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institute condemnation proceedings for the acquiring of such tracts or parcels of land as may be necessary for such purpose.

This bill authorizes the acquiring of approximately 15,000 acres of land at West Point, N. Y., to be added to the military reservation at that place, and provides for an appropriation of $1,500,000 for such purposes. A careful study of the situation at West Point, with especial reference to the water supply, is very convincing that it is necessary to secure this additional land without delay. The acreage it is proposed to purchase includes the present watershed, which is in fact the only water supply available to the academy. By reason of the fact that much of the watershed area is being used by summer residents for bungalows, lodges, and camps in ever-increasing numbers, the authorities at West Point contend that it will not be long until the water becomes so polluted that it will be impossible to render it fit for use. Due to the small supply available there has been an actual shortage of water at West Point for the past two years. There is at present a small reservation on which the intake pipes are placed, the water secured being the overflow from Queensboro Lake, Popolopen Lake, and Long Pond. By purchasing the proposed 15,000 acres the Government will secure control of the area, thus being in a position to place dams at desirable points and thus to insure to the academy a supply of pure water that will be adequate for all present and future needs.

The chairman of your committee has made a number of visits to the academy to go over this ground, that he might have a full and complete knowledge of the situation. It is his opinion that not only should the ground be purchased in order to insure an adequate supply of pure water, but the area is badly needed as well for training purposes. The training facilities at the Military Academy at this time are entirely inadequate. For instance, with an increasing need for small arms, machine gun, and artillery firing instruction the cadets are able to get but a very limited instruction in small-arm firing practice, instruction in machine-gun firing at 1,000-inch range only, and no instruction in artillery firing at West Point. The present smallarms range is but a makeshift, inadequate and unsafe, while there is no site available at all for a machine-gun range. The construction of the Storm King Highway across the artillery range has made its impossible to use the range for artillery firing practice.

At the present time, cadets of the first class are sent away for instruction in artillery firing as well as in flying. The instruction of cadets in aviation is restricted to a 5-day visit for the first class at Langley Field, Va., where the maximum number of hours in the air per cadet is not over five hours. To send cadets to Langley Field is expensive; therefore this instruction is now restricted to only the one class. The same is true regarding instruction in artillery firing. The present yearly cost of transportation for cadets receiving instruction away from West Point in aviation and artillery firing is about $15,000 and only one class is benefited. This item of expense can be saved by the acquisition of this proposed additional area while at the same time all the classes will have an opportunity to secure vitally necessary instruction.

The officials at West Point are very much in favor of the proposed legislation. They point out that the addition will mean much to the military school, while at the same time it will not interfere with the

road system at present running through the area, and it can be acquired at this time at what is considered a reasonable figure. They point out, also, that failure to secure the additional land will mean either the removal of the academy to a more adequate site, or a serious curtailment of the school's military activities. Their reasons are fully set forth in the memorandum submitted to the War Department, which is made a part of this report hereafter.

In connection with the effort to provide the Military Academy with adequate area and facilities to properly train the cadets, your committee invite the attention of the Congress to the reference of George Washington to the academy in the last letter he wrote before he died. This is of particular interest at this time, when we are approaching the two-hundredth anniversary of the birth of our first President.

The establishment of an institution of this kind, upon a respectable and extensive basis, has ever been considered by me as an object of primary importance to this country, and while I was in the Chair of Government I omitted no proper opportunity of recommending it, in my public speeches and other ways, to the attention of the Legislature. (Letter to Alexander Hamilton, dated Mount Vernon, December 12, 1799.)

The committee also feel it would be well to call attention to the statement of President Andrew Jackson in his first message to Congress, December, 1829:

I recommend to your fostering care, as one of our safest means of national defense, the Military Academy. This institution has already exercised the happiest influence upon the moral and intellectual character of our Army; and such of the graduates as from various causes may not pursue the profession of arms will be scarcely less useful as citizens. Their knowledge of the military art will be advantageously employed in the militia service, and in a measure secure to that class of troops the advantages which in this respect belong to standing armies.

A bill for the purchase of additional land at West Point for the academy was also introduced by Hon. Hamilton Fish, in whose district this area is located. That bill is as follows:

(H. R. 8480, Seventy-first Congress, second session) A BILL To authorize the acquisition of certain parcels of land required in connection with the extension of

the West Point Military Reservation grounds Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of War is hereby authorized to acquire, by purchase or otherwise, the following-described parcels of land, being adjacent to the United States Military Academy, in Orange County, New York, for the extension of the grounds of the West Point Military Reservation: Redner estate (Margaret Redner, Mary Redner, William Redner, John Redner, and Daniel Redner), 1,200 acrés; James Corrigan, 96 acres; Bragio Julian (Mine'lnn), 76 acres; Edward and Theodore Clark (heirs Charles Clark), 436 and 180 acres; Mrs. M. Hallmann estate (Hallmann heirs), 400 acres; John Roser (owned by the State Park), 100 acres; Professor Conant, Brooklyn, New York, 50 acres; Laurence Gibney, 400 acres; Anthony Zint, 400 acres; Rachel Conklin, 150 acres; J: Townsend 'Cassidy, Newburgh, New York, 175 acres; Major Rand, United States Army, retired, 200 acres; Frank Woodruff (house and lot), 100 acres; William Lewis, 100 acres; Adelbert Curry (small plot), 5 acres; Grover Cox, 90 acres; John E. Adolph, 95 acres; Edward Baron, 102 acres; J. W. Ficken (house and land; assessed value, $4,600); Harry Goodsell, 125 acres; Mrs. Grace Varcoe (house), one-fourth acre; H. L. Satterlee (country estate with large buildings; assessed valuation, $58,000), 106 acres; Mrs. Charles Tracey (Mrs. J. B. Tracey, large, valuable country estate), 92 acres; Mrs. M. Archer-Shee (Major ArcherShee, retired officer in the English Army, large, valuable buildings), 173 acres; J. P. Morgan property (now under the control of the Cragston Development

Corporation (Cragston Yacht and Country Club); very valuable piece of property), 850 acres; John Weyant heirs, 360 acres; Doctor Lee W. Beatie, Fort Montgomery, New York, 200 acres; A. J. Appleton, 9 acres; the DuBarry sisters, 40 acres; the Park, 200 acres; 1. F. Garrison, 75 acres; Theodore Faurot, 50 acres; Mrs. E. P. Brooks, 9 acres; Mrs. Morrison, 150 acres; Pavek estate (Clara and Charles Pavek, land located near Long Pond; probably 750 acres), 600 acres; Hudson Iron Company (Townsend plots), 268 acres; E. C. Carpenter (the Ward lot), 160 acres; Hattie Piano, 235 acres; E. G. Stillman (1,237 acres Crow's Nest property near East Riverside Park, all located in Highland Falls, New York; the rest of this property is in Cornwall, New York), 3,000 acres; and any other small interlocking plots of land which may be required to complete the proposed extension; and the sum of $1,500,000 is hereby authorized to be appropriated, from any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, which sum shall remain available until expended.

The acreage proposed under the Fish bill is about 12,856 acres.

A full and complete hearing was held, at which representatives of the War Department, the Military Academy, and the residents of the town of Highlands and the village of Highland Falls presented statements on the subject.

Mr. McGrady, of the American Federation of Labor, made the following statement at the hearing held on this subject by your committee:

Mr. Chairman and members of the committee: I represent perhaps the largest civilian organization in the United States. The American Federation of Labor is now and has been in favor of giving West Point all that it needs to function effectively, properly, and efficiently. I might say that my organization has, in the State of New York, upward of 850,000 members, most of them, practically all of them, citizens of the State and taxpayers of the various communities. This organization is solidly behind the request of the authorities at West Point to give the institution adequate support, and we hope that either Congressman James's bill or Senator Reed's bill will pass your committee and pass the Congress at this session.

The following statements (including the report of the War Department) and communications received by your committee on this subject are made a part of this report, as follows:


Washington, February 16, 1931. Hon. W. FRANK JAMES, Chairman Committee on Military Affairs,

House of Representatives, Dear MR. JAMES: Careful consideration has been given to the bills S. 5732, to authorize the acquisition for military purposes of land in Orange County, N. Y., for use as an addition to the West Point Military Reservation; H. R. 14811, to authorize an appropriation for the purchase of land and buildings thereon joining the West Point Military Reservation, N. Y., and for other purposes; and H. R. 8480, to authorize the acquisition of certain parcels of land required in connection with the extension of the West Point Military Reservation grounds, which you transmitted to the War Department under date of February 7, 1931, with a request for report thereon.

There is no existing law authorizing an appropriation for the acquisition of the land referred to in these bills.

Each bill would authorize an appropriation of $1,500,000 for the proposed acquisition. S. 5732 provides for the acquisition by purchase, condemnation, or otherwise, of approximately 17,000 acres of land in Orange County, N. Y., as an addition to the West Point Military Reservation. Section 1 of H. Ř. 14811 is similar in import to S. 5732, but describes the land as being 15,135 acres, more or less, and specifically includes "land surrounding Popolopen Lake, land bordering on the River Hudson, and other interlocking plots of land, all located in Highland Falls, Orange County, N. Y.” Section 2 of this bili prescribes the procedure to be followed in the acquisition. H. R. 8480 specifies numerous tracts, with statements of the ownership and acreage, as well as authorizing the acquisition of other similar interlocking plots of land required to complete the proposed extension.

The United States Military Academy has been developed from a small engineering school into one of the most important and necessary educational institutions of the country. It is now generally recognized as the foremost school of its kind in the world. It represents a present investment of approximately $34,000,000. There has been no material addition to the reservation for many years, and the school has gradually outgrown its present confines. The acquisition of the additional land contemplated by this legislation is aboslutely necessary if the West Point Academy is to fulfill the mission for which it has been established and developed. The specific requirements are fully set forth in a letter from the Superintendent United States Military Academy, dated August 24, 1929, a copy of which is inclosed.

It is not deemed advisable to incorporate in the legislation a specific designation of the tracts to be acquired as appears in H. R. 8480.

It is the opinion of the War Department that either S. 5732 or H. R. 14811 would be suitable to the purpose, except that in H. R. 14811 the land to be acquired is described as "all located in Highland Falls, Orange County, New York.” A part of the land which it would be desirable to acquire is located in Cornwall. H. R. 14811 should, therefore, be amended by striking out, in line 2, page 2, the words "Highland Falls, so that the clause will read “all located in Orange County, New York."

The War Department is advised that the residents of the village of Highland Falls, N. Y., are apprehensive that in the carrying out of this project their water supply may be cut off or destroyed. It will be unnecessary and it is not intended to acquire the land upon which the source of the village water supply is located. In order to assure the people of Highland Falls that their water supply will not be affected, it is suggested that such legislation as may be adopted contain a proviso as follows:

Provided, That nothing shall be done under this act which shall operate to divert the existing water supply of the village of Highland Falls, New York, from its present uses.

The War Department regards this project as a matter of the utmost importance. Plans have been made to absorb the amount involved in the 1933 Budget, and the early enactment of this authorizing legislation is urgently recommended in order that the item may be included in the estimates for the fiscal year 1933. Sincerely yours,


Secretary of War.



West Point, N. Y., August 24, 1929. Subject: West Point Military Reservation. To: The Adjutant General, War Department, Washington, D. C.

.1. It is recommended that the necessary steps be taken to acquire for the military reservation of West Point, N. Y., by condemnation proceedings or otherwise, the additional land described on the accompanying paper and shown on the map submitted herewith. This land consists of approximately 17,000 acres, and has a value estimated at approximately $1,500,000.

2. The necessity for the purchase of this land is because of the following reasons: (2) To preserve the present water supply and keep it free from contamination, and to provide for future increased needs. (6) To provide proper and necessary firing ranges both for small arms and (C). To provide ground now needed for drill, maneuvers, and camp sites, and (d) To provide a landing field for West Point.

To provide against too great encroachment which is even now interfering with the smooth and orderly functioning of the Military Academy.

“) To provide for future expansion before the cost becomes prohibitive. 3. The change in the life of our people brought about by the automobile is vividly apparent and the number of cars is ever increasing. Thousands of cars now roam the valley of the Hudson and include a stop at West Point in their ordinary itinerary. As many as 13,800 by actual count by an engineer tally have passed through the reservation in one day. The Military Academy is now

field artillery.

for athletics.

on five main routes of travel. On the west bank of the Hudson there are twoone via Hackensack, Suffern, Tuxedo northward, New York State route 17, and one bordering the Hudson from New York City northward (US9W). On the east bank there are likewise two-one along the Hudson from New York to Bear Mountain Bridge and northward (US9E), and one further east paralleling this, New York State route 22. The fifth road (US6) passes over Bear Mountain Bridge, from west to east, and is a principal road to New England. As the academy is on those five great lines of traffic it offers a sight-seeing objective to motorists. The influx of visitors which now is a real problem is increasing daily and will receive a great impetus with the finishing of the great bridge across the Hudson near the Dykman Street Ferry. Drill and instruction can not be properly conducted amid a crowd of onlookers.

4. But more serious than the rising tide of visitors and of automobiles is the constant growth of settlements northward. The march is steady and rapid and the thrust of New York City is even now felt in the tranquil and proper operation of the Military Academy. Already the planning of the New York City region extends above Newburgh, which is 9 miles north of West Point, and the time is not far distant when the land just south of the military reservation, between the southern boundary and our holdings on Popolopan Creek, will be thickly settled. At present this region is sparsely settled, but it is becoming the rendezvous alarmingly fast for summer camps and residences. In this region are Brooks Pond, Cranberry Pond, and Long Pond, all of which offer ideal natural facilities for exploitation. Already in summer they are crowded with campers and automobilists, who regard West Point as a legitimate attraction. The Military Academy will soon be hemmed in on the south and the acquiring of necessary land will be impossible. To the north we can not expand as Crows Nest and Storm King oppose such expansion, as does the Hudson River to the east. Any future expansion must therefore take place to the south and west.

5. But even discounting future requirements, we are at the present time in need of land for artillery and small arms target ranges, for camp sites, for maneuvers, and for athletics. The present summer camp can accommodate only two classes. It should be large enough for three classes, the fourth one being on furlough. There being no other suitable site on the reservation, the camp is now located on the field and tract grounds used by cadets and the two conflict somewhat in time of use. Each year it is necessary to go off the reservation for maneuvers and temporary camp sites, and permission to occupy some of the lands heretofore used has been denied and will soon be impossible to grant for other

6. The building of the Storm King Road (US9W) has taken away our back stop and we can no longer fire safely in that direction so there is no place where artillery practice may be had. The present rifle range is woefully inadequate. It should be tripled for present needs, but there is no ground on the reservation where it is possible to enlarge it and firing on it is not entirely safe even now. Also there is no ground on the reservation possible for a landing field or for

7. It is most important that we should exercise foresight to protect our water supply and provide for the future. At present our water comes from Queensboro and Popolopen Creeks, but should the region between these creeks and the reservation become thickly settled, as it most certainly will, the cutting down of the woods and the pollution of the watershed would most seriously diminish and jeopardize our supply.

8. The necessity for á landing field for West Point is too obvious to need comment.

9. The conditions that threaten the Military Academy are cause for reflection and anxiety and it would seem that practical consideration dictates that an effort should be made to anticipa and guard against them. The investment of the Government in the plant at West Point runs into many millions of dollars and the importance of the academy to the country is incalculable. It is of such importance to the Nation that Congress can not afford to permit the development of a condition that undoubtedly will interfere with the future efficiency of the academy or prevent its future expansion.

10. As it now is, West Point is greatly restricted and in need of land for every purpose. At its gates lie large, uncultivated tracts that contain sufficient acreage for its needs. Were it in possession of these, it would not be necessary to send the cadets to Fort Eustis at considerable expense to the United States for artillery firing that should properly be given at West Point.



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