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by encouragements, in money, or by imposing duties on importation of such goods, it has been generally refused, on this principle, that if the country is ripe for the manufacture, it may be carried on by private persons to advantage; and if not, it is a folly to think of forcing na. ture. Great establishments of manufactnre require great numbers of poor to do the work for small wages; those poor are to be found in Europe. but will not be found in America, till the lands are all taken up and cultivated, and the excess of people, who cannot get land, want en ployment. The manufacture of silk, they say, is natural in France, as that of cloth in England, because each country produces in plenty the first material: but if Eng. land will have a manufacture of silk as well as that of cloth, and France of cloth as well as that of silk, these unnatural operations must be supported by mutual prohibitions, or high duties on the importation of each other's goods; by which means the workmen are enabled to tax the home consumer by, greater prices, while the higher wages they receive makes them neither happier nor richer, since they only drink more and work less. Therefore the governments in America do nothing to encourage such projects. The people, by this means, are not imposed on either by the merchant or mechanic: if the merchant demands too much profit on imported shoes, they buy of the shoe-maker; and if he asks too high a price, they take them of the merchant: thus the two professions are checks on each other. The shoemaker, however, has, on the whole, a considerable profit upon his labour in America, beyond what he had in Europe, as he can add to his price a sum nearly equal to all the expences of treight and commission, risque or insurance, etc. necessarily charged by the merchant. And the case is the same with the workmen in every other mechanic art. Hence it is, that artisans generally live better and more easily in America than in Europe; and such as are good economists make a comfortable provision for age, and for their children. Such may, therefore, remove with advantage to America.
In the old long-settled countries of Europe, all arts, trades, professions, farms, etc. are so full, that it is dif. ficult for a poor man who has children, to place them where they may gain, or learn to gain, a decent liveli. hood. The artisans, who fear creating future rivals in business, refuse to take apprentices, but upon conditions of money, maintenance, or the like, which the parents are unable to comply with. Hence the youth are dragged up in ignorance of every gainful art, and obliged to becoine soldiers, or servants, or thieves, for a subsistence. In America, the rapid increase of inhabitants takes away that fear of rivalship, and artisans willingly receive apprentices from the hope of profit by their labour, during the remainder of the time stipulated, after they shall be instructed. Hence it is easy for poor families to get their
children instructed; for the artisans are so desirous of apprentices, that many of them will even give money to the parents, to have boys from ten to fifteen years of age bound apprentices to them, till the age of twentyone; and many poor parents have, by that means, ou their arrival in the country, raised money enough to buy land sufficient to establish themiselves, and to subsist the rest of their family by agriculture.
These contracts for apprentices are made before a magistrate, who regulates the agreement according to reason and justice, and, having in view the formation of a future useful citizen, obliges the master to engage by a written indenture, not only that, during the time of service stipulated, the apprentice shall be duly provided with meat, drink, apparel, washing, and lodging, and at its expiration with a complete new suit of clothes, but also, that he shall be taught to read, write, and cast accounts; and that he shall be well instructed in the art or profession of his master, or some other, by which he may afterwards gain a livelihood, and be able in his turn to raise a fanily. A copy of this indenture is given to the apprentice or his friends, and the magistrate keeps a record of it, to which recourse may be had, in case of failure by the master in any point of performance. This desire among the masters, to have more hands employed in working for theni, induces them to pay the passages of young persons, of both sexes, who, on their arrival, agree to serve them one, two, three, or four years; those who have already learned a trade, agreeing for a shorter them, in proportion to their skill, and the consequent immediate value of their setvice; and those who have none, agreeing for a longer term, in consideration of being taught an art their poverty would not permit them to acquire in their own country.
The almost general mediocrity of fortune that prevails in America, obliging its people to follow some business for subsistence, those vices, that arise usually from idleness, are in a great measure prevented. Industry and constant employment are great preservatives of the morals and virtue of a nation. Hence bad examples to youth are'more rare in America, which must be a comfortable consideration to parents. To this may be truly added, that serious religion, under its varions denominations, is not only tolerated, but respected and practised. Atheism is unknown 'there; infidelity rare and secret; so that persons may live to a great age in that country, without having their piety shocked by meeting with either an atheist or an infidel.' And the Divine Being seems to have manifested his approbation of the mutual forbearance and kindness with which the different sects treat each other, by the remarkable prosperity with which he has been pleased to favour the whole country.
TO THE EARL OF BUCHAN, Concerning new Settlements in America.
Passy, March 17, 1783. I received the letter your lordship did me the honour of writing to me 18th past, and am much obliged by your kind congratulations on the return of peace, which I hope will be lasting:
With regard to the terms on which lands may be acquired in America, and the manner of beginning new settlements on them, I cannot give better information than may be found in a book lately printed at London, under some soch title as - Letters from a Pennsylvanian Farmer, by Hector St. John. The only encouragement we hold out to strangers are,
a good climate, fertile soil, wholesome air and water, plenty of provisions and food, good pay for labour, kind neighbours, good laws, and a hearty welcome. The rest depends on a man's own industry and virtue. Lands are cheap, but they must be bought. Al settlements are undertaken at private expence; the public contribut:s nothing but defence and justice. I have long, observed of your people, that their sobriety, frugality, industry and honesty, seldom fail of success in America, and of pröcuring them a good establishment among us.
I do not recollect the circumstance you are pleased to mention, of my having saved a citizen at St. Andrew's by giving a turn to his disorder; and I am curious to know, what the disorder was, and what the advice ! gave, that proved so salutary *)." With great regard I have the ho. nour to be, my lord, your lordship’s most obedient and most humble servant,
A COMPARISON OF THE CONDUCT OF
THE ANCIENT JEWS, and of the Antifederalists in the United States
A zealous advocate for the proposed federal constitution in a certain public assembly said, that the re*y It was a fever in which the Earl of Bachan', thew lord Cadross, lay
sick at St. Andrew's; and the advice was, not to blister, according 10 the Old practico and the Opinion of the learned Dr. Simsop, brother of the celebrated geometrician at Glasgow.
pugnance of a great part of mankind of good government was such, that the believed, that if an angel from heaven was to bring down a constitntion, formed there for our use, it would nevertheless 'meet with violent opposition.. He was reproved for the supposed extravagance of the sentiment, and he did not justify it. Probably it might not have immediately occurred to him, that the experiment had been tried, and that the event was recorded in the most faithful of all histories, the Holy Bible; otherwise le might, as it seems to me, have supported his opinion by that unexceptionable authority.
The supreme Being had been pleased to nourish up a single family, by continued acts of his attentive providence, till it became a great people: and having rescued them from bondage by many miracles, performed by his servant Moses, he personally delivered to that chosen servant, in presence of the whole nation, a constitution and code of laws for their observance, accompanied and sanction. ed with promises of great rewards, and thieats of severe punishments, as the consequence of their obedience or disobedience.
This constitution, though the Deity himself was to be at its head (and it is therefore called by political writers a theocracy) could not be carried into execution but by the means of his ministers; Aaron and his sons were therefore commissioned to be, with Moses, the first established ministry of the new government.
One would have thought, that the appointment of men, who had distinguished themselves in procuring the liberty of their nation, and had hazarded their lives in openly opposing the will of a powerful monarch, who would have retained that nation in slavery, might have been an appointment acceptable to a grateful people, and that a constitution, framed for them by the Deity himself, might on that account have been secure of an universal welcome reception. Yet there were, in every one of the thirteen tribes, some discontented, restless spirits, who were continually exciting them to reject the proposed new government, and this from various motives.
Many still retained an affection for Egypt, the land of their nativity, and these, whenever they felt any inconvenience or hardship, though the natural and unavoidable effect their change of situation, exclaimed against their leaders as the authors of their trouble: and were not only for returning into Egypt, but for stoning their deliverers *). Those inclined to idolatry were displeased that their golden calf was destroyed. Many of the chiefs thought the constitution might be injurious to their particular interest, that the provitable places would be engrossed by the families and friends of Mo. ses and Aaron, and others, equally well burn, exclud
*, Numbers, chap. XIV.
Te landet, already levied and given to Aaron Att), was to be
ed *). – In Josephus, and the Talmud, we learn some par. ticulars, not so fully narrated in the scripture. We are there told, that Corah was ambitious of the priesthood, and offended that it was conferred on Aaron; and this, as he said, by the authority of Moses only, without the consent of the people. He accused Moses of having, by various artifices, fraudulently obtained the government, and deprived the people of their liberfies, and of conspiring with Aaron to perpetuate the tyranny in their family. Thus, though Corah's real motive was the supplanting of Aaron, he persuaded the people that he meant only the public good; and they, moved by his insinuations, began
to cry out, “Let us maintain the common liberty of our Ed by bol respective tribes; we have freed ourselves from the sla
very imposed upon us by the Egyptians, and shall we suffer ourselves te be made slaves by Moses? If we must have a master, it were better to return to Pharaoh, who at least feed us with bread and onions, than to serve this new tyrant, who, by his operations, has brought us into danger of famine.'Then they called in question the reality of his conference with God, and objected to the privacy of the meetings, and the preventing any of the people from being present at the colloquies, or even approaching the place, as grounds of great suspicion. They accused Moses also of peculation, as enibezzling part of the golden spoons and the silver chargers, that the princes had offered at the dedication of the altar **), and the offerings of gold by the common people ***), as well as must of the poll tax t); and Aaron they accused of pocketing much of the gold of which he pretended to have made a molten calf. Besides peculation, they char. ged Moses with ambition; to gratify which passion, he had, they said, deceived the people, by promising to bring. them to a land flowing with milk and honey; instead of doing which, he had brought them from such a land; and that he thought light of all this mischief, provided he could make himself an absolute prince ft. That, to support the new dignity with splendour in his fanıily, the partial poll
of berert dience #
was tok al writers on but by ODS WERE first esta
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che liber in opel could bar) en an 4 hat a might a
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their displeasi the chien urious de places ts of lo
*) Numbers, chap. XIV. ver. 3. And they gathered themselves together
against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them, ye take too much upou you, seeing all the congregations are holy, every one of them,
wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the con. gregation.. *) Nambers, chap. VII. ***) Exodus, chap. XXXV. ver 22, 1) Numbers, chap. III, and Exodus, chap. XXX. tt) Numbers, chap. XVI. ver. 13. « Is it a small thing that thou hast
brought us up out of a land lowing with milk and honey, to kill