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attacked by the commons, and again escaped by the protection of the lords'. In 1704 he wrote an answer to Bromley's speech against occasional conformity”. He headed the Enquiry into the danger of the Church ?. In 1706 he proposed and negotiated the Union with Scotland 4 ; and when the elector of Hanover received the garter, after the act had passed for securing the Protestant Succession, he was appointed to carry the ensigns of the order to the electoral courts. He sat as one of the judges of Sacheverell ; but voted for a mild sentence 6. Being now no longer in favour, he contrived to obtain a writ for summoning the electoral prince to parliament as duke of Cambridge?.

At the queen's death he was appointed one of the regents 8 ; and 10 at the accession of George the First was made earl of Halifax, knight of the garter', and first commissioner of the treasury, with a grant to his nephew of the reversion of the auditorship of the Exchequer to. More was not to be had, and this he kept

* On Jan. 19, 1702–3, he was ac 1705. Parl. Hist. vi. 477. Halifax cused by the Commons of a breach left for Hanover early in May, taking of trust about public moneys. On Addison with him. Life of Halifax, Feb. 5 the Lords voted that he had p. 141 ; post, ADDISON, 26. not been guilty. Parl. Hist. vi. 127, Life, p. 156. Sacheverell was 130.

impeached on Jan. 12, 1709–10, and ? See Appendix D.

was tried before the Lords in March. 3 On Dec. 6, 1705, he moved that Parl, Hist. vi. 809, 825. Ante, a day might be appointed to inquire DRYDEN, 109; KING, 13; SPRAT, into those dangers about which so many tragical stories had been pub Afterwards George II. Schutz, lished.' BURNET, History, iv. 110. the Elector's envoy, was prompted It was carried by a large majority to ask for this at a meeting of Whig 'that whosoever goes about to suggest Lords at Halifax's house on April and insinuate that the Church is in IO, 1714. The Chancellor issued danger under Her Majesty's admini the writ; but the Queen so strongly stration is an enemy to the Queen, showed her displeasure in letters to the Church and the Kingdom.' Parl. the Court of Hanover that the Prince Hist. vi. 507.

did not come.

Life, p. 223; Parl. According to the Life of Halifax, Hist. vi. 1341. p. 137, the Union was brought 8 His name was contained in one about wholly owing to the Lord Hali of 'the three instruments in which fax, who first projected the equiva the Elector had nominated the perlent, without which it had never been sons to be added as Lords Justices accomplished.' The "equivalent' to the seven great officers of the was the sum of £398,085 given to realm.' SMOLLETT, Hist. of Eng. the Scotch, 'as an equal purchase of ii. 296. their revenue and customs, which 9 For Rowe's verses to him on were to be applied to the payment this occasion see Eng. Poets, xxviii. of the debts of England.' Ib. p. 140. 221. Neither Burnet nor Smollett gives 10 Life of Halifax, p. 258. Johnthis prominence to Halifax.

son probably meant to distinguish 5 The Act was carried on Dec. 3, the Queen's death on Aug. I, when

6

17;

but a little while ; for on the 19th of May, 1715, he died of an

inflammation of the lungs. 11 Of him, who from a poet became a patron of poets, it will

be readily believed that the works would not miss of celebration. Addison began to praise him early ', and was followed or accompanied by other poets ? ; perhaps by almost all, except Swift and Pope; who forbore to flatter him in his life, and after his death spoke of him, Swift with slight censure, and Pope in the character of Bufo with acrimonious contempt *.

Halifax's appointment to the regency

him his Livy. Swift's Works, xv. 317, took effect, from the King's arrival Kuster dedicated to him his Aristoin England on Sept. 18. On Oct. 5 phanes. Hearne's Remains, i. 171. Halifax was made first commissioner He has one claim to the gratitude of the treasury, on Oct. 16 K.G., and of scholars. He induced the House on Oct. 19 Earl.

of Lords to have the public records * In 1694, in An Account of the put into better order, and he tried to Greatest English Poets, among whom get a public library established. Bur. Shakespeare is conspicuous by his net's Hist. iv. 117. absence and Halifax by his presence; 3 “Thus Congreve spent in writing a second time, in 1697, in the De plays, dication of Pax, &c.; and a third And one poor office, half his days; time, in 1701, in A Letter from Italy, While Montague, who claimed the Post, ADDISON, 14, 18, 21.

station . Among others by Stepney, Eng. To be Maecenas of the nation, Poets, xvii. 181 ; Smith, ib. xxv. 3; For poets open table kept, Rowe, ib. xxviii. 221; Hughes, ib. But ne'er consider'd where they xxxi. 23; Congreve, ib. xxxiv. 146;

slept ; Works, 1788, i. 75; Tickell, Eng. Himself as rich as fifty Jews Poets, xxxix. 219; Somervile, ib. xl. Was easy though they wanted 237. Steele dedicated to him the shoes.' SWIFT, Works, xiv. 388. fourth volume of The Tatler and the ‘His encouragements of learned second volume of The Spectator. men were only good words and good Gay describes him as having,

dinners.' Ib. xii. 226. Swift wrote “The surest judgment, and the in 1735 :'Of the letters from my brightest wit,

Lord Halifax I burnt all but one; Himself a Maecenas and a Flaccus which I keep as a most admirable

too.' Eng. Poets, xxxvi. 296. original of Court promises and proAddison begins his Dedication to fessions.' Ib. xviii. 295. See also him:- Quum tanta auribus tuis ob ib. ii. 30. For Swift's flattery of him strepat vatum nequissimorum turba.' in 1709 see his two letters to him in Works, i. 232. In this 'turba' was Cunningham's Lives of the Poets, iii. Durfey, whose Dedication of his 201. Don Quixote is ridiculed by Collier 4 "Proud as Apollo on his forked hill in his Short View, 3rd ed. p. 207. Sate full-blown Bufo puff'd by In the Threnodia of the University ev'ry quill;

[long, of Cambridge on the death of Prince Fed with soft dedication all day George are three sets of verses by Horace and he went hand in hand Bentley-'the first to the widowed

in song.' Prol. Sat. 1. 231. Queen, the second 'to the Tomb, and By Bufo Pope had at first meant the third to Halifax.' Monk's Bent Bubb Dodington ; 'he added four ley, i. 187. Dennis dedicated to him lines which pointed directly to Halihis Letters upon Several Occasions. fax.' Pope's Works (Elwin and CourtLe Clerc asked leave to dedicate to hope), iïi. 259. See post, POPE, 102.

He was, as Pope says, 'fed with dedications?'; for Tickell 12 affirms that no dedicator was unrewarded ?. To charge all unmerited praise with the guilt of flattery, and to suppose that the encomiast always knows and feels the falsehood of his assertions, is surely to discover great ignorance of human nature and human life. In determinations depending not on rules, but on experience and comparison, judgement is always in some degree subject to affection. Very near to admiration is the wish to admire 3.

Every man willingly gives value to the praise which he receives, 13 and considers the sentence passed in his favour as the sentence of discernment. We admire in a friend that understanding that selected us for confidence; we admire more in a patron that judgement which, instead of scattering bounty indiscriminately, directed it to us; and, if the patron be an author, those performances which gratitude forbids us to blame, affection will easily dispose us to exalt.

To these prejudices, hardly culpable, interest adds a power 14 always operating, though not always, because not willingly, perceived. The modesty of praise wears gradually away; and perhaps the pride of patronage may be in time so increased that modest praise will no longer please.

Many a blandishment was practised upon Halifax which he 15 would never have known, had he had no other attractions than those of his poetry, of which a short time has withered the beauties. It would now be esteemed no honour, by a contributor to the monthly bundles of verses, to be told that, in strains either familiar or solemn, he sings like Montague *.

Fed with soft dedication.' Ante, by what infatuation or caprice they p. 46, n.4.

could be raised to notice.' The Eng. Poets, xxxix. 219. In an Rambler, No. 106. other passage Tickell, addressing Horace Walpole, having misquoted Halifax, says that succeeding time a line in Halifax, excused himself as ‘Shall envy less thy garter than thy 'happily not being very accurately bays.

Ib. p. 181. read in so indifferent an author.' 3 Post, GRANVILLE, 24.

Anec. of Painting, iii. 194. 4 The learned often bewail the It is a remarkable proof of Haliloss of ancient writers whose char fax's self-knowledge that, from the acters have survived their works; moment at which he began to disbut perhaps if we could now retrieve tinguish himself in public life, he them, we should find them only the ceased to be a versifier. MACAULAY, Granvilles, Montagues, Stepneys, and History, vii. 79. Sheffields of their time, and wonder

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APPENDIX D (PAGE 45)

By the Test Act passed in 1673 and not repealed till 1828, all officeholders had to publicly receive the sacrament according to the rites of the Church of England. Many Nonconformists complied once, and never went to church again. By the bill of 1702 against Occasional Conformity all such persons were to be disabled from holding their employments,' and were exposed to ruinous fines. It was rejected by the Lords, but was renewed in 1703 and 1704. It was carried in 1711, with the omission of the fines. Macaulay's Hist. i. 231; Burnet's Hist. iii. 371, iv. 25, 71, 281 ; Parl. Hist. vi. 59, 154, 359, 1045. Mere nonconformity was by law a crime. Blackstone's Com. iv. 50, 54.

In The Spectator for Jan. 8, 1711-12, No. 269, Addison tells how Sir Roger believed the late Act already began to take effect; for that a rigid dissenter, who chanced to dine at his house on Christmas Day, had been observed to eat very plentifully of his plum-porridge.?

William Bromley, on Nov. 28, 1704, spoke in favour of tacking the bill on to the Land Tax Bill. Parl. Hist. vi. 359. Parliament was dissolved on April 5, 1705. Ib. p. 439. 'The Church in danger' was the Tory cry during the elections. Burnet's Hist. iv. 99. A pamphlet, said to be Mr. Bromley's speech, soon saw the light.' Halifax replied to it in An Answer to Mr. B~'s Speech, in a Letter to a Friend, which had such an influence on the elections that the major part of them were in favour of the Low Church Men.' Life of Halifax, pp. 113, 130. See post, GRANVILLE, 18.

PARNELL

THE

'HE Life of Dr. Parnell is a task which I should very 1

willingly decline, since it has been lately written by Goldsmith', a man of such variety of powers and such felicity of performance that he always seemed to do best that which he was doing?; a man who had the art of being minute without tediousness, and general without confusion ; whose language was copious without exuberance, exact without constraint, and easy without weakness.

What such an author has told, who would tell again? I have 2 made an abstract from his larger narrative; and have this gratification from my attempt that it gives me an opportunity of paying due tribute to the memory of Goldsmith.

Το γαρ γέρας εστί θανόντων 3.

THOMAS PARNELL was the son of a commonwealthsman of 3 the same name, who at the Restoration left Congleton in Cheshire, where the family had been established for several centuries, and, settling in Ireland, purchased an estate, which, with his lands in Cheshire, descended to the poet“, who was born at Dublin in 1679; and, after the usual education at a grammar school, was at the age of thirteen admitted into the College , where in 1700

"In 1770. Forster's Goldsmith, smith's Works, iv. 130. 1871, ii. 223; Goldsmith's Works, iv. · Johnson said of Goldsmith :129.

"Whether we take him as a poet, "Goldsmith's Life of Parnell is as a comic writer, or as an historian, poor ; not that it is poorly written, but he stands in the first class.' Boswell's that he had poor materials.' JOHN- Johnson, ii. 236. In his epitaph he deSON, Boswell's Johnson, ii. 166. Gold scribes him as one 'qui nullum fere smith's father and uncle had known scribendi genus non tetigit, nullum Parnell

. In apologizing for the quod tetigit non ornavit. ib. iii. 82. absence of facts in the narrative of Mr. G. A. Aitken, in the Preface to his youth he writes :- A poet, while Parnell's Poems, 1894, has brought toliving, is seldom an object sufficiently gether the facts known about the poet. great to attract much attention. ... Odyssey, xxiv. 190. When his fame is increased by time Charles Stewart Parnell was it is then too late to investigate the descended from the poet's younger peculiarities of his disposition ; the brother. Post, SWIFT, 77 n. dews of the morning are past, and 5. He was admitted much sooner we vainly try to continue the chase than usual, as they are a great deal by the meridian splendour.' Gold- stricter in their examination for LIVES OF POETS. 11

E

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