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(The extract, the justifications, and the request referred to follow :)
[Extract from H. Doc. No. 231 of Sept. 1, 1961)
"PARTICIPATION IN CENTURY 21 EXPOSITION “For an additional amount for 'Participation in Century 21 Exposition', for expenses necessary to carry out the provisions of the Act of September 2, 1958 (72 Stat. 1703), as amended (73 Stat. 486), $1,000,000, to remain available until expended."
This proposed appropriation is to provide additional funds to improve the design and coverage of the science exhibits in accordance with the final plans for Federal participation in the exposition at Seattle, Wash. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE_PARTICIPATION IN CENTURY 21 EXPOSITION
Program and financing
GENERAL STATEMENT The Federal science exhibit will provide a vehicle whereby the United States can tell the world its message of science working for man's betterment, and present the role of man using science in his search for truth. Although the C.S. Government has participated in science expositions abroad, it has never directed a similar educational program at the American people, who are increasingly called on to support expenditures for science. Much of the exhibit material being planned will have residual use for educational and research purposes.
This project will, more than any similar effort by the U.S. Government, focus the attention of thousands of American youth on science, stimulating them to an understanding of the subject, and creating a desire to participate in its many fields. As one AEC scientist put it:
"If out of this exposition, a few thousand young people are stimulated into taking up science careers, you have provided this Government with a priceless gift."
Planning for the Federal science exhibit is almost complete. Details of many of the 125 exhibits have been determined. It is now possible for the first time to foresee with some precision the costs of bringing this project to a successful conclusion. An additional $1 million will be necessary to produce a first-class science exhibit which will be a credit to the U.S. Government.
The major factor in our present need for additional funds is the necessity for producing top-quality individual exhibits. Our best present estimate is that the 125 exhibits in the Federal Science Pavilion will cost about $1 million more than originally estimated. When the original budget was prepared, the number and content of the exhibits remained to be established, their specifications remained to be drawn, and the bids on their construction remained to be let. No one had, or could have had, any precise idea as to their complexity or cost.
Exhibits are the heart of the entire project. If they are not outstanding, the value of the Government's participation will be diminished considerably. The development and construction of exhibits portraying the nature of scientific research is pioneering work, since nothing like these particular exhibits have ever been attempted before. Their only justification lies in their novelty, their exrellence, in the permanent impact they have on the visitors who see them, and their influence on similar shows which will follow. It is the earnest hope of the Science Advisory Committee to the U.S. Science Exhibit, representing the collective thinking of the U.S. science community, that everything possible be done to make these exhibits as accurate, as stimulating, and as educationally rewarding as possible.
Visitors to the U.S. Science Pavilion will comprise a heterogeneous audience of all age levels, degrees of interest, and educational backgrounds. Exhibits must be planned to attract the attention of as many as possible from this audience and reduce complex scientific subjects to layman's terms. To present the story of science in meaningful terms, we are planning three theaters, each with its own unique program, a junior science laboratory with about 25 special
andience-participation exhibits for young people, two buildings with about 115 1 exhibits, and a final building with one overall exhibit, which will cap the show,
depicting the horizons of science.
We have engaged the best scientists and the best designers available to assist us in planning the contents of the science pavilion, and have chosen each exhibit and program in it with great care. The criteria have been based partly on cost, but more fundamentally on the necessity that each exhibit must capture a visitor's attention, no matter what his level of comprehension, and influence his understanding of science. Sound and time-tested museum practice teaches that to be effective an exhibit should combine as many as possible of the following elements :
(a) Tell a story.—It cannot deal with unrelated, isolated subjects. It must tell an interesting and sequential story to every visitor. It must deal with a subject with which a visitor is not normally acquainted. If the subject is technical, the story must begin with fundamentals and proceed to logical conclusions.
(b) Command attention.-An exhibit is in competition with those around it, and with other attractions for time and attention.
(c) Provide variety. Monotony must be avoided through the use of varied exhibit techniques-live demonstrations, rear-screen projectors, stereosound, movement, light, color, etc.
(d) Permit visitor participation.-Button-pushing is better visitor participation than none, but it is not half as satisfactory and educationally rewarding as planning our exhibit so that a visitor is encouraged actually to do something thought-provoking himself.
(e) Appeal to a variety of senses.-If possible, sight, hearing, and touch.
(f) Be demonstrated by a human being.--The combination of demonstrator and exhibit is usually more effective than either alone. A demonstrator provides descriptive narration longer than the average visitor will read on a label, can emphasize points of interest, is available to answer technical questions, and holds groups together and focuses their common attention on the points being explained.
(g) Be ruggedly built and well maintained.---An exhibit down for repairs is not accomplishing its purpose. From this viewpoint the cheapest exhibit construction often turns out to be the most expensive. Well-designed audience participation exhibits must be built to last. They must have oversize motors, dependable mechanisms, and a safety factor in moving parts far greater than required in normal design,
Meeting the above design criteria is expensive. It is always possible, of course, to skimp. However, we are now convinced that under the original budget the Federal science exhibit cannot be first-class. Unless it is, we do not believe that the Government's investment in it will bring an adequate return. The additional money here requested will make the difference, and enable the U.S. Commissioner to put on the high-quality show which has always been considered the only justification for the project. 1. The junior science laboratory, $400,000
This laboratory was not originally planned for the Pavilion. Its construction was recommended to this office by a special committee of educators and scientists convened to consider the wisdom of its inclusion. Their recommendation that it be included was urgent and unanimous. It is one of the most exciting parts of the entire science exhibit, and will directly carry out the purpose of the act establishing the Federal Science Pavilion--to interest American youth in careers of science. About 25 specially designed, audience-participation exhibits for young people will be included in it. 2. Selected science exhibits, $550,000
The Federal Science Pavilion is now planned to contain about 125 exhibits depicting the history of science, and the ways in which scientists are currently at work probing the frontier of the unknown. The exhibits now tell a coherent story. They have been chosen with much care from about 400 suggestions. If we are to tell the story of science in the way we believe it should be told, every exhibit is necessary. Together they form a unified whole. The removal of any will leave a gap in the story line of the building which will make the story incomplete. If we do not secure the additional money we are requesting, we can avoid the payment of around $550,000 through outright elimination of about 25 percent of the exhibits now planned. The overall impact and message of the Federal science pavilion, if this is done, will be considerably weaker and less effective.
3. The science film program, $50,000
On the advice of the scientific advisory committee, we are constructing a small theater in which will be shown a continuous program of scientific films of high quality which will have broad audience appeal and enlarge the public's understanding of the various exhibits in the science pavilion. If it must be done, we shall cancel this program, which is budgeted at $50,000.
PARTICIPATION IN CENTURY 21 EXPOSITION
(House hearings, pp. 885–898) Appropriated to date --1962 supplemental request, H. Doc. No. 231. House committee allowance House committee reduction from 1962 supplemental estimate---Restoration requested.-
None 1,000,000 1,000,000
AMENDMENT REQUESTED On page 3, of H.R. 9169 insert:
"PARTICIPATION IN CENTURY 21 EXPOSITION "For an additional amount for participation in Century 21 Exposition, for expenses necessary to carry out the provisions of the Act of September 2, 1958 (72 Stat. 1703), as amended (73 Stat. 486), $1,000,000, to remain available until expended."
HOUSE REPORT NO. 1175 "Participation in Century 21 Exposition: The committee recommends that the $1 million request for additional funds for Federal participation in the Century 21 Exposition be denied. A $9 million appropriation was provided in 1960 to cover all costs for such participation. The committee is confident that first-class exhibits can be developed within the funds heretofore provided and the scope of the project should be planned within the sum.”
JUSTIFICATION The House committee denied the request for additional funds amounting to $1 million for the Federal Science Pavilion at Century 21. We believe it is necessary to secure the additional amount so that an exhibit will be of top quality and worthy of the United States.
None of this money is being requested for personnel or buildings. All of it will be put into exhibits designed to bring home to the American public the scope and purpose of the tremendous scientific effort in which we are engaged. When this program was originally proposed, no one had or could have had any firm idea of what it would cost to do a first-class job. Unless it is first class, there is little justification for the effort.
Over 2 years of work have gone into planning the Federal science pavilion and its contents. It forms a coherent package, removal of any part of which, like excision of a chapter from a well-constructed story, will do damage to the whole. We are convinced that the additional money requested will make a tremendous improvement in the overall effect of the exhibit. If it is not granted certain exhibits in the physical and biological sciences must be eliminated. The program of exhibits for young people must be cut back, and the science films and demonstrations which are being planned will be curtailed.
APPEAL LETTER Mr. NIELSON. Senator Holland, with your permission I would like to insert the letter from the Secretary to the chairman of the committee, which appeals various items of the Department, together with the appeal material, if that is agreeable to the chairman.
LETTER FROM UNDER SECRETARY OF COMMERCE Senator HOLLAND. Without objection, the letter covering not only this item, but the other items that are appealed from, will be inserted at this point; the letter of September 18th to Chairman Hayden, from Secretary Hodges, signed by Acting Secretary Edward Gudeman. (The letter referred to follows:)
SEPTEMBER 18, 1961. Hon. CARL HAYDEN, Chairman, Committee on Appropriations, Washington, D.O.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: Reference is made to H.R. 9169, the supplemental appropriation bill, 1962, as reported by the House Appropriations Committee on Sep tember 12, 1961.
It is my purpose now to advise you of the effects of the action by the House committee, and to request amendments to the House bill so as to restore the reductions for reasons as indicated below.
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
The House committee reduction of $37,000 from a total requirement of $185,000 will seriously affect the fulfillment of the Bureau of the Census program in sup port of the Geneva Trade Agreement. Basic data is required to support the established system of voluntary quotas and restrictions. The major textile importing and exporting countries reached agreement at Geneva in July 1961 under which voluntary quotas may be imposed upon request by the U.S. Government under certain agreed conditions.
Within the amount provided by the House committee, it will be possible to accumulate the basic figares and computations in a prompt manner, but funds will not be available for an adequate analysis and investigation of questionable figures. It is believed that the latter deficiency should be corrected through provision of the necessary funds. Restoration of the reduction of $37,000 is requested.
PARTICIPATION IN CENTURY 21 EXPOSITION The effect of the House committee action in denying funds for this purpose would be a serious curtailment in the scope and quality of the Federal science exhibit. The number of exhibits would need to be reduced, and the quality and appeal of the remainder would be lessened. The exhibits and programs planned for the Junior Science Laboratory for children would have to be severely curtailed or perhaps omitted, and the program of science films and demonstrations cut back. The impact of the entire exhibit would be lessened considerably. Restoration of the requested supplemental appropriation of $1 million will make the difference between an average exhibit and one that is outstanding.
WEATHER BUREAU The request of $53 million to cover the satellite program of the Weather Bureau was based on the best estimate of cost which existed at the time the budget was prepared. The reduction of $5 million as well as some cost increases which have occurred since the estimates were prepared will seriously impair the operational aspects of the program. In fact, it is likely that one operational satellite will have to be omitted or, as an alternative, one of the two proposed readout stations will not be constructed. Restoration of the full amount of the supplemental estimate is requested.
AREA REDEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION The supplemental estimate, as submitted by the President to the Congress, in brief provided for two principal elements, i.e., (1) an operations appropriation of $11 million to provide $6,500,000 for expenses of supervision, coordination and direction of the Area Redevelopment Administration, and $4,500,000 for furnishing technical assistance studies; and (2) $40 million for grants for public