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INTRODUCTION

This subcommittee is most familiarly known by its short title, "Senate Internal Security Subcommittee." Its actual name is longer: Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws."

The original resolution creating the subcommittee, which is still in effect, authorized and directed the subcommittee to make a complete and continuing study and investigation of (1) the administration, operation, and enforcement of the Internal Security Act of 1950; (2) the administration, operation, and enforcement of other laws relating to espionage, sabotage, and the protection of the internal security of the United States; and (3) the extent, nature, and effects of subversive activities in the United States, its Territories and possessions, including, but not limited to espionage, sabotage, and infiltration by persons who are or may be under the domination of the foreign government or organizations controlling the world Communist movement or any other movement seeking to overthrow the Government of the United States by force and violence.

The following report describes the activities of the subcommittee for the fiscal year ending February 28, 1974, except for those matters which cannot be publicly disclosed at this time because of security considerations.

(1)

I. HEARINGS

A. WORLD DRUG TRAFFIC AND ITS IMPACT ON U.S. SECURITY

The Internal Security Subcommittee's investigation of the world drug situation and its impact on the internal security of the United States began in the spring of 1972 when Senator Eastland named General Lewis Walt, United States Marine Corps (Ret.), to head a task force examining the problem. The continuing investigation has so far resulted in eight volumes of published testimony.

DR. ROBERT W. BAIRD

On March 19, 1973, the Subcommittee, with Senator Thurmond presiding, took the testimony of Dr. Robert William Baird, a New York City physician who has since 1955 operated a free clinic for heroin addicts in Harlem. Dr. Baird's testimony dealt primarily with two aspects of the current drug problem: (1) the widespread use of drugs in the armed forces, and (2) the dangers of marihuana-in particular the fact that it frequently serves as a threshold drug which leads users to harder drugs.

Dr. Baird has treated some 3,000 heroin addicts since he first opened his free clinic in Harlem. He told the subcommittee that he had probably treated more addicts, and with a greater degree of success, than any other doctor in the United States. On an average night in his Harlem clinic, between 9 p.m. and 3 a.m., he will have personal consultations with approximately 20 young people who are hooked on drugs. Among the young people who come to him are many who are still in the Armed Forces or have recently been discharged. The nature of his practice, he said, gives him a far better feeling for the drug problem as it exists in the streets than most academic experts on the drug problem, or even most physicians who work in the drug field, ever succeed in achieving. Because of his personal relationship with those who visit him, he was convinced he was far more successful than are the Army doctors in getting servicemen with drug problems to level with him. He first saw evidence of the heroin epidemic in Vietnam more than a year before the existence of this epidemic was finally confirmed by the Pentagon.

Dr. Baird said that he would conservatively estimate the number of marihuana smokers in the armed services at over the million mark, with another quarter of a million on heroin, barbiturates, and amphetamines. Heroin addicts in the Armed Forces he estimated at 25,000 to 30,000.

Dr. Baird said that drugs were freely available on all American military installations, including ships of the fleet. Drugs were particularly rampant, he said, at Fort Dix, because of its proximity to New York; at Fort Bragg in North Carolina; at Fort Ord, which served as touchdown point for returning Vietnam veterans; at Fort Sill in Oklahoma; Fort Riley in Kansas; and Fort Benning in Georgia.

Dr. Baird submitted to the subcommittee tape recordings of his conversations with several servicemen dealing with the widespread availability of drugs in the Armed Forces.

THE BROTHERHOOD OF ETERNAL LOVE

On October 3, 1973, Senator James O. Eastland presided over a hearing dealing with the so-called “Brotherhood of Eternal Love,” an organization originally founded by Dr. Timothy Leary which had been granted tax deductible status because of its claim to be a religion.

At this hearing, representatives of the Drug Enforcement Administration of the Department of Justice and of the Passport Office both testified. The purpose of the hearing was to look into the related problems of international drug trafficking and passport fraud—both of which have a direct bearing on the internal security of our country.

A truly amazing story emerged from this testimony. Among other things, it was established that the Brotherhood of Eternal Love over the past 7 years has operated as:

—the principal ideological purveyors of pro-drug propaganda ; -the source of the bulk of the LSD produced and distributed

in the United States and internationally; -the most highly organized, the most sophisticated, and most

effective smuggling ring bringing hashish into the United

States; -the scientific pioneers and the pioneering manufacturers and

distributors of “marihuana oil," or "liquid hashish," an in

credibly potent and dangerous cannabis concentrate; —the largest practitioners of wholesale passport fraud yet un

earthed by our law enforcement agencies. The drug operations of the Brotherhood

In his prepared statement to the subcommittee, Mr. John R. Bartels, Jr., Acting Administrator (now Administrator) of the Drug Enforcement Administration, made the observation that "The Brotherhood of Eternal Love represents one of the new, recently emerged forms of organized crime, totally different from our past notions in terms of membership, motivations, life styles, and drugs of preference.”

e The Brotherhood of Eternal Love was incorporated as a tax exempt religious corporation in the State of California in October of 1966, under the leadership of Dr. Timothy Leary and his partner in confusionism, Dr. Richard Alpert. It is estimated that the Brotherhood at its height had some 3,000 members. Of these, some 750 have been identified.

Over 100 arrests have been made over the past 18 months in connection with an intensive investigation of the Brotherhood, and 52 Brotherhood members have been indicted by State and Federal grand juries, of whom 22 were still fugitives at the time the testimony was given.

As for the scale of the Brotherhood's operation, a rough estimate is possible on the basis of the fact that the Internal Revenue Service and

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