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brought forth a man child, who was to rule all the nations with a rod of iron; and her child was caught up to God C and to his throne. And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared by God, that they may feed her there twelve hundred and sixty days.

7 And there was war in heaven; Michael and his angels warred with the dragon, and the dragon warred and his

8 angels: But he prevailed not, neither was hjs place found

9 any more in heaven. And the {jreat dragon was cast out, the ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan,

When his time is come. And her child—Which was already in heaven, as were the woman and the dragon, Was caught up to God—Taken utterly out of his reach.

V. 6. And the woman fled into the wilderness—This wilderness is undouhtedly on earth, where the woman also herself is now supposed to he. It hetokens that part of the earth, where, after having hrought forth, she found a ney ahode. And this must he in Europe, as Asia and Afric were wholly in the hamls of the Turks and Saracens: and in a part of it where the woman had not heen hefore. In this wilderness God had already prepared a place, that is, made it safe and convenient for her. The wilderness is, those countries of Europe, which lie on this side t he Danuhe: for the countries which lie heyond it, had received Christianity hefore: That they may feed her—That lh? people of that place may provide all things needful for her: Twelve hundred and sixty days—So many prophetic days; which are not (as some have supposed) twelve hundred and sixty, hut seven hundred and seventy-seven common years. (This Bengelius has shewn at large in his German Intro? durtion.) These we may compute from the year 847 to 1524. So long the woman enjoyed a safe and convenient place, in Europe, which was chiefly Bohemia; where she was fed, till God provided for her more plentifully at the reformation.

V. 7. And there was war in heaven—Here Satan makes his grand opposition to tin- kingdom of God. But an end is now put to his accusing the saints hefore God. The cause goes against him, (ver. 10, ) 1,) and Michael executes the sentence. That Michael is a created angel, appears from his not daring in dispuiing with Satan, ( 9) to hring a railing accusation, hut only saying, The Lord rebuke thee. And this modesty js implied in bus very name; for Michael signifies, Who is like God! Which implies alsp his deep reverence toward God, and distance from all self-exaltation. Satau would he like God. The very name of Michael asks, Who is like God? Not Satan: not the highest archangel. It is he likewise that is afterwards employed to seize, hind, and imprison that prond spirit.

V. 8 And he prevailed nor—The dragon himself is principally mentioned; hut his 8,u,gels likewise are to be understood. Neither was his place found any tnorein heaven—So till now he had a place in heaven. How deep a mystery is this! One may compare this with Luke x. 18, Eph. ii. 2i i.v. 8, vi. 12.

V. 9. And the great dragon was cast out—It is not yet said unto the earth. He was cast out of heaven. And at this the inhahitants of heaven rejoice. He is termed the great dragon, as appearing here in that shape, to intimate his poisonous and cruel disposition; the ancient serpent, in allusion to his deceiving Eve in that form- Dragons are a kind of large serpents. Who is called the Devil and Satan—These are words of exactly the same meaning; only the former is Greek, the latter Hehrew, denoting the grand adversary of all the saints, whether Je^s or Gentiles. He has deceived the whole world—Not only in their first parents, hut through all ages and in all countries, into unbelief •and all wickedness, into the hating and persecuting faith and ail goodness.

wbo deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out unto the

10 earth, and his angels were cast out with him. And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come the salvation, and the might, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ, for the accuser of our brethren is cast out, who accused them before our God daj

11 and night. And they have overcome him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they

12 loved not their lives unto the death. Therefore rejoice

Jfe was cast out unto the earth—He was cast out of heaven; and being cast out theure himself, came to the earth. Nor had he been unemployed on the earth before, although hi* ordinary abode was in heaven.

V. 10. Now is come—Hence it is evident, that all this chapter belongs to Hie trumpet of the seventh angel. In the nth chapter, from the 15th to the 18th verse, are proposed the contents of this extensive trumpet; the execution of which is copiously described in this and the following chapters. The salvation—Of the saints: The might—Whereby the enemy is cast out: The kingdom—Here the majesty of God is shewn: And the power of his Christ— Which he will exert against the beast. And when he also is taken away, then will the kingdom be ascribed to Christ himself, ch. xix. 16, xx. 4. The accuser ef our brethren—So long as they remained on earth. This great voice therefore was the voice of men only: Who accused them before our God day and night—Amazing malice of Sutan, and patience of God!

V. 11. And they have overcome him—Carried the canse against him, by the blood of the Lamb—Which cleanses the soul from all sin, and so leaves no room for accusing: And by the word of their testimony—The word of God, which they believed and testified, even unto death. So, for instance, died Olam, king of Sweden, in the year 900, whom his own subjects would have compelled to idolatry; and upon his refusal, slew him as a sacrifice to the idol which he would not worship. So did multitndes of Bohemian Christians, in the year 916, when queen Drahomire raised a severe persecution wherein many loved not their lives unto the death.

V. 12 Wo to the earth and the sea—This is the fourth and last denunciation of the third wo, the most grievous of all. The first was only, the eecond chiefly, Ok the earth, Asia: the third both on the earth and the sea, Europe. The earth is mentioned first, becanse it began in Asia, before the beast brought it on Europe. He knoweth he hath but a little time—Which extends from his casting out of heaven to his being cast into the abyss.

We are now come to a most important period of time. The non-chronos hastens to an end. We live it the little time wherein Satan hath great wrath; and this little time is now upon the decline. We are in the time, times, and half a time, wherein the woman is fed in the wilderness: yea, the la't part of it, the half time, is begun. We are (as will be shewn) towards the close of the forty-two months of the beast; and when his number is fulfilled, grievous things will be.

Let him who does not regard the being seized by the wrath of the devil, the falling unawares into the general temptation, the being borne away by the most dreadful violence into the worship of the beast and his image, and consequently driaking the unmixed wine of the wrath of God, and being tormented day and night for ever and ever in the lake of fire and brimstone; let him also who is confident, that he can make his way through all these, by his own wisdom and strength, without need of any such peculiar preservative as the word of this prophecy affords: let him, I say, go hence. But let him who does not take these warnings for senseless outcries and blind alarms, beg «f God, with all possible earnestness, to give him his heavenly light herein.

ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them: Wo to the earth and the sea; for the devil is come down to you, having great wrath; becsuse he knoweth he hath but a little time.

13 And when the dragon saw that he was east to the earth, he persecuted the woman that had brought forth the male

14 child. And there were given to the woman the two wings of the great eagle, that she might fly into the wil

God has not given this prophecy, in so solemn a mauner, only to shew hit providence over his church; but also that his servants may know at all times in what particular period they are. And the more dangerous any period of time is, the greater is the help which it affords. But where may we fix the beginning and end of the little time? Which is probably -four-fifths of a chronos, •r somewhat above 883 years. This, which is the time of the third wo, may reach from 947, to the year 1836'. For, |. The short interval of the second wo, (which wo ended in the year 84is) and fhc 777 years of the woman, which began about the year 847, quickly after which followed the war in heaven, fix the begiuning not long after 86'4. And thus the third wo falls in the tenth century, extending from 900 to 1000, called the dark, the iron, the unhappy age. 2. If we compare the length of the third wo, with the period of time « hich succeeds it in the twentieth chapter, it is but a little time to that vast space which readies from the begiuning of the pon-chionos to the end of tht world.

V. 13. And when the dragon taw—That he could no longer accuse the saints in heaven, he turned his wrath to do all possible mischief on earth, he persecuted the woman—The ancient persecutions of the church were mentioned, ch. i. 9, ii. 10, vii. 14. But this persecution came after her flight, (ver. 6,) just at the begiuning of the third wo. Accordingly in the tenth and eleventh centuries, the church was furiously persecuted by several heathen powers. In Prussia, king Adelbert was killed in the year 997, king Brunus in 1008. And when king Stephen encouraged Christianity in Hungary, helmet with violent opposition. After his death, the heathens in Hungary set themselves to root it out, and prevailed for several years. About the same time the army of the emperor, Heury III., was totally overthrown by the Vandals. These and all the accounts of those times shew, with what fury the dragon then persecuted the woman.

V. 14. And there were given to the woman the two wingi of the great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness to her place-—Eagles are the usual symbols of great potentates. So Ezekiel xvii. 3, by o great eagle, means the king of Babylon. Here the great eagle is the Roman empire; the two wings, the eastern and western branches of it. A place in the wilderness was mentioned in the sixth verse also. But it is not the same which is mentioned here. Ill the text there follow one after the other,

1. The dragon's waiting to devour the child.

3. The hirth of the child, which is canght jip tp God.

3. The fleeing of the woman into the wilderness.

4. The war in heaven, and the casting out of the dragon. 6. The begiuning of the third wo.

6. The persecution raised by the dragon against the woman. 7. The woman's flying away upon the eagle's wings. In like mauner there follow, one after the other,

1. The begiuning of the twelve hundred and sixty days.

5. The begiuning of the little time. , 3. The begiuning of the time, times, and half a time.

This third period partly coincides both with the first and the second. After tb* begiuning of the 1260 days, or rather of the third wo, Christianity was derness to her place, where she is fed for a time, and

15 times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent. And the serpent cast out of his mouth after the woman, water as a river, that he might csuse her to be carried away by

16 the stream. But the earth helped the woman, and

exceedingly propagated, in the midst of various persecutions. About the year 948, it was again settled in Denmark: in 965, in Poland and Silesia: in 980, through all Russia. In 997, it was brought into Hungary: into Sweden and Norway both before and after. Transylvania received it about 1000; and soon after, other parts of Dacia.

Now all the countries in which Christianity was settled, between the beginning; of the 1260 days, and the imprisonment of the dragon, may be understood by the wilderness, and by her place, in particular. This place contained many countries: so that Christianity now reached, in an uninterrupted tract, from the eastern to the western empire. And both the emperors now lent their wings to the woman, and provided a safe abode for her, where she is .fed— By God rather than man, having little human help: for a time, and times, and half a time—The length of the several periods here mentioned, seems to be nearly this:

1. The non-chronos contains less than till years.

3. The little time, - - 888

8. The time, times, and half a time, 777

4. The time of the beast, - - 666

And comparing the prophecy and history together, they seem to begin and *nd nearly thus:

1. The non-chronos extends from about 800, to 1836. 2. The 1360 days of the woman, from 847, to 1534.

3. The little time, - - from 947, to 1836.

4. The time, time and half, from 1058, to 1836.

5. The time of the beast, is between the begiuning and end of the three times and a half.

In the year 1058, the empires had a good understanding with each other, and both protected the woman: the hishops of Rome likewise, particularly Victor II. were duly subordinate to the emperor. We may observe, the 1260 days of the woman, from 847 to 1524, and the three times and a half, refer to the same wilderness. But in the former part of the 1260 days, before the three times and a half began, namely, from the year 847 to 1058, she was fed by others, being little able to help herself; whereas from 1058 to 1524, she is both fed by others, and has food herself. To this the sciences transplanted into the west from the eastern countries much contributed; the Scriptures in the original tongues, brought into the west of Europe by the Jews and Greeks, much more; and, most of all, the Reformation, grounded on those Scriptures.

V. 15. Water is an emblem of a great people; this water of the Turks in particular. About the year 1060, they over-ran the Christian part of Asia. Afterward they poured into Europe, and spread farther and farther, till they had overflowed many nations.

V. 16. But the earth helped the woman—The powers of the earth: and indeed sjie needed help through this whole period. The time, was from 1058 to 1280: during which the Turkish flood ran higher and higher, though frequently repressed by the emperors, or their generals, helping the woman. The (two) times, were from 1280 to 1725. During these likewise, the Turkish power flowed far and wide. But still, from time to time, the princes of the earth helped the woman, that she was not carried away by it. The half time, is from 1725 to I836. In the begiuning of this period, the Turks began to meddle with the affairs of Persia, wherein they have so entangled themselves, as to be the less able to prevail against the two remaining Christian empires. Jfct this flood still reaches the woman in htr place; and will, till near the end

opened her mouth, and swallowed up the river which the 17 dragon had cast out of his mouth, And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went forth to make war with the rest of her seed, who keep the commandments of God, and retain the testimony of Jesus.

CHAP. XIII. 1. And I stood on the sand of the sea, and saw a wild beast coming up out of the sea, having

of the half time, itself be swallowed up, perhaps by means of Russia, which is risen in the room of the eastern empire.

V. 1". And the dragon was wroth—Anew, because he could not cause her If be carried away by the stream: and he went forth—Into other lands, to mail war with the rest of her seed—Real Christians, living under heathen or Turkish governors.

CHAP. XIII. Ver. 1. And I stood on the sand of the sea—This also was is the vision. And I saw—Soon after the woman flew away, a wild beast coming up—He comes up twice, first from the sea, then from the abyss. He come from the sea, before the seven phials; the great whore comes after them.

O reader, this is a subject wherein we also are deeply concerned; and which must be treated, not as a point of curiosity, but as a solemn warning from God. The danger is near. Be armed both against force and fraud, even with the whole armour of God. Out of the sea—That is, Europe. So the tares woes (the first being in Persia, the second about the'Euphrates,) move w a line from east to west. This beast is the Romish papacy, as it came to a point six hundred years since, stands now, and will for some time longer. To this, and no other power on earth, it goes the whole text, add every part of it, in every point; as we may see, with the utmost evidence, from the propositions following.

, Prop. 1. It is one and the same beast, having seven heads and ten hoins, which is described in this and in the 171It chapter. Of consequence, his heads are the same, and his horns also.

P. 2. This beast is a spiritually-secular power, opposite to the kingdom of Christ. A power not merely spiritual or ecclesiastical, nor merely secular Or political; but a mixture of both. He is a secular prince; for a crown, yea, and a kingdom, are ascribed to him. And yet he is not merely secular; for he is also a false prophet.

P. 3. The beast has a strict connexion with the city of Rome. Thi« clearly appears from the xviith chapter.

P. 4. The beast is now existing. He is not past; for Rome is no* existing: and it is not till after the destruction of Rome, that the beast is thrown into the lake. He is not altogether to come: for the second wo is long since past, after which the third came quickly. And presently after it began, the beast rose out of the sea. Therefore, whatever he is, he is no* existing.

P. 5. The beast is the Romish papacy. This manifestly follows from the third and fourth proposition; the beast has a strict counexion with the city of Rome; and the beast is now existing. Therefore, either there is some other power more strictly connected with that city, or the pope is the beast. P. 6. The papacy, or papal kingdom, began long ago. The most remarkable particulars relating to this are here subjoined; takes so high as abundantly to shew the rise of the beast, and brought down as low as our own time, m order to throw light 00 the following part of the prophecy. A. D. 1033, Benedict IX, a child of eleven years old, is bishop of Romeand occasions grievous disorder for above twenty years. A. P. 1048, DamasM II. introduces the use of the triple crown.

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