The Microscope and Its Revelations

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J. & A. Churchill, 1875 - Biology - 848 pages
 

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Contents

Becks and Nachets Binocular 83 Powell and Lealands
102
ThirdClass Microscopes 87 Microscopes for Special Purpºses
106
DrawTube
112
Micrometric Apparatus
121
Nosepiece
130
Webster Condenser
136
CHAPTER IV
168
gements
174
Portion of Leaf of Sphagnum
200
Section of Petiole of Fern
201
Sori of Polypodium after Payer
202
Ditto of Haemionitis ditto
203
Sorus and Indusium of Aspidium
204
Ditto of Deparia after Payer
205
Development of Prothallium of Pteris after Suminski
206
Antheridia and antherozoids of Pteris after Suminski
207
Archegonium of Pteris after Suminski
208
Spores of Equisetum after Payer
209
Section of leaf of Agave after Hartig
210
Section of Aralia rice paper
211
Stellate Parenchyma of Rush
212
Cubical Parenchyma of Nuphar
213
Development of leafcells of Anacharis after Wenham
214
Circulation in hairs of Tradescantia after Slack
215
Testa of StarA mise
216
CHAPTER
217
21S Section of Coquillanut 219 Spiral cells of Oncidium
219
Spiral fibres of Collomia
220
Cells of Pavony filled with Starch
221
Starchgrains under polarized light
222
Glandular fibres of Coniferous Wood
223
Vascular tissue of 11alian Reed after Schleiden
224
Transverse section of Stem of Palm
225
Ditto ditto Wanghie Cane
226
Chemical Actions
227
Transverse section of Stem of Clematis
228
Ditto ditto Rhamnus
229
Portion of the same more highly magnified
230
Transverse section of Hazel
231
Portion of Transverse section of Stem of Cedar
232
Glass Slides
233
Wertical section of Fossil Conifer radial
234
Ditto Ditto tangential
235
Ditto of Mahogany
236
Transverse section of Aristolochia ?
237
Ditto of Burdock
238
Cuticle of Yucca
239
Ditto of Indian Corn
240
Ditto of Apple after Brongniart
241
Mounting Objects in Canada
242
Wertical Section of Leaf of Rochea after Brongniart
243
Cuticle of Iris Ditto
244
Wertica Section of Leaf of Iris Ditto
245
Longitudinal Section of ditto Ditto
246
Cuticle of Petal of Geranium
247
Pollengrains of Althaea c
250
Actinophrys sol after Claparède
251
Amaba princeps after Ehrenberg
252
Preservative Media 252 Builtup Cells
260
CHAPTER
270
Internal cast of orbitoides fortisi
291
Italionma Humboldtii after Ehrenberg
297
11
312
Pluteuslarva of Echinus after Müller
323
Antedon rosaceus Comatula rosacea
324
Pentacrinoid larva of Antedon after Thomso
325
Cells of Lepraliae after Johnston
326
Birdshead processes of Cellularia and Bugula after Johnston and Busk
327
Amaroucium proliferum after MilneEdwards
328
Botryllus violaccus Ditto
329
Perophora after Lister
330
Transverse Section of Shell of Pinna
331
Membranous basis of ditto
332
Vertical Section of ditto
333
Oblique Section of Shell of Pinna
334
Nacre of Avicula
335
Section of hingetooth of Mya
336
Vertical Section of Shell of Unio
337
Internal and external surfaces of Shell of Terebratula 39 Vertical Sections of ditto ditto
338
Horizontal Section of Shell of Terebratula bullata
340
Ditto ditto of Megerlin lima 342 Ditto ditto of Spiriferina rostrata
342
Palate of Helic hortensis
343
Ditto of Zonites cellarius
344
Ditto of Trochus ziziphinus
345
Ditto of Doris tuberculata
346
Ditto of Buccinum under Polarized light
347
Boundary between Animal and Ulvaceae
348
Embryonic development of Doris after Reid
349
Embryonic development of Purpura
350
Later stages of the same
351
Structure of Polycelis after Quatrefages
352
Circulation of Terebella after MilneEdwards
353
Actinotrocha branchiata after Wagener
354
Development of Nemertes from Pºlidium after Krohn
355
Ammothea pycnogonoides after Quatrefages
356
Cyclops quadricornis after Baird
357
Wolvocineae 282 Conjugatea
363
CHAPTER VII
370
Algie 370 Mosses
399
Lichens 377 Ferns
406
Fungi 378 Equisetaceae
412
Elementary Tissues 415 Structure of Cuticle and Leaves
445
Structure of Stein and Root 433 Structure of Flowers and Seeds
452
CHAPTER IX
462
Pºrtion of Haizhonº
477
Protozoa 462 Gregarinida
479
Foraminiferacontinued
545
CHAPTER XI
574
Hydra 574 Acalephae
584
Production of Medusoids 579 Ctenophora
592
Structure of Skeleton 596 EchinodermLarvae
608
CHAPTER XIII
616
Tunicata
623
CHAPTER XIV
632
Structure of Shells 632 Ciliary motion on Gills
656
Annelids
664
CHAPTER XVI
674
Cirrhipeda
684
Number and variety of Objects Wings
719
Tegumentary Appendages 692 Eggs
725
CHAPTER XVIII
732
WERTEBRATED ANIMALS
746
Elementary Tissues 732 Epidermis 7 59
760
CHAPTER XIX
790
APPLICATION OF The MICROSCOPE TO GEOLOGY
804
Mineral Objects 807 Organic Structures suitable
813

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Page 541 - Suppose a human mason to be put down by the side of a pile of stones of various shapes and sizes, and to be told to build a dome of these, smooth on both surfaces, without using more than the least possible quantity of a very tenacious, but very costly, cement, in holding the stones together. If he accomplished this 42 well, he would receive credit for great intelligence and skill. Yet this is exactly what these little 'jelly specks' do on a most minute scale; the 'tests' they construct, when highly...
Page 638 - Y. ON THE MODE OF FORMATION OF SHELLS OF ANIMALS, OF BONE, AND OF SEVERAL OTHER STRUCTURES, by a Process of Molecular Coalescence, Demonstrable in certain Artificially-formed Products.
Page 470 - Supposing it to rest upon its convex surface, it consists of a lower plate, shaped like a deep saucer or watch-glass; of an upper plate, which is sometimes flat, sometimes more or less watch-glass-shaped; of the oval, thick-walled, flattened corpuscle, which connects the centres of these two plates ; and of an intermediate substance, which is closely connected with the under surface of the upper plate, or more or less...
Page 324 - ... preserved by Saxo. But to the origin of the rest the genealogies give us no clue. If they were all of royal origin — and apparently they did claim divine descent — the Angli must have possessed a numerous royal class ; and we are scarcely justified in denying that this may have been the case1. On the other hand it is by no means impossible that some of them were sprung from foreign peoples, such as the Danes, Swedes or Warni. But what we may regard as practically certain is that the individual...
Page 326 - Point, the bottoms of which are literally covered in the first warm days of spring with a ferruginous-coloured mucous matter, about a quarter of an inch thick, which, on examination by the microscope, proves to be filled with millions and millions of these exquisitely beautiful siliceous bodies. Every submerged stone, twig, and spear of grass, is enveloped by them ; and the waving plume-like appearance of a filamentous body covered in this manner, is often extremely elegant.
Page 795 - The slices thus treated appear of a darkish amber colour, very transparent, and exhibit the structure, when existing, most clearly. We have obtained longitudinal and transverse sections of coniferous wood from various coals in this way. The specimens are best preserved in glycerine in cells ; we find that spirit renders them opaque, and even Canada balsam has the same defect. Schulz states that he has brought out the cellulose reaction with iodine, in coal treated with nitric acid and chlorate of...
Page 573 - ... each thread is about eighteen inches long, in the middle the thickness of a knitting needle, and gradually tapering towards either end to a fine point ; the whole bundle coiled like a strand of rope into a lengthened spiral, the threads of the middle and lower portions remaining compactly coiled by a permanent twist of the individual threads ; the upper portions of the coil frayed out, so that the glassy threads stand separate from each other. The spicules on the outside of the coil stretch its...
Page 795 - The coal is macerated for about a week in a solution of carbonate of potash ; at the end of that time it is possible to cut tolerably thin slices with a razor. These slices are then placed in a watchglass with strong nitric acid, covered and gently heated ; they soon turn brownish, then yellow, when the process must be arrested by dropping the whole into a saucer of cold water, else the coal would be dissolved.
Page 798 - ... fragments become smaller, and calcareous mud, structureless and in a fine state of division, is in greatly preponderating proportion. One can have no doubt, on examining this sediment, that it is formed in the main by the accumulation and disintegration of the shells of globigerina — the shells fresh, whole, and living in the surface-layer of the deposit, and in the lower layers dead, and gradually crumbling down by the decomposition of their organic cement, and by the pressure of the layers...
Page 372 - Characece consists of two sets of bodies, both of which grow at the bases of the branches (Fig. 172, A, B) ; one set is known by the designation of ' globules,' the other by that of

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