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Mr. BASLER. We put the microfilm copy on the shelf and make it available to a reader as microfilm, or we make a Xerox copy in some cases, which we also can bind and put on the shelves.

Senator MonroNEY. Thank you very much for your clarification.

LAW LIBRARY AND ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT

There will be included in the record at this point general justifications pages with respect to the Law Library and the Administrative Department of the Library of Congress.

AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Senator Mon RoNEY. To initiate the design and specifications of a system of automation, which a special team of experts has concluded is technically feasible for certain Library operations, the budget estimates for this phase of the program amounted to $225,000. The House allowed $200,000. Because of the importance of this project and the interest many of us have in updating methods and procedures in Government operations, I am inserting in the record the pages from the justifications relating to these estimates.

(The justification referred to follows:)

LAW LIBRARY

GENERAL STATEMENT

The Law Library is the only general legal research library of the Government. Its staff of 66, operating in the main building of the Library of Congress and in the branch Law Library in the Capitol, is responsible for the development, maintenance, and service of a law collection of over 1,250,000 volumes—probably the largest ever assembled. This collection comprises legal literature of all foreign countries as well as the United States, and covers all legal systems—the great secular systems such as the common, the Roman, the modern Roman or civil, and the Chinese law; the religious systems such as the cannon, the Islamic, the Buddhist, and the Hindu ; the theoretic such as international law; and such fields as comparative law, jurisprudence, philosophy of law, and legal history. These collections are in many instances the most comprehensive Outside of the native countries, and in some instances, such as Soviet, Chinese Communist, and Near Eastern and North African law, unique in the Western World. Trained legal personnel of the Law Library assist in providing essential and extensive service in bibliographic, reference, and legal research for Members of the Congress, the congressional committees, the legislative Counsel of each House, and all other officers and Offices of the legislative branch. Service by the Law Library staff is rendered also to the Supreme Court and other units of the Federal judiciary, the executive department, and the independent agencies, which depend upon the comprehensive collections of the Law Library to supplement their individual working collections. The Law Library also makes its collections available for use by the foreign diplomatic Corps, members of the bar, educational institutions, nongovernmental libraries, and the general public. The Law Librarian and lawyer-members of his staff serve as legal counsel to the Librarian of Congress. Six new positions are requested for fiscal year 1966.

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT
GENERAL STATEMENT

The Administrative Department is responsible for the Library's central fiscal administration: computer application primarily to business operations; property procurement and control; central files and records maintenance, and records disposal: central duplication; the receipt, delivery, and dispatch of mail and freight; the protection, security, maintenance, and preservation of the premises and their contents; the proper safeguarding of security classified materials; and the provision of photocopies of materials in the Library's collection for congressional, other governmental, and private uses. It works closely with the appropriate officers of the Library's other departments to facilitate their services, and consults with the legal counsel of the Library of Congress, the Bureau of the Budget, the Treasury Department, the General Accounting Office, the Civil Service Commission, and other agencies of the Government concerning statutes and regulations applicable in the Library’s operations.

Although, by statute, structural and mechanical maintenance of the plant is the responsibility of the Architect of the Capitol, the 59 engineers, electricians, carpenters; plumbers, and sheetmetal-workers assigned to the Library are under the Administrative Department's general supervision, and the Department and the Architect’s Office maintain close coordination in all matters concerning the condition and restoration of the buildings and grounds and the procurement of furniture and equipment therefor.

One position is requested for fiscal 1966.

Justification of new positions requested, Buildings and Grounds Division

New position requested: WC–5 truckdriver---------------------------- $4,846 Personnel benefits---------------------------------------------------- 381 Total-------------------- 5, 227

The present staff of motor vehicle operators consists of six drivers, all at WC–5. The daily workload of these operators includes shuttle bus service to and from Library quarters at the Navy Yard Annex; delivery of books and other library materials to congressional offices in the House and Senate Office Buildings and the Capitol, and return of books and materials to the Library; delivery of books and other library materials to the White House, Government agencies, embassies, and various institutions in the metropolitan area ; passenger service for Library officials and important visitors to attend meetings and conferences and to conduct other Library business within the metropolitan area; other special scheduled trips to transport books, mail, catalog cards and other materials that cannot be accommodated on the shuttle bus service to the Navy Yard Annex, and at least one trip per day to pick up materials for the Exchange and Gift Division from the Government agencies; and all other transportation services.

Since the existing six drivers are engaged full time in the duties described, there is no one left to meet emergency work situations which constantly arise, and it is for that purpose that another truckdriver is needed. The absence of only one driver on leave affects the unscheduled transportation services, while the absence of more than one driver at a time, which happens with some frequency, upsets scheduled work and adversely affects services. Furthermore, there has been a steady increase in the need for transportation services which reflect the expanding operations of the Library as a whole, particularly the new requirements brought on by establishment of work operations at the Navy Yard Annex and storage at Middle River, Md.

OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN

AUTOMATION, $225,000

Background

Some 7 years ago, because of the increasing complexities of library operations, increasing acquisitions of materials, mounting arrearages in cataloging activities, and other factors, including progress in computer technology, an internal committee was established in the Library of Congress to consider the possibilities of automation as a solution of some of the problems with which the Library was confronted. As a result of the studies and deliberations of this committee, a grant of $100,000 was requested and received from the Council on Library Resources to make a concentrated study on the possibilities of automation. The study as completed in calendar year 1963 and a report. “Automation and the Library of Congress,” was published in January 1964. This study was made by a survey team consisting of distinguished experts in various aspects of the application of computer technology to information problems.

Conclusions and recommendations of the survey team

The report on “Automation and the Library of Congress” concluded that automation of certain major and basic bibliographic processes of the Library was feasible. There were three major recommendations in the report: First, that an office be established in the Library to administer the automation project on a continuing basis; second, that an appropriation be requested at once for the design and specification of an automated system; and third, that, upon successful completion of the design effort, funds be requested for the actual automation of bibliographic processes of the Library of Congress.

Through the understanding support of Congress, the first of these three recommendations has been accomplished ; an Office of Information Systems Specialist has been established. Currently it has a staff of five, four of them are professionals of exceptional training and experience and one is at the clerical level. With respect to the Second and third recommendations, it was estimated that $750,000 would be required for obtaining a systems design and specifications and that from $50 to $70 million would be needed for achieving automation. These amounts represent the order of magnitude of the tasks and funds involved; such costs, as in any research and development program, could not, of course, be estimated with any great degree of exactitude. It is also obvious that the second step—that of systems design and specifications—is the critical one at this stage because the success of automation itself will hinge largely on the adequacy of such design and specifications.

Implementation of the recommendations

The Library proposes at this stage to proceed with the necessary work preliminary to the design and specifications of an automated system. With the small but professional staff now available to the Library for specialized attention to the automation program and for advice to the Librarian on this important subject, it is clear that it is desirable to proceed in an orderly but gradual manner with the steps essential to setting up complete requirements of an automated system. Rather than request at once all the $750,000 recommended by the survey team, it is deemed preferable to request for fiscal 1966 less than one-third of this amount; that is, $225,000. This will enable the Library to concentrate on the first important steps leading to design and specifications for an automated system.

Proposed automation work

With the $225,000 requested, the Library proposes at this point to concentrate on various aspects of the problems relating to the development of cataloging information in machine readable form. It is necessary to decide, on the basis of studies and experimentation, what information, now stored in the various library catalogs, should be converted to magnetic tape, disc, or other forms of electronic storage and made available as required, either for retrieval of information, for printout of the catalog cards, or for preparation of selected bibliographies, and how this can be done. If successfully developed—and it has already been shown to be feasible—such machine readable catalog information would be available for use not only in the Library of Congress but also by other libraries throughout the country. In this connection, the adequacies of alternate forms of electronic storage for the vast body of information currently available in catalog files must also be considered. Finally, it will be necessary to study the techniques for interrogating the files of information stored electronically and the techniques for displaying this information as it is retrieved from the files. This work will undoubtedly raise a number of questions the resolution of which will require technical skills of various kinds: engineering, scientific, systems analysis, and library science. Because of the newness of the entire information system field, but especially because of the complexity of automating as intricate a system as that of the Library's, there are many unresolved questions at this time; probably more unresolved questions will appear as we progress, but none of them at this stage seems insoluble. Character of proposed earpenditures Because automation on the scale necessary for the Library of Congress is in the area of research and development, it is essential that there be some flexibility as to the manner in which funds will be expended for automation design and Specifications. At this stage it is not proposed that the permanent staff of the Office of the Information Systems Specialist be augmented. Such additions as would be made in the staff would be on a temporary basis. Much of the work will necessarily have to be carried out on a contract basis; and from time to time it will be desirable to utilize outside computer systems for testing Of programs and procedures. FUNDS REQUESTED

Senator MoWRoNEY. You gave an adequate explanation of that earlier so there is no use to go into that further, Mr. MUMFORD. I hope it was adequate, Mr. Chairman. It is exceedingly important, I can assure you. Senator MonroNEY. In other words, you cut it down from $750,000 to $225,000? Mr. MUMFORD. Yes, sir. Senator MoWRoNEY. You can’t stand any more cuts. Mr. MUMFORD. No, sir; that is a bare essential. Mrs. HAMER. And even though the House cut may seem small, it would seriously hamper our work.

CoPYRIGHT OFFICE

Senator MoWRoNEY. Another line item to be considered is “Salaries and expenses, Copyright Office.” . The House allowed the full budget request for item—$2,021,000. I believe that the justifications for 13 new positions were fully discussed at an earlier point in the record and there is no use to have a redundancy there.

(The justification referred to follows:)

SALARIES AND ExPENSEs, CoPYRIGHT OFFICE

1965 regular bill------------------- -- $1,828,000 Proposed supplemental due to pay raise--------------------------- 86,200

1965 adjusted.--------------------------------------------- 1,914, 200 1966 estimate--------------------------------------------------- 2, 021, 000

Net increase---------------------------------------------- 106,800

Analysis of increases and decreases

INCREASES

1. Ingrade increases and other anticipated increases in salary costs---- $38,075 Funds are requested to cover the cost of within-grade increases and reallocations as follows:

Salaries----------------------------------------- 35, 641

Personnel benefits------------------------------ 2, 434

Total----------------- 38,075 2. Annualization of pay costs---- - 740

Public Law 88–426 granted pay increases for Government employees effective on the first day of the first pay period beginning on and after July 1, 1964. The Library's first pay period began on July 5, 1964, and the computation for the supplemental to cover these pay costs was based on this beginning date. This increase is necessary to cover the pay raise for a full year, which is 3 working days more than provided for in the proposed 1965 pay increase supplemental.

New positions (13).---------------------------------------------- 67,985

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To meet increase in workload due to increase in registrations. The 13 positions requested would result in an 8-percent increase in staff since 1961 with an estimated increase of 25 percent in registrations over the same period.

2 GS-7; 5 GS-5; 4 GS-4; and 2 GS-3 (13).------ $63,030
Contribution to retirement-------------------- 4,097
Group life insurance------------------------- 208
Contribution to health benefits---------------- 650

Total new positions------------------------- 67,985

Total increase-------

Senator MonroNEY. As we know, the operations of this Office result in cash receipts to the Government. It is noted, however, that the cash recovery from fee receipts is diminishing from year to year and that the estimated percent of fees as applied to costs for fiscal year 1966 is 62 percent, as compared to 103 percent in 1949. Costs have increased in this period, while fees have remained the same since 1948. I ask that these two tables, comparing income with costs, be included at this point in the hearing record.

(The tables referred to follow:)

COPYRIGHT OFFICE

FiScal 1964 Items (actual) Income:

Fees applied------------------------------------------------------------- $1,133,546 |-------------

Estimated value of materials transferred to the Library of Congress:
Books, at $6.55 per copy.-------------------------------------------- 371,745 (56,755)
Periodicals, at $0.45 per copy---------------------------------------- 69,302 (154,005)
Motion pictures, at $125 per reel-------------- 267,500 (2,140)
Music, scores, etc., at $4.35 per copy 109,324 (25,132)
Maps, at $7.50 per copy------------- 29,362 (3,915)
Prints, etc., at $6.50 per copy 7,040 (1,083)
Subtotal, estimated value of materials----------------------------- 854; 273 |--------------
Total income------------------------------------------------------ 1,987,819 (243,030)

Ost:

Salaries------------------------------------------------------------------ 1,585,000 ||-------------Other costs-------------------------------------------------------------- 196.000 |-------------Total costs------------------------------------------------------------ 1.781,000 |-------------

NOTE.-Percent, total income to cost, 1.12; percent, fees applied to cost, 64.

The following table compares income and cost for the fiscal years 1961 to 1966:

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965, 1966, estimate estimate Income: Fees applied-------------- $1,009,679 || $1,043,587 $1,077,747 $1,133, 546 $1,190,223 $1,249,734

Estimated value of materials transferred to the

Library----------------- 604,013 580,672 584,756 854,273 896,986 941,835 Total.----------------- 1,613,692 1,624, 259 1,662,503 1,987,819 2,087,209 2, 191, 569 Cost:

Salaries------------------- 1,390,073 || 1,396, 187 | 1,476,021 1,584,925 | 1,712,000 1,812,000 Other costs--------------- 192,542 198,021 196,802 193,075 202,000 209,000 Total.------------------- 1,582,615 1,594,208 1,672,823 1,778,000 1,914,000 2,021,000

Percent total income compared to cost---------------- 102 102 99 112 109 108 Percent fees as applied to cost- 64 65 64 64 62 62

NotE.-A bill to increase by approximately 50 percent the fees charged by the Office, H.R. 5136, was Fo in the 88th Congress but no action was taken. A similar bill has been introduced in the 89th ong., H.R. 2853.

EFFECT OF PENDING LEGISLATION ON RETATIONSHIP OF FEES TO COSTS

. Senator MonroSEY. Please state for the record the status of legislation introduced this year to increase the amount of the fees charged.

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