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in the Ohio Valley and the vital role played by modern river transportation in the economy of the valley and the Nation.

By 1965, if adequate navigation facilities are made available on the Ohio, tonnage is expected to exceed 120 million, as compared with 52 million tons estimated for that year on the St. Lawrence Seaway.

The river, improved to accommodate growing traffic volumes, is the key to the future prosperity of the valley. Low-cost water transport attracts industry and strengthens existing industrial operations. This means increased emplos. ment and a higher standard of life for areas which for years have suffered from chronic depression.

The Congress has wisely recognized the importance to the Nation of the Corps of Engineers long-range Ohio River modernization plan. The purpose of that plan is to replace 46 outmoded, inadequate locks and dams with 19 modern structures which will eliminate traffic bottlenecks and expand the capacity of the river to meet the rising traffic needs of the greatest industrial valley on earth.

Already, construction of six replacement structures—New Cumberland. Greenup, New Richmond, Markland, lock and dam 41, and Pike Island, is underway.

It is imperative that work proceed at the maximum rate consistent with efficient expenditure of funds. It is equally essential that adequate adrance engineering and design funds be provided to assure continuity of the program.

The Ohio River modernization program is one of the most outstanding works of public improvement undertaken in the United States in modern times. Benefit-cost ratios, as conservatively estimated by the Corps of Engineers, are exceptionally favorable. These ratios are currently estimated as follows:

Benefit-caet ratio, Arx

Corps of Project:

Engineers New Cumberland.

3.1 Greenup

3. 9 Markland Lock and dam No. 41.

4.3 Captain Anthony Meldahl (formerly New Richmond).

3.2 Pike Island --

1.9 Every one of the Ohio River replacement dams must ultimately be built Each project will make its full contribution only when the entire program of related facilities is completed. Delay means higher ultimate costs. The work should proceed as rapidly as funds can be efficiently spent.

Moreover, the Ohio River modernization projects will reduce the costs of transporting basic commodities and thereby enlarge the markets and strengthen the competitive position of the entire industrial complex based upon the river. From a long-range point of view, the effect of the program can only be to strengthen the national economy in peace and in time of national emergency.

The existing inadequate locks and dams burden river commerce with encessive costs resulting from delays and congestion. These outmoded facilities place a ceiling on future development and are already exercising a retarding effect. They should be replaced as rapidly as possible in order to permit the vast economic potential of the Ohio Valley to be realized. This modernization program is of the utmost importance to eastern Kentucky, where serious unemployment is a continuing problem. Expanded employment opportunities to relieve these tragic conditions may confidently be expected from industrial growth made possible by development of the region's water resources. Accordingly, I urgently recommend appropriations for continuing construction of navigation projects on the main stream of the Ohio as follows: New Cumberland locks and dam, West Virginia and Ohio--

$6, 190, 070) Greenup locks and dam, Kentucky and Ohio ---

9, 99,000 Markland-Warsaw locks and dam, Kentucky and Indiana_.

13, 900,00 Lock and dam No. 41, Kentucky and Indiana..

9, 700.000 Captain Anthony Meldahl locks and dam, Kentucky and Ohio---- 18, 000, Pike Island locks and dam, Ohio and West Virginia--

9,000.00 The recommended figures reflect in each case the stated capabilities of the Corps of Engineers for efficient employment of funds. They would call for an increase in budgeted funds for the Markland-Warsaw, lock and dam 41. and Captain Anthony Meldahl projects. Deficiencies in the budget estimates

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require correction to prevent significant delays which would be especially serious in the case of the Markland-Warsaw and Meldahl projects.

I most urgently recommend that funds be provided to permit initiation of construction of the Belleville locks and dam in the amount of $750,000, representing an increase of $500,000 over the $250,000 planning funds budgeted for this item Failure to initiate construction of this project in fiscal 1961, when the New Cumberland and Greenup projects will be completed, could only mean a drastic retardation in the rate of progress in the Ohio River program. Such a slowdown of a vitally important national project would, in my judgment, be contrary to the public interest.

The Budget is most gravely deficient in its failure to recommend any funds for initiation of advance engineering and design on Ohio River projects. Clearly, planning work must be instituted if the momentum of this important work is to be maintained. Accordingly, I most strongly urge that funds be provided in the amounts set forth below to initiate advance engineering and design work in fiscal 1961 : Cannelton-Hawesville locks and dam, Indiana and Kentucky

$150,000 Opossum Creek locks and dam, West Virginia and Ohio

200,000 Racine locks and dam, West Virginia and Ohio ---

50, 000

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Inasmuch as the North Fork of Pound Reservoir is now in the process of being authorized, I respectfully request that the Appropriations Committee make available the sum of $25,000 for advance planning and engineering.



Washington, D.O., March 8, 1960.
House of Representatives.

DEAR MR. PERKINS: Reference is made to your letter of March 3, 1960, with regard to our engineering capability for fiscal year 1961 on the Fishtrap Reservoir project.

From the strictly engineering standpoint, considering this project by itself without reference to our overall program, our overall capability, or fiscal considerations, an amount of $650,000 could be utilized for the Fishtrap Reservoir project in fiscal year 1961. As you know, the amount for this project included in the President's budget is $349,000, which represents the maximum amount which can be utilized in view of overall budgetary considerations.

The amount included in the President's budget for fiscal year 1961 will allow for completion of preconstruction planning. The balance of $301,000, therefore, would be available for the initiation of construction. Sincerely yours,


Major General, U.S. Army,

Assistant Chief of Engineers for Civil Works. Mr. PERKINS. The next witness, Mr. Chairman, is Rev. Harold W. Dorsey of Prestonsburg, Ky.

We have so many witnesses, Mr. Dorsey, if you can limit your presentation to about 3 or 4 minutes I am sure the members of the committee will appreciate it.

Mr. RABAUT. We shall be pleased to hear from you now, Reverend


Mr. DORSEY. My name is Harold W. Dorsey, Prestonsburg, Ky. My concern is flood control for the Big Sandy River Basin on the Levisa Fork. This concern came after the 1957 devastating flood which ran like mad through our county with mad destruction as its apparent motive. This concern has come about because of the 1957 devastating

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flood through our county, destroying everything in its path. These witnesses that have testified before me have already impressed upon you the tremendous damage that was done. We are very grateful for what has already taken place here today and the appropriations that have been made for this flood protection in the valley.

The total damage was more than $50 million. Many businessmen after 3 years suffer from losses realized during this flood. Some hare never been able to revive their business balance. The fear provoked by this flood has left its lasting scars on the minds of the children, youth, and adults. The fear of "threatened atomic attack" is not as great in the minds of our people as that of another flood.

As we came, pleading for continued progress in the control of our floods, we crossed the Big Sandy at its mouth. It was being flooded from threatening floodwaters. If there would be at this time a large rainfall in the mountains which drain into the Levisa Fork, the damage could be tremendous. With each unusual rain, we are threatened with a flood.

We are grateful and thankful for the $2.5 million which was allotted to the Pound Reservoir last year. This provides a little flood protection for us, but it is in Virginia. This gave us hope, however, and fears will not subside until all these flood control reservoirs are constructed. The Fishtrap Reservoir is a must, now. The Corps of Engineers state that is is possible to complete the planning and engineering with $349,000 which is in the 1960–61 budget. They further testify to the effect that they can use $301,000 of construction money in the fiscal year 1960–61 for the Fishtrap project. We are here to persuade you to recommend this amount.

Pikeville, Paintsville, Prestonsburg, and Martin all have improvement projects now in progress. The bureaus cooperating in those projects accelerated the program in each community because of the emergency status of our economy, which was precipitated by the 1957 flood.

Our area is depressed and blighted economically. It need not be with all the resources which we have. It is the desire of the leaders and the people to elevate this area, which comprises one quarter of a million people, to a higher social, industrial, and economic level.

Fishtrap Reservoir is essential to the survival of our area. New industry is now moving into the lower Sandy Valley Basin. Faith in our area has been shown, yet these new industrial developments will not come to this flooded section in which we live. There must be a guarantee against the loss from flood.

Prestonsburg is encircled by the Levisa Fork of the Big Sandy. The home of our great Governor, Bert T. Combs, is in Prestonsburg. In 1957, the floodwaters threatened his home as it was encircled by these

angry waters. Water reduces all to one common denominator. It is no respector of persons. Therefore, flood protection will benefit all the citizens of our valley. Our people want to be strong in every way: economically, socially, intellectually, spiritually. Many cases could be singled out to prove this strength. One case in point is that of the gentleman who has already testified here this morning, Mr. Kelley Day. Mr. Day had this tremendous loss which amounted to so much to him. Someone told me that the next morning after the flood was over he

looking up.

was down brushing off the mud and had gone to the bank to see if he could get enough money to open up his business. A man who has that courage at 80 years of age, I think, exemplifies the courage of the people of our valley. However, there are times when the feeling is like the one who expressed his reaction many centuries ago, "Is it nothing to all you who pass by?”

The beginning of construction of the John Flannagin Reservoir and your interest in Fishtrap Reservoir bring new hope. We are

There is nothing at this point that would raise the morale of our people more than the underwriting of the U.S. Corps of Engineers’ recommendation of $349,000 to complete the planning and engineering and the $301,000 for the initiation of construction of Fishtrap. It will cause outside interests to have faith in our area. It will subside the fear of our people. When completed, it will enable our valley to contribute its share in keeping these United States strong. We are confident that you will hear our plea and support this project for our survival. Thank you, sir. Mr. RABAUT. Thank you, Reverend Dorsey. Mr. PERKINS. Mr. Chairman, the next witness is Mr. George Ramey of Paintsville.

Mr. RABAUT. Mr. Ramey, come up and take a chair.


Mr. Ramey. Mr. Chairman, I would rather stand, if you do not mind,

I am George L, Ramey of Paintsville, Ky., and director of the Mayo State Vocational School.

I am here to represent the Paintsville Chamber of Commerce, the Johnson County Flood Control Association and the city of Paintsrille.

With your permission, Mr. Chairman, I would like to file statements from these organizations.

Mr. RABAUT. Without objection, they will be placed in the record at this point.

(The matters referred to follow :)

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As we sit composing this statement on a dreary, rainy, Sunday afternoon, our hearts are filled with a desperate desire to somehow convince our Representatives and Senators of the urgent need for the completion of the flood control system of dams and reservoirs in the Big Sandy Valley. Construction has been started on the Pound Reservoir in Virginia and the engineers have said they could use construction money for the Fishtrap Dam in Kentucky during the next fiscal year. How long can a government expect to keep the love and respect of its people and the respect and admiration of foreign people when it sends aid to foreign countries while it neglects those of its own people who are in just as desperate need of aid from its government. We have no objection to foreign aid to a reasonable degree, but we are shocked and bewildered at the extent to which it

has been given when we have been refused the help we have needed for so lo a time.

The members of the Johnson County Flood Control Committee, on behalf of t people of this county and the entire Big Sandy Valley, appeal for aid from o Federal Government for construction funds for the Fishtrap flood control da on the Big Sandy River in Pike County, Ky., in order to halt the damage to t valley from recurring floods.

The Army Engineers state they can use construction money the year beginnin July 1 for Fishtrap Dam.

The terrain of the Big Sandy watershed, with its steep hills, sandy, poro soil, and narrow valleys makes the floodwaters of spring and winter a consta threat to homes and businesses in the valley.

The residents are striving, with their indomitable will, to reestablish an rebuild after the tragic 1957 flood which left thousands homeless without foot clothing or business. When floods come, there is little left for the inhabitan to do but run from the narrow valley, leaving their possessions for the or slaught. If there is another major flood, thousands of these people will unable to rebuild again, and the valley will be permanently destitute. Toda hundreds are hopeless, living lives of drab existence through no fault of the own, but because of a lack of opportunity to better themselves. All this, whil the valley is underlaid with rich mineral resources.

There is little inducement for industry to settle, as there are few sites abor the flood level, and the valley remains a "closed frontier," from the Greenu Dam pool near Louisa to the headwaters of the Big Sandy.

The inhabitants are a fine Anglo-Saxon stock who are skillful with the hands and make excellent craftsmen in industry when given an opportunity Many have migrated to industrial centers of other States, as U.S. statistics show and others have taken their places among the great and renowned of the world

It is urged that sufficient funds be appropriated for the immediate constructio of the Fishtrap Reservoir:

1. To aid our greatest local and national resource, our people. Proud an independent, they are being demoralized by poverty, unemployment, and Govern ment gifts of surplus foods that are a necessity, but not the answer for proud people. Unless there is control of the Big Sandy and its tributaries, all other programs for the development of this distressed area, for bringing hope to 8 low-income group where unemployment has been chronic for years and migra tion is heavy, are useless.

2. For our national strength. So much has depended in time of war on the valley's fine coal, its oil, gas, timber, and other resources, as well as its stalwart young men. The Civil Defense Administration has plans to make the Big Sandy Valley an evacuation center should an enemy attack occur in the future. Money for flood control spent today for the valley's development and for human welfare will mean great national strength tomorrow.

3. For conservation. It is a well-known fact that water usage is a growing problem in the United States. Within the next 10 years, conservationists say our people will begin to realize that water is a valuable resource to conserve and use with care.

The immediate need of the Big Sandy Valley is security from floods. Se curity and homes and jobs and all that is worthwhile in life depend on safety from recurring floods. The threat is ever there with every prolonged rain, and with every change of season.

Billions are spent by the U.S. Government annually for the development of backward nations of the world. Our people are in a position considered critical. If denied help and funds for flood control projects which are a "must" hefore they can help themselves, how long can we expect our Government to be held in the esteem of its own people and those of other nations?

The urgency of this appropriation cannot be overstressed.


Paintsville, Ky., April 6, 1960. COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS, Washington, D.C.

GENTLEMEN : How would you like to live in a town where you could not be happy when a drop of rain fell for fear of a flood? That is the story of

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