Ensera Ayor: Epik Rakyat Iban (Penerbit USM)

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Penerbit USM, Nov 25, 2014 - Tales - 316 pages

Kajian tentang sastera rakyat Iban yang dikenali suku Iban sebagai leka main memang sudah banyak dilakukan. Buku ini memberi fokus kepada salah satu daripada genre leka main yang unik dan jarang mendapat perhatian, iaitu ensera atau epik rakyat. Ensera adalah cerita kepahlawanan yang mengagungkan wira dan kebaktian kewiraan. Salah satu daripada epik kepahlawanan tersebut ialah Ensera Ayor yang meraikan Ayor sebagai wira rakyat Iban yang ulung. Berbeza dengan kajian sebelumnya, kajian ini bukan sahaja mendokumentasikan teks ensera tersebut, tetapi juga meletakkannya dalam konteks sastera rakyat Iban secara keseluruhannya, termasuk jenis, ciri dan fungsi kemasyarakatannya. Untuk membolehkan teks ini dimanfaatkan secara lebih luas, maka teks ini turut diterjemah ke dalam bahasa Melayu. Justeru, buku ini dianggap sebagai satu sumbangan yang cukup signifikan kepada pengkaji folklor.

 

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Overall the book gives a good overview of the various types of leak main Iban. However, some points need clarifications as follows:
It appears that gawai kenyalang is equated to gawai burung in
this book. This is not true because gawai kenyalang is not listed as one of the gawai burung's 9 stages as per Benedict Sandin. Even Dr. James Jemut Masing in his PhD thesis states that gawai kenyalang is one of 8 degrees of gawai amat in the Baleh region in Sarawak, Malaysia.
The book also states that severed heads are "diawet" (preserved}. This is not true as severed heads are peeled off of its skin and brain taken out, living the skull which is then boiled in hot water to let any remaining flesh attach to the skull or smoked over slow fire (bedilang) to dry out the remaining flesh to avoid any stench or adore. Please see the article narrated by Temenggung Jinggut and written by James Ritchie.
The chart of types of leak main does not breakdown timang and pengap into their respective categories. Dr. James Masing states in his PhD thesis that timang has numberous types acording to its function ie. timang beintu-intu (which is broken further down), timang benih, timang tuah and timang gawai amat. According to Bendict Sandin, pengap also covers various types like pengap gawai burung, pengap gawai tajau, pengap gawai umai and pengap gawai sakit. It should be noted there is a difference between timang largely used in the Baleh region and pengap chiefly used in the Saribas region. This difference seems not emphaised in the book.
Pelian also has many types of leka main according to its pelian types which are 60 over types according to prof. Clifford Sather in his book Seeds of Play, Words of Power.
Just like to clarify those points in the interests of the Iban studies.
 

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Contents

Section 13
Section 14
Section 15
Section 16
Section 17
Section 18
Section 19
Section 20

Section 9
Section 10
Section 11
Section 12
Section 21
Section 22
Section 23
Copyright

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