore instituted : (a) “Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge,” with the first Smithsonian publication coming out within two years of the founding of the Institution. (b) A Library, which was later to be transferred to the Library of Congress. (c) The international exchange of scholarly research and publications, with the foundations of the Smithsonian's International Exchange Service well established by 1852. (d) “Smithsonian Lectures.”

(4) Origins of Federal Appropriations Secretary Henry did not at first give primary importance to creating a museum,

since it was his view that the Smithsonian should concentrate its activities in

matters of benefit to all mankind, in keeping with Smithson's will, rather than

matters of local interest. But, of course, the Museum role was ordained by the Congress in the 1846

Smithson's will. Another point of view is that Congress had the foresight to See the need for a center for basic research and public education with just so a broad charter as “the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men," of ness the fact that Smithson's mandate was written into the bill, both in th: Preamble and in the first section on the establishment of the Institution. The principal provisions of the Organic act of 1846: (*) Provided that the President, the Vice President, the various cabinet heli the Commissioner of the Patent Office and the Mayor of Washington constituto an "Establishment" by the name of the Smithsonian Institution , , , , , (b) Authorized private funding of the Institution by having the principlo Smithson's gift deposited with the Treasury, with six percent annual inters, to the Smithsonian. (c) Provided that the business of the Institution be conducted by a Soto and a board of Regents, the general composition of which has been mainlair. to the present day. (d) Provided for an Executive Committee to be formed by members of to board of Regents. - - - - - 1 - ? (e) i. the Regents to choose a site and erect a building "of o o i durable materials and structure . . . and with suitable rooms and halls t reception and arrangement, upon a liberal scale, of objects of natural . including a geological and mineralogical cabinet; also a chemical laborats), library, a gallery of art and the necessary lecture o - f art and is (f) Authorized the transfer to the Institution of “all objectsot.. ing, so foreign or curious research, and all objects of natural . b. m; hereafter to belong, to the United States,” as well as the minerals, scripts and other properties of James Smithson. - i (g) Provided for the gradual establishment of a Library. of the Smith (h) Authorized the managers of the Institution to spend o rpose of to son fund “as they shall deem best suited for the promotion of the pu testator.”

(3) The Henry Administration

- - - - inent physical scients' Joseph Henry of Princeton University, the most eminen :* W1 his o and the discoverer of the principles of o,o to Faraday of England, was appointed by the Regents as firs Smithsonian. still & When he arrived in Washington, he had already prepared at the suggestion

- - hē Nil the Regents a plan for the general purposes and organization " '

sonian. : —first to The objectives of the Institution, he maintained, were §o origid increase, and, second, to diffuse knowledge among men. ; will did no investigations or research in any field, inasmuch as "smithson was" define or restrict fields of knowledge. As Henry expressed it jors to aware that knowledge should not be viewed as existing o: and that the to a whole; each portion of which throws light on all the | o sources of Pow" dency of all is to improve the human mind, and to give i k and enjoyment.” to maki To #. knowledge, Henry provided grants for *** Buildit: original researches and, in effect, converted the original in meteorologo to a residential center for scholars. He himself engaged "...oire servations, which later led to the formation of the W o: history. couraged studies in archeology, anthropology, and nature edge and theft!" Henry also gave equal weight to the diffusion of know instituted: ** st Smithso (a) “Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge," with o: publication coming out within two years of the o, 0 Library of Con* (b) A Library, which was later to be transferred to the d publications wit: (c) The international exchange of scholarly research an §: wellesla" the foundations of the Smithsonian's International Exchange lished by 1852. (d) “Smithsonian Lectures."

(4) Origins of Federal Appropriations reating a mo" Secretary Henry did not at first give primary importance *::: its activities since it was his view that the Smithsonian should o ... will, rather." matters of benefit to all mankind, in keeping with Smithso lso matters of local interest. in the lo But, of course, the Museum role was ordained by the Congre”

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organic act. Henry did not oppose it. By the late 1850's, the Smithsonian was housing in its new building a large amount of natural history specimens collected through government sponsored exploration of our western frontiers. By then, too, "had been proposed that the Smithsonian receive and take care of the collections of the Patent Office, which included models of inventions, a section known as the American Museum of Arts, and also some natural history collections, notably those from the expeditions of Captain Charles wilkes to South America, Antarctica and the Pacific.

Faced with this proposal, the Board of Regents and Secretary Henry . lished a principle that is essential to the understanding of the Smithsonian an its subsequent growth.

They held that:

o. income from the Smithson fund should be reserved for o: and diffusion of knowledge “of a world-wide . and not spent on care g or maintenance of museum property and collections.

(b) But if the Congress wished the Smithsonian to take on the public ...P. "lity for a national collection and in effect, a national museum, in *: United the 1846 act, then the Smithsonian should do this for the people o "... acStates with appropriated funds. In this spirit, Patent Office o onio 'opted in 1858 and the first federal appropriation was made to the . so tha t. through the Department of Interior, in the amount of $4,000 o national in Henry's own words, the Smithsonian could "become the curator o collections.”

(9) Special Purpose Appropriations - Of Henry was among the first men of his time to realize i."...". "... West and held it as a firm principle that qualified scient jor this, * of land or railroad surveys and general exploration parties. the Colorado Major John Wesley Powell received a smithsonian grant to explore region. iver, to *Well thereafter proposed a major expedition on the Co.; and ... on the Grand Canyon. In 1869, Congress approved . '...onion. o funds through the Department of Interior, to the 9. (lirection of the project. ompetThis in turn led ". hi, more government-sponsored .."...o. j ing or Werlapping. In 1879, Congress, at Powell's suggestion, . ation to Densolidated all federal exploration, assigning geological inves #. same time lotment of Interior, creating the U.S. Geological Survey. *: smithsonian oppropriations for anthropological investigations were made to for its Bureau of Ethnology.

"...o. and the National Museum ird, was a biologist, "" **cond Secretary of the Smithsonian, Spencer Baird, was, efforts old collector and *:::::::::: proponent of the Smithsonian's early towards museum exhibitions. arties, the work * Work on the U.S. Fish Commission, further exploration P l Collections. of the Bureau of Ethnology—all were adding much to the * Smithsonian .*.*.*, the 1876 Philadelphia Contennial Exposition...T . . spencer ... federal approjino ;..."o. opian #. ** a member of the board appointed by Presiden ...ent's participation. d it in mind that to died mos, and secretary Baird long ha for the national ... by its motion' isogorounds ... Museum, . * indeed want the smithsonian to serve as the Na rials from this join was the logical recipient of the best mate UlOn. normous nd, oldering that the Philadelphia Exposition materials Yi. to be ..onal Smithsonian building already crowded, a o * of the U.S. Nationi Museum, seemed essential. : Was made to this effect in 1876. - f a new building for the Na.o. appropriated $250,000 for construction 9 museum Pro *i. i.*... Museum. It was, in foot, a reaffirmation of the "All col *9tganic act of 1846, with the following language; atural history. ollections of Toks, minerals, soils, fossils, and objects ". o: the Geological'..."...ethnology made yo' C. and interior joted Stat. n o: 9r by any other parties for the go.". deposited in the ational joded for investigations in progress, sha

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