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I. General Factors; II. Militarism and Armaments; III. Failure of
Alliance and the Triple Entente; III. Three Diplomatic Crises; IV. Bagdad
Railroad and Mittel-Europa; V. Tripolitan and Balkan Wars.
I. Prior Relations of Serbia, Austria and Russia; II. The Serajevo
Declares War on Serbia; VI. Conclusions.
Preserving Peace; III. German Ultimatums and Declarations of War against
Russia and France; IV. German Responsibility for the War.
I. Other States Enter the War; II. World-wide Character of the War;
lations of International Law; V. Summary and Explanation of German Policy.
III. Summary of Reasons for Entering the War.
Topical Outline of the War
BY SAMUEL B. HARDING, PROFESSOR OF EUROPEAN HISTORY IN INDIANA UNIVERSITY.
PREPARED IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE NATIONAL BOARD FOR HISTORICAL SERVICE AND THE COMMITTEE
ON PUBLIC INFORMATION.*
I. FUNDAMENTAL CAUSES OF THE WAR.
already, to give vent to our surplus energies without I. GENERAL FACTORS.
losing them and to make the motherland economi
cally independent.” (Manifesto of the Colonial 1. The constitution of the German Empire permits its for
League.) oign policy to be determined by the Emperor alone, who
"We need a fleet strong enough not only to protect is at the same time, by “divine right,” King of Prus
the colonies we now have, but to bring about the acsia—the State which possesses an overwhelming terri
quisition of others.” (Manifesto of
the Navy torial, political, and military predominance in the
“A progressive nation like ours needs territory, “The Emperor declares war with the consent of and if this cannot be obtained by peaceful means, it the Bundesrat, the assent of the Reichstag not being
must be obtained by war. It is the object of tho Derequired. Not even the Bundesrat need be consulted fense Association [Wehrverein) to create this sontiif the war is defensive, and as the Hohenzollerns ment.” (Lieut.-General Wrochem in speech to the have always claimed to make defensive warfare it is
Wehrverein in March, 1913.) not surprising that
Without doubt this acquisition of new lands will Bundesrat was officially informed about the present not take place without war. What world power w08 war three days after the Emperor declared it.” ever established without bloody struggles ?” (Al(Charles D. Hazen, The Government of Germany;
brecht Wirth, Volkstum und Weltmacht in der Committee on Public Information publication.) (See Geschichte, 1904. Quoted by Andler, Le PangermanWar Cyclopedia, under "Autocracy,” “ Kaiserism," isme continentale, 1915, p. 308.) “ William II.”)
"It is only by relying on our good German sword 2. Profit derived from war in the past by Prussia (Ger
that we can hope to conquer that place in the sun many).
which rightly belongs to us, and which no one will (a) Through increase of territory (cf. maps).
yield to us voluntarily. ... Till the world comes to (b) Through indemnities (e. g., from France, 1871). an end, the ultimate decision must rest with the (c) Through increased prestige and influence. Hence sword.” (German Crown Prince, in Introduction to
justification of the "blood and iron ” policy of Germany in Arms, 1913.)
4. Biological argument for war.
(a) Darwin's theory of the “struggle for existence.” sia's power by successful and deliberately incurred
as a chief factor in the evolution of species. wars. Frederick the Great followed in tho footsteps
(b) Development in Germany of the theory that of his glorious ancestor. ... None of the wars which
States are of necessity engaged in such a strug he fought had been forced upon him; none of them
gle for existence.” did he postpone as long as possible. . . The lessons
(c) Hence war is an “ordinance of God for the weedof history thus confirm the view that wars which
ing out of weak and incompetent individuals and have been deliberately provoked by far-seeing states
States.” Corollary: “Might makes right.” men have had the happiest results.” (Bernhardi, (d) Examples of such arguments from Treitschke, Germany and the Next War, 1911.)
Bernhardi, etc. (See Conquest and Kultur, sec. 3. Gormany's demand for “ a place in the sun."
2, 4; War Cyclopedia, under “ Bernhardi,” “ Treitschke," "
Vernon (ax Meaning of the Kaiser's phrase (“ a place in the
“ War, German View; sun") not clear. It covers vaguely colonies, com
Kellogg, Headquarters' Nights," in Atlantic merce, and influence in international affairs in
Monthly for August, 1917.) proportion to Germany's population, industrial
“War is a biological necessity of the frst imimportance, and military power.
portance, a regulative element in the life of mankind (b) Obstacles. The German Empire was & late
which cannot be dispensed with, since without it an comer in the family of nations; the best regions unhealthy development will follow, which excludes for colonization and exploitation, especially in every advancement of the race, and thereforo all real the temperate zones, were already occupied by
civilization. ... 'To supplant or be supplanted is other Powers.
the essence of life,' says Goethe, and the strong life (c) Examples of the demand. (See Conquest and gains the upper hand. The law of the stronger holds
Kultur, secs. 6, 10; War Cyclopedia, under good everywhere. Those forms survive which are “ Place in the Sun," " Pan-Germanism," otc.)
able to procure themselves the most favorablo con“We need colonies, and more colonies, than we have
ditions of life, and to assert themselvos in the universal
economy of Nature. The weakor sucTuis outline was prepared with the active aid of the Committee on
cumb... Tublie Information (Department of Civic and Educational Co-operation), 10 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. Frequent reference is
“ Might gives the right to occupy or to conquer. made herein to the publications of this committee, which with a few
Might is at once the supreme right, and the dispute neoptions are distributed tree upon application
Copyright, 1917, McKinley Publishing Company.