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degree of success INS has had in meeting its equal employment opportunity responsibilities. The Commission analysis found:

As of September 1978, members of minority groups were slightly more than 28 percent of the INS total GS work force. Approximately 11.8 percent of these employees were black, 13.6 percent were Hispanic, 0.1 percent were American Indian, and 2.5 percent were Asian American." (See table 3.1.)

Women employees constituted approximately 35.5 percent of the total GS work force; of this number, 40.4 percent were also members of minority groups. Approximately 24.3 percent of INS female employees were black, 12.3 percent were Hispanic, 0.2 percent were American Indian, and 3.6 percent were Asian American. (See tables 3.1 and 3.2.)

Although minorities were more than 28 percent of the total INS work force, the great majority (74 percent) were employed at or below the GS-8 level, while a sizable number (32 percent) of minority employees were at or below the GS-4 level. In contrast, less than half (46.4 percent) of all white employees were at or below the GS-8 level, and only a fraction (13 percent) of the white work force was at or below the GS-4 level. White employees dominated the top ranks of the pay scale, however, with more than 15 percent of the white work force employed at or above the GS-12 level, compared to merely 3 percent of all minority employees at this same level. (See table 3.3.)

Although a large fraction of the INS work force is female, most women workers (88.3 percent) were employed at or below the GS-8 level; only 2 percent were at or above the GS-12 level. In comparison, 17 percent of all male employees were at or above the GS-12 level.: (See table 3.3.)

The median grade level at which minorities and women were employed (GS-4.5) was four grade levels below the overall white median level (GS-8.5)." (See table 3.4.)

Minority and women employees appeared to have little or no participation in policy formula

tion and decisionmaking within INS, particularly at the midmanagement level between GS-9 and GS-12. A small percentage of all minority (9.6 percent) and female (5.9 percent) employees were at or above the GS-9 level, while almost 32 percent of the white work force was at or above this level. White employees also dominated the upper management and supervisory levels, occupying 92.7 percent of all jobs at or above the GS12 level, compared to a small number of all minorities (7.2 percent) and females (6.8 percent) at this level.10 (See table 3.4.)

Approximately 18 percent of all INS employees earned less than $12,208 annually; nearly 32 percent of all minority employees and 40 percent of all female employees fell into this category, while only 13 percent of all white employees earned less than this salary. At the other end of the pay scale, however, more than 15 percent of the white work force earned in excess of $23,087 annually, while only 3 percent of the minority employees and only 2 percent of the female employees fell into this category." (See table 3.5.)

Within INS, the four job categories of general clerical, investigator, inspector, and patrol officer comprised more than 60 percent of the total agency work force. Although minorities were heavily represented (44 percent) in the general clerical jobs, they filled only 12 percent of the investigator positions, 19 percent of the inspector jobs, and 19 percent of the patrol officer slots. 12 (See table 3.6.)

Female employees were mainly concentrated in clerical jobs, filling 90 percent of all stenographer, secretary, and clerk-typist positions. In the four major job categories, women held approximately 42 percent of the general clerical jobs, but only 4 percent of the investigator positions, 23 percent of the inspector jobs, and less than 1 percent of the patrol officer slots. 13 (See table 3.6.)

Because INS has had an affirmative action program for several years, 14 minorities and women constitute a significant portion of the total INS work force, but tend to be concentrated in occupations at the lower grade and salary levels. As a result,

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• "Employment Profile," p. 44. s Ibid.

Ibid. * Ibid., p. 45. * Ibid.

Ibid.
10 Ibid. See also table 1B in the appendix to the “Employment Profile."
11 Ibid.

12 Ibid., p. 46.
13 Ibid.
19 INS also has recently implemented an upward mobility program
designed to provide increased job opportunities for minority employees.
James Walker, INS Assistant Commissioner for Personnel, testimony
before the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, hearing, Washington, D.C.,
Nov. 14-15, 1978, pp. 52-54 (hereafter cited as Washington Hearing
Transcript).

TABLE 3.1

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Immigration and Naturalization Service Work Force* by Grade Level, Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, Per-
centage Distribution (Horizontal), September 1978

voor AWN

11

Total

Native Asian minority
Grade Salary range

Black
Hispanic American** American group White/Anglo Total

Male

Female 2 $ 7,422- 9,645 40.1% 6.1% 0.0% 0.0% 46.2% 53.8% 100.0%

20.5%

79.5% 3 8,356-10,877 36.5 14.6

0.0
1.0
52.1
47.9
100.0
20.5

79.5
4
9,391-12,208
26.7 17.2 0.2
2.2 46.3 53.7

100.0
24.3

75.7
5
10,507-13,657

11.1
14.5
0.1
5.4
31.0
69.0 100.0

51.0

49.0
6
11,712-15,222

16.1
19.5 0.0

6.2
41.9 58.1

100.0
50.2

49.8
7
13,014-16,920

13.2 14.2

0.3 3.5 31.2 68.8

100.0
56.6

43.4
8
14,414-18,734

13.1
17.2 0.0
4.0 34.3 65,7

100.0
56.6

43.4
9
15,920-20,699
2.8 18.0 0.2
1.5 22.5 77.5 100.0

89.7

10.3
10
17,532-22,788

3.4
6.9
0.0
6.9
17.2 82.8

100.0
93.1

6.9
19,263-25,041

4.9
8.1
0.1
0.5
13.6 86.4 100.0

90.5

9.5
12
23,087-30,017

3.0 4.6

0.2 0.4 8.1 91.9 100.0

93.2

6.8 13 27,453-35,688

2.8 3.5 0.3

0.3 6.9 93.1 100.0

92.7

7.3
14
32,442-42,171

2.0
3.1
0.0
0.3
5.4 94.6

100.0
92.2

7.8
15
38,160-49,608

2.1
6.4
0.0
0.7
9.3 90.7

100.0
95.7

4.3 16 44,756-56,692

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

0.0 17 52,429-59,421

0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0
0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

0.0
18
61,449–

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0 100.0

100.0 100.0

0.0 Total 11.8% 13.6% 0.1% 2.5% 28.1% 71.9% 100.0% 64.5%

35.5% *General Schedule work force. **Includes Aleuts and Eskimos. Source: U.S., Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, "INS Minorities by Minority Group Designator Within Series" (Personnel Systems, Washington, D.C.: September 1978), cited in U.S., Commission on Civil Rights, staff paper, "The Immigration and Naturalization Service: An Employment Profile" (November 1978), p. 52.

TABLE 3.2
Immigration and Naturalization Service Female Work Force* by Grade Level, Race, and Ethnicity,
Percentage Distribution (Horizontal), September 1978

Salary range
$ 7,422- 9,645

8,356-10,877
9,391-12,208
10,507-13,657
11,712-15,222
13,014-16,920
14,414-18,734
15,920–20,699
17,532-22,788
19,263-25,041
23,087-30,017
27,453-35,688
32,442-42,171
38,160-49,608
44,756-56,692
52,429-59,421
61,449-

Black
43.8%
36.8
28.4
17.0
19.6
22.5
18.6
14.0

0.0
29.1
13.5
8.7
8.7
16.7

Hispanic

5.7%
13.6
14.0
12.7

8.7
12.7

0.0
14.9
0.0
6.4
8.8
8,7
8.7
33.3

Native
American **

0.0%
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Asian
American

0.0%
1.0
2.1
4.9
5.3
3.8
7.0
9.4
50.0
1.4
2.7
0.0
0.0
0.0

Total minority group 49.5% 51.3 44.7 34.7 33.6 39.3 25.6 38.7 50.0 37.6 24.3 17.4 17.4 50.0

White/Anglo

50.6%
48.7
55.3
65.3
65.4
60.7
74.4
61.3
50.0
62.4
75.7
82.6
82.6
50.0

Total 100.0% 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

24.3%

12.3%

0.2%

3.6%

40.3%

59.7%

100.0%

Grade

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Total

*General Schedule work force.
**Includes Aleuts and Eskimos.
Source: U.S., Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, "INS Minorities by Minority Group Designator Within Series" (Personnel Systems, Washington,
D.C.: September 1978), cited in U.S., Commission on Civil Rights, staff paper, "The Immigration and Naturalization Service: An Employment Profile" (November 1978), p.
55.

TABLE 3.3

Immigration and Naturalization Service Work Force,* Grade Level Groupings by Race, Ethnicity, and
Sex, September 1978

Native
Asian

Total
Black
Grade

Hispanics
American
American

Female
minority

Male

White/Anglo
No.
No.

No.

%
%

%
No.

No.
%

No.

%
group

%
No.

%

%

No.
650
GS 01-04
49.4

2
311

15.4
20.6
31

454
10.9 994 31.9

6.4 1,578 39.9

1,038 12.9
37.6

612
GS 05-08 494

40.7

30.8 203 4 71.9 1,313

1,911 48.4
33.5

28.9
42.1 2,677

2,079
10.5 533 35.2
GS 09-11 139

38.5
5

15.5
44
721

378 9.5 23.0

38.4 3,075

47.7

3,418
2.5 54

34
GS 12-15+

3.5

15.3 2 5 1.7 95 3.0

89 1,220 15.2 1,226 17.0

2.2
Total

100.0
1,317 100.0 1,510

100.0
13
283 100.0 3,123 100.0

100.0 3,956 100.0

8,010 100.0 7,177 *General Schedule work force, Source: U.S., Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, "INS Minorities by Minority Group Designator Within Series " (Personnel Systems, Washington, D.C.: September 1978), cited in U.S., Commission on Civil Rights, staff paper, "The Immigration and Naturalization Service: An Employment Profile" (November 1978), p. 57.

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TABLE 3.4

Immigration and Naturalization Service Work Force,* Cumulative Distribution, September 1978

Grade

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White/Anglo
Minority **

Women

Total
Cum f Cum % f Cumf Cum %

Cum f cum %
Salary range

f Cum f Cum%
8,010

148
$38,160-49,608

100.0
15+

13
3,123

6 100.0 3,956

11,133 100.0

161

100.0
14

280
32,442-42,171
7,862 98.2 16 3,110 99.6 23 3,950 99.8

10,972 98.6

296
13

295 7,582 94.7
27,453-35,688

22 3,094 99.1 23

99.3
3,927

10,676 95.9

317
12

497
23,087-30,017
7,287 91.0 44 3,072 98.4 37 3,904

10,359 93.0

98.8 541 19,263–25,041 1,281 6,790 11 84.8 201 3,028 97.0 141

97.8 3,867

1,482 9,818 88.2 24 17,532-22,788

5,509 10

68.8 5 2,827 90.5

2

94.2 3,726

29

8,336 74.9 15,920–20,699

1,770 9 5,485 68.5 515 2,822 90.4 235 3,724

2,285 8,307
94.1

74.6
14,414-18,734 65 3,715 46.4
8

34 2,370 75.9 43 3,489 88.2 99 6,022 54.1
13,014-16,920
7
536 3,650 45.6 243 2,273 72.8 338 3,446

779 5,923 53.2

87.1
11,712-15,222 375
6
3,114 38.9 270 2,030 65.0 321 3,108

645
78.6

46.2

5,144
10,507-13,657 1,701 2,739 34.2
5

766 1,760 56.4 1,209

70.4
2,787
2,467 4,499

40.4
9,391-12,208 532
4
1,038 13.0 459 994 31.8 750

39.9
1,578

991 2,032 18.3 8,356-10,877 3

506 435 6.3 474 535 17.1 723 828 20.9 909

9.4

1,041
71

71 0.9
7,422- 9,645
2

61 61 2.0 105

132 2.7 105

132

6.2 Median

8.5 4.5

4.5

6.5 Mode

9.0 5.0 5.0

5.0 Mean

7.8 6.0

5.2

7.4
F=Frequency or number of cases occurring at a specific GS level,
*General Schedule work force.
**Includes blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians.
Source: U.S., Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, "INS Minorities by Minority Group Designator Within Series" (Personnel Systems, Washington,
D.C.: September 1978), cited in U.S., Commission on Civil Rights, staff paper, "The Immigration and Naturalization Service: An Employment Profile" (November 1978), p.
56.

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