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10 The Moors having besieged Tangier' he was sent (1680) with

two thousand men to its relief. A strange story is told of danger to which he was intentionally exposed in a leaky ship, to gratify some resentful jealousy of the king, whose health he therefore would never permit at his table till he saw himself in a safer place?. His voyage was prosperously performed in three weeks,

and the Moors without a contest retired before him. 11 In this voyage he composed The Vision; a licentious poem,

such as was fashionable in those times, with little power of inven

tion or propriety of sentiment 3. 12 At his return he found the King kind, who perhaps had never

been angry; and he continued wit and a courtier as before. 13 At the succession of king James, to whom he was intimately

known, and by whom he thought himself beloved, he naturally expected still brighter sun-shine; but all know how soon that reign began to gather clouds. His expectations were not disappointed; he was immediately admitted into the privy council, and made lord chamberlain“. He accepted a place in the high commissions, without knowledge, as he declared after the Revolution, of its illegality. Having few religious scruples he attended the king to mass and kneeled with the rest, but had no disposition to receive the Romish Faith or to force it

others; for when the priests, encouraged by his appearances of compliance, is 'acknowledging his favour for the


325. For the Earl of Plymouth see Laureate's place.'

ante, OTWAY, 8. Malone thinks Johnson's authority 3 Eng. Poets, xxxii. 51. is Dr. Birch, who supposed that * Works, ii. 351. Sheffield was at the time Lord Cham- s In his Character this part of his berlain, in whose department the life is briefly treated — During the office is. Malone's Dryden, i. 88. reign of James II he remained in

'It was given in 1662 as part of several great posts. ... As several the portion of the bride of Charles II. unjustifiable measures

taken * After an immense charge the Court by the Court he constantly and grew weary of it, and in the year zealously advised against them.' Ib. 1638 [1683) they sent a squadron of ii. 329. For the High Commission ships to bring away the garrison, and see ante, SPRAT, 10; Macaulay's to destroy all the works.' Burnet's Hist. ii. 348, iii. 11. Hist. i. 191.

6 In an undated Letter to Dr. 3 ' After a week's time one of the Tillotson, Dean of Canterbury (aftercompany (thinking it was forgetful- wards Archbishop), he says : I was ness) put him in mind of it. He so unhappily conversant in the midst answered smiling that he knew it of a perpetual Court flattery as never very well, but he must first get out to have heard the least word of any of his rotten ship before he could illegality in that Commission before make that health go merrily round.' I was unfortunately engaged in it.' One of the King's sons, the Earl of Works, ii. 125. See also Birch's Plymouth, was on board. Works, ii. Life of Tillotson, 1752, p. 146.


attempted to convert him, he told them, as Burnet has recorded, that he was willing to receive instruction, and that he had taken much pains to believe in God, who made the world and all men in it ; but that he should not be easily persuaded that man was quits, and made God again!'

A pointed sentence is bestowed by successive transmission on 14 the last whom it will fit?: this censure of transubstantiation, whatever be its value, was uttered long ago by Anne Askew, one of the first sufferers for the Protestant Religion, who in the time of Henry VIII was tortured in the Tower; concerning which there is reason to wonder that it was not known to the Historian of the Reformation.

In the Revolution he acquiesced, though he did not promote 15 it. There was once a design of associating him in the invitation of the prince of Orange S; but the earl of Shrewsbury discouraged the attempt, by declaring that Mulgrave would never concur. This king William afterwards told him, and asked what he would have done if the proposal had been made. 'Sir,' said he, 'I would have discovered it to the king whom I then served. To which King William replied, 'I cannot blame you 6.'

Finding king James irremediably excluded he voted for the 16 conjunctive' sovereignty, upon this principle, that he thought the titles of the prince and his consort equal, and it would please the prince their protector to have a share in the sovereignty. This

1 'He heard the priests gravely arguing for transubstantiation; he told them he was willing to receive instruction; he had taken much pains to bring himself to believe in God, who had made the world and all men in it; but it must not be an ordinary force of argument that could make him believe that man was quits with God, and made God again.' Burnet's Hist. ii. 306.

Ante, WALLER, 82.

3 ['Lord Mayor. Thou foolish woman, sayest thou that the priests cannot make the body of Christ ?

'A. Ascough. I say so, my lord, for I have read, that God made man; but that man can make God, I never yet read, nor, I suppose, ever shall read it.' Strype's Works, 1822; Eccl. Mem. vol. i. pt. i. p. 598.] This saying is not mentioned in The Two

Examinations of Anne Askewe said to be written by herself.

* Burnet (Hist. ii. 306) says of this and other like sayings :- -'Whether true or false, they were much repeated, and were heard with great satisfaction.'

5 For the invitation to the Prince to invade England, ' signed in cipher by the seven chiefs of the conspiracy,' see Macaulay's Hist. iii. 146.

6 'The King asked with a smile, Pray, my Lord, what would you have done if my agent had acquainted you with the whole business?” “Sir, I should have discovered it to the Master I served." The King replied, "I cannot blame you.”' Works, ii. 333

Johnson, in his Dictionary, defining conjunctive as closely united,' adds, ' a sense not in use.'

vote gratified king William ; yet, either by the king's distrust or his own discontent, he lived some years without employment'. He looked on the king with malevolence, and, if his verses or his prose may be credited, with contempt ?. He was, notwithstanding this aversion or indifference, made marquis of Normanby (1694), but still opposed the court on some important questions; yet at last he was received into the cabinet council, with a pension of

three thousand pounds 3. 17 At the accession of queen Anne, whom he is said to have

courted when they were both young, he was highly favoured . Before her coronation (1702) she made him lord privy seal, and soon after lord lieutenant of the North-riding of Yorkshire. He was then named commissioner for treating with the Scots about the Union, and was made next year first duke of Normanby, and then of Buckinghamshire ; there being suspected to be somewhere

a latent claim to the title of Buckingham 6. 18 Soon after, becoming jealous of the duke of Marlborough, he

resigned the privy seal, and joined the discontented Tories in a motion extremely offensive to the Queen for inviting the princess Sophia to England'. The Queen courted him back with i Works, ii. 330.

the Princess had ever an esteem for ? In his poems in Eng. Poets I can him.' only find one which in the least • The Duke was immediately reanswers this description. It is en- warded on her accession for having titled Stanzas. He tells how he made love to her before her marriage. shall

HORACE WALPOLE, Works, i. 436. • Boast of succeeding in my country's 5 For these appointments

Works, ii. 333, and Boyer's Queen Ev'n against some almost too high Anne, 1735, p. 14. to blame;

• See Appendix AA. Whom, when advanc'd beyond the ? The Princess Sophia, Electress reach of lav

of Hanover, was heir-apparent to I oft had ridicul'd to sense and the throne: 'She was then 75, but...

shame.' Eng. Poets, xxxii. 102. seemed willing to change her scene, In his Feast of the Gods, written and to come and shine among us here in 1708, 'all the gods admired that in England.' Burnet's Hist. iv. 109. odd mixture of which his successor On Nov. 15, 1705, a motion in the [William III) was composed; SO House of Lords for inviting her was very lazy, heavy, and easily imposed lost. The Duke and some other on by favourites; and yet so very peers entered their protest. Parl. ambitious and enterprising. The Hist. vi. 457, 468. The Duchess of author goes on to insinuate an odious Marlborough, in the Account of her charge against the King. Works, ii. Own Conduct (1742, p. 159), says that 191.

'the Queen was present at the debates,

and heard the Duke treat her with Abel Boyer, in his History of great disrespect; urging ... that she Queen Anne, 1735, p. 14, says that might live till she did not know what though his addresses to her were she did, and be like a child in the checked as soon as discovered, yet hands of others.'



3 Ib. ii. 332.


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an offer no less than that of the chancellorship, which he refused '. He now retired from business, and built that house in the Park, which is now the Queen's, upon ground granted by the Crown.

When the ministry was changed (1710) he was made lord 19 Chamberlain of the household”, and concurred in all transactions of that time, except that he endeavoured to protect the Catalans. After the Queen's death he became a constant opponent of the Court *; and, having no public business, is supposed to have amused himself by writing his two tragediess. He died February 24, 1720-21.

He was thrice married 6 : by his two first wives he had no 20 children ; by his third, who was the daughter of king James by 'the countess of Dorchester' and the widow of the earl of Anglesey, he had, besides other children that died early, a son born in 1716, who died in 1735', and put an end to the line of Sheffield '. It is observable that the Duke's three wives were all widows". The Dutchess died in 1742".


* The day after he resigned the seals the Queen offered to make him Lord Chancellor. 'It was a revenue of £9,000 per ann. He did not accept it.' Works, ii. 336.

It was in March, 1705, he threw up the seals, some months before the motion about the Princess Sophia.

* According to Boyer he was made Lord Steward on Sept. 21, 1710, and Lord President of the Council on June 12, 1711. Hist. of Queen Anne, PP: 476, 514. For the change of ministry see ante, PARNELL, 5.

3 See Appendix BB.

* Lady Cowper recorded in her Diary, p. 45, on Feb. 12, 1714-15: *The Duke of Buckingham, upon what consideration I know not, has refused his pension.'

s Pope, declining to write a Pro-
logue for Fenton's Mariamne ( post,
FENTON, 11), says :-*I have actually
refused doing it for the Duke of
Buckingham's play.' The two tra-
gedies were Julius Caesar, altered
from Shakespeare, and The Death of
Marcus Brutus. Works, i. 211, 303.
Julius Caesar thus ends :
Ambition, when unbounded, brings

a curse,
But an assassinate deserves a worse.'

Pope's Works (E. & C.), viii. 58.

• In his will he says that he had had 'the most extraordinary blessing of three kind and excellent wives.' Works, ii. 364. For his wives see Cunningham's Lives of the Poets, ii. 196.

Daughter of Sir Charles Sedley. Ante, DORSET, 3. Horace Walpole mentions her daughter's pride in her birth. "“You need not be so vain," said the old profligate [the Countess); “ for you are not the King's daughter, but Colonel Graham's."' Walpole's Letters, Preface, p. 141.

8 Ante, KING, 8. "She married the Duke in 1705, by whom she had three sons and two daughters, of whom four died infants. Atterbury Corres. iv. 309.

9 For his epitaph see post, POPE, 440.

'10 For his will see Cunningham's Lives of the Poets, ii. 195. The Duke's natural son, Charles Herbert, taking the name of Sheffield, entered, after the death of the Duchess, into possession of the house in St. James's Park, which he enjoys with a fair character. Biog. Brit. p. 3665.

" Ante, MILTON, 104.

12 She died on March 13, 1742-3. Gent. Mag. 1743, p. 163. For her pompous funeral see ib. p. 191.

21 His character is not to be proposed as worthy of imitation. His

religion he may be supposed to have learned from Hobbes', and his morality was such as naturally proceeds from loose opinions. His sentiments with respect to women he picked up in the court of Charles, and his principles concerning property were such as a gaming-table supplies. He was censured as covetous’, and has been defended by an instance of inattention to his affairs }, as if a man might not at once be corrupted by avarice and idleness. He is said, however, to have had much tenderness, and to have been very ready to apologise for his violences of

passion. 22 He is introduced into the late collection only as a poet"; and,

if we credit the testimony of his contemporaries, he was a poet of no vulgar rank?. But favour and flattery are now at an end;

Horace Walpole wrote the day after her death :- She made her ladies vow to her that, if she should lie senseless, they would not sit down in the room before she was dead.' Letters, i. 234.

In the Character, probably written by herself but ascribed by her to Pope, she described her person as 'most amiably majestic.' Warburton's Pope, viii. 184. For Atossa, a character Pope probably drew from her, see Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), iii. 77, 84, 90, 103; post, POPE, 208. See also Dr. William King's Anecdotes, p. 37.

'See Appendix CC. · Ruffhead, in his Life of Pope, p. 487, says that 'the Duke persuaded the poet to buy an annuity of him, when, in the general opinion, there was not the least probability that Pope could survive his youth. See post, POPE, 92.

'He was thought to be too saving in his money matters.' Biog. Brit. p. 3664. Dryden praised his generosity. Works, xiv. 233. For a mason making him pay his debt by threatening to throw him from the roof of his house see Johnson's Works, 1787, iii. 125. 3 Works, ii. 343.

to by Pope in The Basset Table :
“At the Groom-porter's batter'd bul-

lies play,
Some Dukes at Marybone bowl
time away

Malone's Dryden, i. 499. This poem, though attributed to Pope (Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), iv. 473), is shown in N. E Q.7 S. ix. 225,515; 9 S. ii. 141, to be by Lady M. W. Montagu, but corrected by Pope.

5.He often said to his servants, “I don't mean half the things I say in a passion."' Works, ii. 340. In Macky's Characters he is described as'a nobleman of learning and good natural parts, but of no principles ; violent for the High Church, yet seldom goes to it; very proud, insolent and covetous, and takes all advantages.' Swift remarks on this:"This character is the truest of any." Works, xii. 224. In The Examiner, No.26, Swift wrote of him:-'Heis of consummate wisdom and experience in affairs; has continued constant to the true interests of the nation.' lb. iii. 366.

Ante, DRYDEN, 77. ? 'Where Buckingham will conde

* 'He was extremely fond of bowl. ing, and is said to have lost large sums of money in betting at this game. He is supposed to be alluded

scend to give, That honoured piece to distant

times must live.' GAY, Eng. Poets, xxxvi. 220. Sec also POPE, 270 n.


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