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tinctions, he wrote :- Saint père, vous envoyez des manchettes à celui qui n'a point de chemise.' Goldsmith borrowed this when, on being appointed by the King Professor of Ancient History in the Royal Academy, he wrote :-'Honours to one in my situation are something like ruffles to one that wants a shirt.' Boswell's Johnson, ii. 67 n.
Sprat was helped in his work by Evelyn. Evelyn's Diary, iii, 144. Addison, in The Freeholder, No. 30, describes his Observations as 'a book full of just satire and ingenuity.'
Wren was Sir Christopher Wren.
"HE life of the Earl of Halifax was properly that of an 1
artful and active statesman, employed in balancing parties, contriving expedients, and combating opposition, and exposed to the vicissitudes of advancement and degradation: but in this collection poetical merit is the claim to attention; and the account which is here to be expected may properly be proportioned not to his influence in the state, but to his rank among the writers of verse.
Charles Montague was born April 16, 1661, at Horton in 2 Northamptonshire?, the son of Mr. George Montague, a younger son of the earl of Manchester 3. He was educated first in the country, and then removed to Westminster ; where in 1677 he was chosen a king's scholar, and recommended himself to Busby * by his felicity in extemporary epigrams. He contracted a very intimate friendship with Mr. Stepney; and in 1682, when Stepney was elected to Cambridge, the election of Montague being not to proceed till the year following, he was afraid lest by being placed at Oxford he might be separated from his companion, and therefore solicited to be removed to Cambridge, without waiting for the advantages of another year.
It seems indeed time to wish for a removal; for he was already 3 a school-boy of one and twenty.
His relation Dr. Montague was then master of the college 7 4 * Halifax is not included in Camp theses appointed for the King's bell's British Poets.
Scholars at the time of election.' His Works and Life in one volume Life of Halifax, p. 4. Svo were published in 1715. As * To-morrow I go to the election Curll was the publisher little con at Westminster School, where lads fidence can be placed in the Life. are chosen for the university; they
· He was baptized at St. Margaret's, say 'tis a sight, and a great trial of Westminster, on May 12, 1661. Cun wits.' SWIFT, Works, ii. 243. See ningham's Lives of the Poets, ii. 81. ante, SMITH, 4.
The first Earl, father of the 6 Stepney entered Trinity College, second Earl the parliamentary Cambridge, in 1682. Ante, STEPNEY, general.
1. Montagu, who was two years * Ante, DRYDEN, 4.
older, had entered in 1679. Dict. 5.He was always applauded for
Nat. Biog: his extempore epigrams, made upon ? In The Life of Halifax, p. 5,
in which he was placed a fellow commoner!, and took him under his particular care. Here he commenced an acquaintance with the great Newton, which continued through his life, and was at
last attested by a legacy?. 5 In 1685 his verses On the death of king Charles3 made such
impression on the earl of Dorset, that he was invited to town, and introduced by that universal patron * to the other wits. In 1687 he joined with Prior in The City Mouse and Country Mouse, a burlesque of Dryden's Hind and Panthers. He signed the invitation to the Prince of Orange, and sat in the convention. He about the same time married the countess dowager of Manchester, and intended to have taken orders; but afterwards altering his purpose, he purchased for 1,500l. the place of one
of the clerks of the council ?. 6 After he had written his epistle on the victory of the Boyne,
Montagu is described as 'a very Oh! had he more resembled it! polite Tutor (now Dean of Durham) Oh! why He became Master of Trinity College Was He not still more like, and about April 1683.
could not die?' I'So called from having the privi Works, p. 8; Life, p. 6; Eng. Poets, lege of dining at the Fellows' table, xxvi. 283. being thus "commoners with the Ante, DORSET, 13. Johnson Fellows.” At Oxford the existence also calls the Earl's son, the Duke of a higher grade of undergraduates of Dorset, “the universal patron.' (in some colleges called" fellow Post, A. PHILIPS, 3. commoners,” in the majority“Gentle $ The Hind and the Panther Transmen-commoners”) is still recognized vers'd to the Story of the Country. by the University Statutes, but theonly Mouse and the City-Mouse, Halihouse that has fellow-commoners on fax's Works, 1715, p. 31.
Ante, its books is Worcester College. At DRYDEN, 127, 288; post, PRIOR, 5. Cambridge there were formerly fel "“Did not Lord Halifax write The low-commoners at most colleges, but Country Mouse with Mr. Prior ?” the status is now nearly obsolete.' “Yes, just as if I was in a chaise with New Eng. Dict. See ante, MILTON, Mr. Cheselden here, drawn by his 7 n.; WALSH, 1.
fine horse, and should say :'Lord, A legacy of £100, ‘as a mark of how finely we draw this chaise !'" the great honour and esteem I have LORD PETERBOROUGH, Spence's for so great a man.' Biog. Brit. Anec. p. 136. William Cheselden p. 3157. For an examination of the was an eminent surgeon. connexion between Halifax and New Life, p. 16. He sat for Malden. ton's niece, Catherine Barton, see N. Parl. Hist. v. 29. The member for & 2. 2 S. ii. 161, 265, 390; iii. 41, 250. Durham in James II's parliament
3 He composed this poem for was Charles Montagu. Ib. iv. 1345. (a book of condolence and congra Life, p. 65; post, WEST, 4. tulation to be presented to King 8 An Epistle to Charles Earl of James II by the University.' It Dorset occasioned by His Majesty's contains such fulsome lines as the Victory in Ireland, Eng. Poets, xxvi. following:
297. It appeared anonymously in "In Charles, so good a man and 1690. King, we see
Addison praises 'an excellent A double Image of the Deity. stroke' in this poem, 'where Mr.
his patron Dorset introduced him to king William with this expression : ‘Sir, I have brought a Mouse to wait on your Majesty. To which the king is said to have replied, 'You do well to put me in the way of making a Man of him?'; and ordered him a pension of five hundred pounds. This story, however current, seems to have been made after the event. The king's answer implies a greater acquaintance with our proverbial and familiar diction than king William could possibly have attained.
In 1691, being member in the house of commons, he argued 7 warmly in favour of a law to grant the assistance of counsel in trials for high treason; and in the midst of his speech, falling into some confusion, was for a while silent; but, recovering himself, observed, “how reasonable it was to allow counsel to men called as criminals before a court of justice, when it appeared how much the presence of that assembly could disconcert one of their own body?' Montagu tells us how the King of was so dashed when he was to speak France would have been celebrated before that wise and illustrious asby his subjects, if he had ever gained sembly.' such an honourable wound as King [It is to the third Earl of ShaftesWilliam's at the fight of the Boyne : bury (author of the Characteristics) "His bleeding arm had furnished all that this incident should be ascribed. their rooms,
The scene was the House of ComAnd run for ever purple in the mons; the date November, 1695.
looms." ' Addison's Works, i. 148. Shaftesbury (then Lord Ashley) had Montagu wrote:
that May in his twenty-fifth year 'The wounded arm would furnish all been returned to Parliament for the their rooms,
borough of Poole. A bill for reguAnd bleed for ever scarlet in the lating Trials in cases of High Treason
looms.' Eng. Poets, xxvi. 303. was before the House. Gen. Dict. Pope parodied the Epistle in The Hist. and Crit. ix. 179. The bill Dunciad, ii. 155-6, and in a note ed the Commons on Dec. 18, 1695. gives Addison's version.
The life of Shaftesbury in the Gen. ''He introduced him to the King Dict. was not only extracted from with, “May it please your Majesty, a MS. life, written by the fourth Earl, I have brought a Mouse to have the now among the Shaftesbury Papers honour of kissing your hand”; at in the Record Office, but was also which the King replied with an air revised by him. Fowler's Shaftesbury of gaiety, “You will do well to put and Hutcheson, p. 1. He adds:me in a way of making a Man of “If we may judge from internal evihim.' Life, P. 17.
dence the story is far more appro'The first thing he was cried up for priate to Ashley, a retiring man new was something from whence he was to Parliament, than to a practised called Mouse Montagu' DUCHESS OF speaker and debater like Montagu MARLBOROUGH, Corres. 1838, ii. 144. who had sat in the House of Com
? If Johnson quotes the Life, p. 30, mons from the Convention of 1688-9 he paraphrases the report of Mon onwards' (ib. p. 9). Horace Walpole tagu's speech. It ends :- since he, tells the story of the Earl of Shafteswho was one of their own members, bury, Works, i. 429; as does Mac
8 After this he rose fast into honours and employments, being
made one of the commissioners of the treasury', and called to the privy council. In 1694 he became chancellor of the Exchequer?; and the next year engaged in the great attempt of the recoinage 3, which was in two years happily compleated. In 1696 he projected 'the general fund,' and raised the credit of the Exchequer ; and, after enquiry concerning a grant of Irish crown-lands, it was determined by a vote of the commons, that Charles Montague, esquire,'had deserved his Majesty's favour 5.' In 1698, being advanced to the first commission of the treasury *, he was appointed one of the regency in the king's absence?: the next year he was made auditor of the Exchequer 8, and the year after created baron Halifax'. He was however impeached by the commons; but the articles were dismissed
by the lords o. 9 At the accession of queen Anne he was dismissed from the
council" ; and in the first parliament of her reign was again aulay, Hist. of Eng. vii. 274. See mortgage' see ib. vii. 364; The also Parl. Hist. v. 966, which gives Wealth of Nations, bk. v. ch. 3; Gen. Dict. Hist. and Crit. as the Parl. Hist. y. 1156. authority. The fact that Curll is the 5 On Feb. 16, 1698. Macaulay's publisher of the Life of Halifax Hist. viii. 38; Life, p. 52. (1715) wherein the statement occurs, In 1697. Macaulay's Hist. vii. which is Johnson's authority for as 412. cribing the incident to him, is of
7 lb. viji. 117. itself sufficient to discredit it.]
8 This office, which was held for In 1714, in the proceedings against life, and was worth at the lowest Steele, Lord Finch, rising to defend £4,000 a year, he sought as 'a harbour him in the House of Commons, at from the storms which seemed to be once sat down in visible confusion, gathering.' Ib. viii. 157, 237. For saying, “It is strange I can't speak the storm which it brought on him for this man though I could readily see ib. p. 159. fight for him.” A sudden burst from 9 On Dec. 4, 1700. Collins's Peerall parts of the House, “ Hear him! age, iii. 456; Life, p. 61. hear him!” brought him again on 16 The resolution for his impeachhis legs, and he spoke well. The ment was carried on April 14, 1701. Monitor, No. 2, April 24, 1774, quoted "The articles were dismissed' on in Parl. Hist. vi. 1272.
June 24. Parl. Hist. v. 1246, 1321. In March 1691-2. Macaulay's
Macaulay's The impeachment was supported by Hist. vi. 191. Lady M. W. Montagu Prior. Post, PRIOR, 16. wrote in 1714:—'No modest man ever On April 21, 1702, the Queen did, or ever will, make his fortune. caused the names of several persons Your friend, Lord Halifax, R. Wal- firmly attached to the Revolution pole, and all other remarkable in principles (particularly the Lords stances of quick advancement, have Somers and Halifax) to be left out been remarkably impudent.' Letters, of the list of her Privy Council.' i. 218.
Boyer's Reign of Queen Anne, 1735, · Macaulay's Hist. vii. 129. p. 14. According to the Life, p. 75, 3 Ib. vii. 249-74.
she was 'over-persuaded' to dismiss * For the general fund'or'general Halifax.