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the United States. During this time, support for the Nation's partners in the buildup of NATO—as a deterrent to Soviet aggression in Europe-was a key concern of the committee as it evaluated the program and initiated changes in its emphasis over the crucial early years of the alliance.

The first six hearings in this volume cover the development of the Battle Act (the Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951). This act provided for control by the United States and cooperating foreign nations of exports to any nation or combination of nations threatening the security of the United States or a cooperating state.

In the remainder of volume XIV are other selected hearings which cover such subjects as the effect of the death of Marshal Stalin, the security problems confronted by the United States and its allies, the continuing division of Germany into a Communistdominated eastern portion and West Germany, which was oriented toward the United States and democratic powers of Western Europe, as well as the influence of the cold war on trade and other economic policies. Several of the hearings included briefings presented to the committee by the Secretary of State and other officials in key policy positions.

As I have indicated in forewords to previous volumes, I see the materials presented in this series as reflecting an important segment of the experiences which have helped give Congress-during a period of crucial changes throughout the world—the requisite background for increasingly effective participation with the Executive in development of our Nation's foreign policies. A better knowledge of the past, as well as careful perceptions of the present world, can guide us as we look for the appropriate balance between cooperation and concern for our security in our future relations with the rest of the world.

Except for the correction of typographical errors and the insertion of appropriate subheads, the transcripts printed in these volumes are published as they were taken down at the time. In accordance with the committee's procedures, former members of the committee have given permission for publication of their remarks in these hearings, and the Department of State has indicated that it has no objection to their release from the standpoint of foreign policy.

The introductory material and explanatory notes were prepared by the faculty members and research assistants on the project team at the University of Pittsburgh (see the foreword to volume IX). They are intended to help put the meetings in perspective and provide information relevant to their understanding, but do not necessarily reflect the views of the members of the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

CLEMENT J. ZABLOCKI, Chairman,

Committee on Foreign Affairs.

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