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and he never stagnates. His sentences have neither studied amplitude, nor affected brevity ; his periods, though not diligently rounded, are voluble and easy. Whoever wishes to attain an English style, familiar but not coarse, and elegant but not ostentatious, must give his days and nights to the volumes of Addison',


For Johnson's authorities for this story see Boswell's Johnson, iv. 53, 91. Johnson's Works, 1787, iii. 43 n.

Steele wrote to his wife on Aug. 20, 1708 :-'I have paid Mr. Addison the whole thousand pound.' Montgomery's Steele, i. 108. In 1711 he wrote :-'Addison's money you will have to-morrow noon. I have but 185., but have very many reasons to be in good humour, except you are angry with me.' Ib. i. 301.

Steele, from 1707 to 1710, was Gazetteer at £300 a year, and from the winter of 1709–10 to 1713 Commissioner of Stamps at the same salary. He had a pension of £100 as gentleman-usher to the deceased Prince George. Swift's Works, iv. 188. (For the dates of his appointments and dismissals see ib. ii

. 55; Montgomery's Steele, i. 69, 230, 418.) Both in 1708 and 1711, when he was borrowing from Addison, his official salary was £400 a year-equal perhaps to £1,000 at the present time. He made money besides by his pen. Being,' wrote Swift, "the most imprudent man alive . . . he is wholly at the mercy of fools or knaves, or hurried away by his own caprice; by which he has committed more absurdities in economy, friendship, love, duty ... than ever fell to one man's share.' Works, iv. 187.

Berkeley, on Feb. 23, 1712-13, says that he dines frequently with Steele at his house in Bloomsbury Square, and speaks of his good house, table, servants, coach, &c.' Hist. MSS. Com. vii. App. p. 238. Cibber, who with Steele was a patentee of Drury Lane Theatre, says

«Vos exemplaria Graeca shyness of a graceful and beautiful Nocturna versate manu, versate diur- girl.' Locker-Lampson's Confidences,

na.' HORACE, Ars Poet. I. 268.

Five years before this Life was 'He (J. S. Mill] spoke of style ; published, Beattie had written to a thinks Goldsmith unsurpassed ; then friend :-'The longer I study Eng- Addison comes.' Morley's Crit. and lish, the more I am satisfied that Misc. Essays, iii. 49. Addison's prose is the best model ; E.FitzGerald, speaking of Wesley's and if I were to give advice to a Journal, says :— It is remarkable to young man on the subject of English read pure, unaffected and undying style I would desire him to read that English, while Addison and Johnson author day and night. Forbes's are tainted with a style, which all Beattie, 1824, p. 237.

the world imitated. Letters, ii. 59. Landor said that an engaging For Cowley's prose see ante, Cowsimplicity shone through all that LEY, 200. See also Boswell's JohnAddison wrote, that there was coy- son, i. 225 n. ness in his style ; the archness and

P. 162.

that their loans to him only heightened his importunity to borrow more.' Apology, p. 303.

'Observe who have been the greatest borrowers of all ages—Alcibiades -Falstaff-Steele-our late incomparable Brinsley (Sheridan]—what a family likeness in all four.' LAMB, Essays of Elia, p. 32.

For Savage's account of Steele's fear of the bailiffs see post, SAVAGE, 31, 33, and for Macaulay's defence of Addison see his Essays, iv. 206.


Mr. Addison,' writes Tickell, 'had been at Queen's College about two years, when the accidental sight of a paper of his verses in the hands of Dr. Lancaster, then Dean of that house, occasioned his being elected into Magdalen College.' Addison's Works, Preface, p. 3. Johnson carelessly read this passage. It was a third person, perhaps the President of Magdalen, who accidentally saw the verses in the hands of Dr. Lancaster, then a Fellow, afterwards Provost of Queen's. Macaulay makes Lancaster Dean of Magdalen. Essays, iv. 166.

Tickell ends his Prospect of Peace, written at Queen's College (post, TICKELL, 5), with a passage beginning :

'Here thy commands, O Lancaster, inflame
My eager breast to raise the British name.'

Eng. Poets, xxxix. 172.
See also ib. p. 294.

Hearne describes Lancaster as 'a man having an extreme desire to be a bishop.' Remains, i. 184. See also ib. p. 189 for a ballad on him.

The Fellowships at Queen's were confined to men born in Cumberland and Westmorland, so that Addison had no chance of one. Post, TICKELL, 1. His father, a Westmorland man, had enjoyed a scholarship. For a story of him as Terrae Filius (licensed satirist at the Commemoration) see Hearne's Remains, iii. 77. Collins, like Addison, passed from Queen's to Magdalen. Post, COLLINS, 3. The Provost of Queen's informs me that in those days the two Colleges used to act together on many occasions.

"The Demies were so called because their allowance or commons" was originally half that of a Fellow; the Latin term is semi-communarius.' New Eng. Dict.

It was the succession to a Fellowship as a matter of course that brought the College to the state described in Gibbon's Memoirs, pp. 57, 287.

Addison took the degree of B.A. May 7, 1691; of M.A. in 1694. [Feb. 14, 1693-4. JOHNSON.) In 1698 he became Fellow; he resigned in 1711.

His rooms were at the north-east corner of the old buildings looking towards the river. They no longer exist. Bloxam's Reg. of Mag. Coll. vi. 78.

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APPENDIX K (PAGE 90) Addison had lost his place as Under-Secretary of State on the dismissal of Sunderland in Dec. 1708; but he was at once transferred to his new post of Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant with a salary of £2,000 a year.

He retained it after Wharton's dismissal. Works, v. 374, 401. He was in Dublin on July 20, 1709. Cata. of MSS. in Record Office Museum, 1902, p. 86.

As Keeper of the Irish Records in Birmingham's Tower (ante, KING, 9) he had £400 a year. Works, vi. 632. In 1724 Swift wrote :Mr Addison was forced to purchase an old obscure place, called Keeper of the Records in Birmingham's Tower, of £10 a year, and to get a salary of £400 annexed to it, though all the records there are not worth half a crown, either for curiosity or use.' Swift's Works, vi. 416. On July 21, 1711, Addison wrote : I have lost a place of £2,000 per annum, an estate in the Indies of £14,000, and, what is worse than all the rest, my mistress (ADDISON, 85). I find they are going to take away my Irish place from me too.' Works, v. 401. He kept his losses secret. He wrote :-'I know the most likely way to keep a place is to appear not to want it.' Berkeley's Literary Relics, p. 394. He kept his place by Ormond's protection. He showed his gratitude by being absent from the House of Commons as by accident,' when Ormond was impeached. Works, vi. 671. Swift said that he too had helped to secure Addison his place. Swift's Works, iii. 8o.


Nichols says that 'Addison's papers at least up to No. 155 were transcribed by some amanuensis before they were sent to the printer.' The Tatler, 1789, iii. 297. Swift does not mention Addison as a contributor in his Journal to Stella. In The Present State of Wit, dated May 3, 1711, included in Swift's Works (vi. 153), but probably by Gay, the writer says (p. 159) every one was set upon guessing who was the 'Squire's (Steele's] friend, and most people at first fancied it must be Dr. Swift; but it is now no longer a secret that his only great and constant assistant was Mr. Addison.' In the last Tatler Steele says that he is beholden for some of his best papers to a person who is too fondly my friend ever to own them.'

Johnson mentions'the great success of the publication of The Tatler by subscription. Post, POPE, 73. It was published in 1710 in four volumes octavo. According to Nichols the subscription was a guinea a volume. The Tatler, 1789, iii. 353 n. In the Duchess of Grafton's accounts is the following entry :—April, 1710. To the Tatler, £2. 3. o.

Hanmer Corres. p. 237. This was the subscription for two volumes. 718 copies were subscribed for. See list prefixed to edition of 1710. Addison in No. 162 speaks of such generous subscriptions as will give a magnificence to my old age.' On the very day the first two volumes appeared it was also published in two volumes duodecimo at 25. 6d. a volume. This cheap publication was probably due to a pirated edition. The Tatler, 1789, iv. 46.


The Spectator began on March 1, 1710-11.

‘March 16, 1710-11. Have you seen The Spectator yet? It is written by Mr. Steele, who seems to have gathered new life, and have a new fund of wit. I believe Addison and he club.'

• April 28, 1711. It is written by Steele with Addison's help; 'tis often very pretty.'

Nov. 18. Do you read The Spectators? I never do; they never come in my way; I go to no coffee-houses.' Swift, Works, ii. 201, 240, 407.

Addison wrote about 240 Spectators, of about 112 lines to a number. In 92 weeks he wrote, roughly speaking, 26,680 lines, or 292 lines a week. Johnson wrote 203 Ramblers in 103 weeks, which, at 167 lines to a number, give 33,901 lines or 329 a week. Johnson moreover all these weeks was working at his Dictionary.

See John. . JOHNSON. It is wonderful that there is such a proportion of bad papers in the half of the work which was not written by Addison; for there was all the world to write that half, yet not a half of that half is good.' Boswell's Johnson, iii. 33.

'You will find all The Spectators that are good, that is all Addison's, in my library.' CHESTERFIELD, Letters to his Son, i. 227.


Fleetwood's Preface was printed in The Spectator, No. 384, May 21, 1712. He was then Bishop of St. Asaph. The sermons had been preached on the deaths of Mary, William III, and the Duke of Gloucester, and on the accession of Anne. 'He has asserted,' writes The Spectator, " that Christianity left us where it found us as to our civil rights.' Nichols, who was likely to have good information, was told that this number was not published till twelve o'clock, that it might come out precisely at the hour of her Majesty's breakfast, and that no time might be left for deliberating about serving it up with that meal as usual.' The Spectator, 1789, v. 401. According to Scott'the Queen was so partial to Fleetwood as usually to call him her bishop.' Swift's Works, iv. 119.

By order of the House of Commons (June 10, 1712) the Preface was burnt by the common hangman. Parl. Hist. vi. 1151.

Fleetwood wrote to Burnet on June 17, 1712 :—* Everybody's curiosity is awakened by this usage, and the bookseller finds his account in it above any one else. The Spectator has conveyed above 14,000 of them into other people's hands, that would otherwise have never seen or heard of it. ... We are fallen methinks into the very dregs of Charles the Second's politics. Sermons, &c., 1737, Preface, p. 6.

Swift, in 1712, attacked Fleetwood in two papers. Works, iv. 119, 129. Of Steele he wrote on July 1, 1712:—'I believe he will very soon lose his employment, for he has been mightily impertinent of late in his Spectators.' Ib. iii. 38. On June 4, 1713, Steele resigned his

Commissionership of Stamps. Montgomery's Steele, i. 418. According to Swift (Works, iv. 208) he knew his dismissal was impending.

‘Johnson introduced Fleetwood's Reasonable Communicant to the University of Oxford by recommending it to a young student there.' John. Misc. ii. 147.


On July 19, 1712, Swift wrote :-'Grub street has but ten days to live; then an act of parliament takes place that ruins it, by taxing every half sheet at a halfpenny.' Works, iii. 42. On Aug. 7 he added :• Do you know that Grub Street is dead and gone last week? ... The Spectator keeps up and doubles its price.' Ib. p. 44. Addison called 'this mortality among authors “the fall of the leaf.”. The Spectator, No. 445. In No. 10 he had written :- My publisher tells me that there are already three thousand of my papers distributed every day.' In the last number (555) it is said that the tax at first reduced the issue to less than half. By this time (Dec. 1712) nine or ten thousand copies of the first and second volumes had also been sold. See Nos. 488, 555. In 1712 Addison and Steele sold to S. Buckley one halfshare of the first seven volumes for £575. Works, vi. 630.

In 1694 Bentley had been deterred from printing his Philostratus and Manilius 'by the increased expense of paper and printing, the consequence of war and new taxes.' Monk's Bentley, i. 57.


APPENDIX P (Page 105) Some tell us that C is the mark of those papers written by the Clergyman, though others ascribe them to the Club in general. ... That L signifies the Lawyer, whom I have described in my speculations.' ADDISON, The Spectator, No. 221. Steele, in No. 555, gives the explanation of C. L. I. O. adopted by Johnson.

“The signatures of Addison's papers occur in this order :-1, C. 2, L. 3, I. 4, 0.' Nichols. The Spectator, 1789, i. 45. Nichols suggests that C. stands for Chelsea or College (sketched at College, ib. vii. 21); L. for London ; I. for Islington (ib. iv. 276), and O. for his Office or Oxford (sketched when a student at Oxford, ib. vi. 92). O., I think, is first found at the end of No. 405. If Addison had used C, L, I to indicate the place where he wrote the paper, it might have struck him that the addition of O would suggest Clio.

APPENDIX Q (PAGE 110) ""Tell Lady Henrietta," says Dr. Cheyne, writing to Lord Harley, “that Lady Warwick's marriage with Mr. Addison was upon terms, he settling (or giving) £4,000 in lieu of an estate which she gave up for his

From the original in the British Museum. Lucy Aikin's Addison, ii. 185.

sake." ;

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