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under the form of that animal. The principal tenets ascribIn consequence of this opinion ed to Origen, together with a they offered a subordinate kind few of the reasons made use of divine worship to a certain of in their defence, are comnumber of serpents, which prehended in the following they nourished and esteemed summary : sacred. It is said they kept

1. That there is a pre-exa live serpent in a kind of istent state of human souls: cage. At certain times they for the nature of the soul is opened the door and called such as to make her capable the serpent. The animal came of existing eternally, backout, and, mounting upon the ward as well as forward ; betable, twined itself about some cause her spiritual essence, as loaves of bread. This bread such, makes it impossible that they broke and distributed she should, either through age among

the company, who all or violence, be dissolved : so kissed the serpent. This they that nothing is wanting to her called their eucharist. Their existence but the good pleaother opinions were similar sure of him from whom all with the rest of the Egyptian things proceed. And if, acGnostics.* See Gnostics. cording to the Platonic scheme,

ORIGENISTS, a denomi- we assign the production of all etion which appeared in the things to the exuberant fulthird century, who derived ness of life in the Deity, which, their opinions from the writ- through the blessed necessity ings of Origen, a presbyter of of his communicative nature, Alexandria, and a man of vast empties itself into all possibiand uncommon abilities, who lities of being, as into so many interpreted the divine truths capable receptacles, we must of religion according to the suppose her existence in a tenor of the Platonic philoso- sense necessary, and in a dea phy. He alleged that the gree co-eternal with God. source of many evils lies in 2. That souls were adhering to the literal and 'demned to animate mortal external part of scripture ; bodies, in order to expiate and that the true meaning of faults they had committed in the sacred writers was to be a pre-existent state: for we sought in a mysterions and may be assured, from the inhidden sense, arising from the finite goodness of their Creanature of things themselves. tor, that they were at first

con

* Broughton, vol, ii, p. 191. Mosheim, vol. i. pp. 189—190,

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joined to the purest matter," the scriptures teach us that and placed in those regions of the soul of the Messiah was the universe which were most created before the beginning suitable to the purity of of the world. (Phil. ii. 5—7.) essence they then possessed. This text must be understood For that the souls of men are of Christ's human soul, bean order of essentially incor- cause it is unusual to proporate spirits, their deep im- pound the Deity as an exammersion into terrestrial mat- ple of humility in scripture. ter, the modification of all Though the bumanity of their operations by it, and Christ was so God-like, he the heavenly body promised emptied himself of ibis fulness in the gospel, as the highest of life and glory, to take upon perfection of our renewed na, him the form of a servant. It ture, clearly evince. There- was this Messiah who confore if our souls existed before versed . with the patriarchs they appeared inbabitants of under a human form : it was the earth, they were placed in he who appeared to Moses à purer element, and enjoyed upon the holy mount: it was far greater degrees of happi- he who spoke to the prophets ness. And certainly he, whose under a visible appearance : overflowing goodness brought and it is he who will at last them into existence, would come in triumph upon the not deprive. them of their clouds, to restore the universe delicity, till, by their mutabi- to its primitive splendour and lity, they rendered themselves felicity. less pure in the whole extent 4. That at the resurrection of their powers, and became we shall be clothed with ethedisposed for the susception of real bodies. For the elements such a degree of corporeal life of our terrestrial compositions as was exactly, answerable to are such as almost fatally their present disposition of entangle us in vice, passion, spirit. Hence it was necessary and wisery. The purer the that they should become tern vehicle the soul is united with restrial men.

the more perfect is her life 3. That the soul of Christ and operations. Besides, the was -united to the Word be- supreme Goodness who made fore the incarnation.t For all things assures us he made

Origen supposed that our souls, being incorporeal and invisible, always stand in need of bodies suitable to the nature of the places where they

exist,

* See this subject more fully illustrated in Dr. Watts's Glory of Christ.

all things best at first; and thing analogous to this in the therefore his recovery of us intellectual system: and since to our lost happines (which is the spirits created by God aré the design of the gospel) must emanations and streams from restore us to our better bodies his own abyss of being, and and happier habitations, which as self-existent power must is evident from 1 Cor. xv. 49, needs subject all beings to 2 Cor. v. 1, and other texts of itself, the Deity could not but scripture.

impress upon her intimate na. 5. That, after long periods tures and substances a cenof time, the dam sed shall be tral tendency towards himself, released from their torments, an essential principle of reand restored to a new state of union to their great original. probation. For the Deity has 6. That the earth after its such reserves in his gracious conflagration shall become haprovidence as will vindicate bitable again, and be the manhis sovereign goodness and sion of men and other ani. wisdom from all disparage- mals, and that in eternal vicis. ment. Expiatory pains are a situdes. For it is thus ex: part of his adorable plan : for presssed in Isaiah : Behold, I this sharper kind of favour make new heavens, and a new has a righteous place in such earth, &c.; and in Heb. i. creatures as are by nature 10-12, Thou, Lord, in the miutable. Though sin has ex- beginning hast laid the foundatinguished, or silenced the tions of the earth ; as a vesture divine life, yet it has not de- shalt thou change them, and stroyed the faculties of reason they shall be changed, &c. and understanding, considera- Where there is only a change lion and memory, which will the substance is not destroyed, serve the life which is most this change being only as that powerful. If, therefore, the of a garment worn out and vigorous attraction of the sené decaying. The fashion of the sual nature be abated by a world passes away like a turaceaseless pain, these powers ing scene, to exhibit' a fresh may resume the seeds of a and

new representation of better life and nature. As in things; and if only the prethe material system there is a sent dress and appearance of gravitation of the less bodies things go off, the substance is towards the greater, there supposed to remain entire.* must of necessity be some OSIANDRIANS, a deno

* Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol, i. p. 219, 225. Cudworth's Intellectual System, vol. ii. p. 818. The Phønix, vol. i. pp. 16–57. Cheyne's PhiJosiphical Principles of Religion, pp. 47-84, Travels of Cyrus, pp. 235,

mination among the Lutherans, 2. That man becomes a which was founded in the year partaker of this divine righ1550, by Andrew Osiander, a teousness by faith, since it is celebrated German divine, in consequence of this uniting whose doctrine amounted to principle that Christ dwells in the following propositions : the heart of man with bis divine

1. That Christ, considered righteousness. Now, wherever in his human nature only, this divine righteousnessdwells, could not, by his obedience to there God can behold no sin : the divine law, obtain justifi- therefore, when it is present cation and pardon for sinners: with Christ in the hearts of neither can we be justified be- the regenerate, they are on its fore God by embracing and account considered by the applying to ourselves through Deity as righteous, although faith, the righteousness and they be sinners. Moreover : obedience of the man Christ. this divine and justifying righIt is only through that eternal teousness of Christ excites the and essential righteousness faithful to the pursuit of holiwhich dwells in Christ, consi- ness, and to the practice of dered as God, and which re- virtue.* sides in his divine nature, that OSSENIANS, a denominais united to the human, that tion in the first century, which mankind can obtain complete taught that faith may and justification.

ought to be dissembled.

APISTS, so called by open the gates of heaven to adhering to the pope. Roman communicate obstinate offenCatholics is the title which they ders. And he wears the triple apply to themselves. The word crown, to inform the christian pope is derived from the greek world that he is constituted

of lantas, which signifies a with spiritual jurisdiction over father. Hence he is styled priests, emperors, and kings. the Father of the Church. This denomination suppose This pontiff is likewise called that the bishops of Rome are the Vicar of Jesus Christ, the the descendants of St. Peter, Visible Head of the Church, and in that quality have from and the Successor of St. the beginning exercised juris. Peter. He wears the keys, as diction over the churches. On an emblem of his power to the other hand, many protes.

* Mosheim, vol. iv. p. 46.
+ Dufresnoy's Chronological Tables, vol. ii. p. 195.

tant writers have dated the established a spiritual domi-
rise of the papal power from nion over the minds and con-
the year 606, when Pope Boni- sciences of men, to which all
face the third assumed the Europe submitted with ima
title of Universal Bishop, con- plicit obedience, till at length
ferred upon him by Phocas, their formidable power was
ending A. D. 1866. Others weakened by the reformation.
fix it about the middle of the The principal points which
eighth century, A. D. 756, distinguished the papists from
when Pepin invested Pope the protestants, together with
Stephen with the temporal a few of the reasons they
dominion of Rome, and the bring to support their senti-
neighbouring territories, upon ments, are comprised in the
the ceasing of the exarchate following summary :-
of Ravenna. They suppose 1. That St. Peter was de-
in the primitive church the signed by Christ to be the head
jurisdiction of bishops was of the church; and the bishops
equal and co-ordinate. They of Rome, being his successors,
derived perhaps some degree have the same apostolic autho-
of pre-eminence from the rity. For our Saviour declares
dignity of the see in which in Matt. xi. 18, Thou art Peter,
they presided. They possess- and upon this rock will I build
ed, however, no real authoriy my church: therefore the church
or pre-eminence, but what is built upon Peter.* A suc-
they acquired by superior cession in the church is now
abilities, or superior sanctity. necessary in the new testament,
As Rome had been so long the as Aaron had his succession in
seat of empire, and capital of the old; but there can be no
the world, its bishops were certain succession now shewn
on that account entitled to only in the chair of St. Peter
respect. They received it: at Rome; therefore the bishops
but during several ages, they of Rome are the true succes-
claimed and received nothing sors of Peter. The church of
more. From these humble 'the old testament was a figure
beginnings they advanced with of the church under the new;
such an adventurous and well but they had a high priest
directed ambition, that they above the rest: therefore the

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* The general doctrine of the church of Rome is, that Peter was not only appointed by our Saviour the chief of tie apostles and head of the universal church ; but that, after having been seven years bishop at Antioch, he came to Romes where he was bishop twenty-five years, and suffered martyrdom under the Emperor Nero,

to

This opinion

or doctrine in common е e churches (pet, sorula) y not suliar to that of Rous

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