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things which thou hast heard from me before many witnesses, these commit to faithful men, who will be able to

3 teach others also. Thou therefore endure affliction, as a

4 good soldier of Jesus Christ. No man that warreth entangleth himself in the affairs of this life, that he may

5 please him who hath enlisted Rim. And if a man strive,

6 he is not crowned, unless he strive lawfully. The husbandman, that laboureth first, must be partaker of the

7 fruits. Consider what I say, and the Lord give thee

8 understanding in all things. Remember Jesus Christ of the seed of David, raised from the dead according to my

9 gospel; For which I endure affliction even unto bonds, as

10 an evil-doer, but the word of God is not bound. Therefore I suffer all things for the elect's sake, that they also may obtain the salvation which is through Christ Jesus,

11 with eternal glory. It is a faithful saying, If we are dead

12 with him, we shall also live with him: If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he will also

13 deny us: If we believe not, he remaineth faithful; he cannot deny himself.

14 Remind them of these things, charging them before the Lord, not to strive about words to no profit, but to the

15 subverting of the hearers. Be diligent to present thyself unto God approved, a workman that needeth not to be

16 ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. But avoid

V. 4. No man that Warreth entangleth himself —Any more than is unavoidable, in the affairs of this life—With worldly business or cares, that—Minding war only, he may please his Captain. In this and the next verse there is a plain allusion to the Roman law of arms, and to that of the Grecian games. According to the former, no soldier was to engage in any civil employment. According to the latter, none could be crowned as conqueror, who did not keep strictly to the rules of the game.

V. 6. Unless he labour first, he will reap no fruit.

V. 8. Of the seed of David—This one genealogy attend to.

V. 9. Is not bound—Not hindered in its course.

V. 10. Therefore—Encouraged by this, that the word of God is not bound. I endure all things—See the spirit of a real Christian! Who would not wish to be like minded! Salvation is deliverance from all evil; Glory—The enjoyment of all good.

V. 11- Dead with him—Dead to sin, and ready to die for him.

V. 12 If we deny him—To escape suffering for him.

V. 13. If we believe not—That is, though some believe not, God will make good all his promises to them that do believe. He cannot deny himself—His word cannot fail.

V. 14. Remind them—Who are under thy charge. 0 how many unnecessary things are thus unprofitably, nay, hurtfully contended for!

V. I5. A workman that needeth not to be ashamed—Either of unfaithfulness or unkkilfulness: rightly dividing the word of truth—Duly explaining and applying the whole Scripture, so as to give each bearer his due portion. But they that give one part of the gospel to all, (the promises and comforts to unaw akencd, hardened, scoffing men,) have real need to be ashamed.

profane, empty babblings; for they will increase to more

17 ungodliness, And their word will eat as a gangrene; of

18 whom are Hymeneus and Philetus, Who have erred concerning the truth, saying, The resurrection is already

19 past, and overthrow the faith of some. But the foundation of God standeth firm, having this seal, The Lord linoweth those that are his: and, Let every one who

20 nameth the name of the Lord depart from iniquity. But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some to

21 honour, some to dishonour. If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, consecrated and fit for the master's use, prepared for every

22 good work. Flee also youthful desires; but follow after righteousness, faith, love, peace, with them that call upon

23 the Lord, out of a pure heart. But avoid foolish and unlearned questions, knowing that they beget strifes:

24 And a servant of the Lord must not strive, but be gentle

25 toward all men, apt to teach, patient of evil, In meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if haply God may give them repentance, to the acknowledging of

26 the truth; And they may awake out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will.

V. 16. They—Who habble will grow worse and worse.

V. 17. And their word—If they go on, will be mischievous as well as vain, and will eat as a gangrene.

V. 18. Saying, The resurrection is already past— Perhaps asserting, that it is only the spiritual passing from death unto life.

V. 19. But the foundation of God—His truth and faithfulness, standeth fast —Sun never he overthrown; being, as it were, sealed with a seal, which has an inscription on each side: on the one, The Lord knoweth those that are his; on the other, Let every one who nameth the name of the Lord—As his Lord, depart from iniquity—Indeed they only are his, who depart from iniquity. To all others he will say, I know you not, Matt. vii. 22, 23.

V. 20. But in a great house—Such as the church, it is not strange, that there ere not only vessels of gold and silver—Designed for honourable uses, but also of wood and of earth—For less honourable purposes. Yet a vessel even of gold may be put to the vilest use, though it was not the design of him that made it.

V. 21. If a man purge himself from these—Vessels of dishonour, so as te have no fellowship with them.

V. 22. Flee youthful desires—Those peculiarly incident to youth: Follow peace with them—Unity with all true believers, out of a pure heart—Youthful desires destroy this purity: righteousness, faith, love, peace, accompany it.

V. 24. A servant of the Lord must not—Eagerly or passionately strive—As do the vain wranglers spoken of ver. 23, but be apt to teach—Chiefly by patience and unwearied assiduity.

V. a5. In meekness—He has often need of zeal, always of meekness, if haply God—For it is wholly his work, may give them repentanceThe acknowledging of the truth would then quickly follow.

V."2f>. Who—At present are not only captives, but asleep; utterly insensible of their captivity.

CHAP. HI. I. But know this, that in the last days

2 grievous times will come. For men will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, arrogant, proud, evil-speak

3 era, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy, Without natural affection, implacable, slanderers, intemperate,

4 fierce, despisers of good men, Traitors, rash, puffed up,

5 lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God; Having a form of godliness, but denying the power of it. From

6 these also turn away. For of these are they who creep into houses, and captivate silly women laden with sins,

7 led away by various desires, Ever learning, but never

8 able to come to the knowledge of the truth. Now as Janaes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also withstand the truth; men of corrupt minds, void of judg

9 ment as to the faith. But they shall proceed no farther; for their folly shall be manifest to all men, as theirs also

10 was. But thou hast accurately traced my doctrine, manner of life, intention, faith, long-suffering, love, patience,

11 Persecutions, afflictions, which befell me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra; what persecutions I endured; but

12 the Lord delivered me out of all. Yea, and all that are resolved to live godly in Christ Jesus, shall suffer perse

13 cution. But evil men and impostors will grow worse

CHAP. III. Ver. 1. In the last days—The time of the gospel dispensation' commencing at the time of our Lord's death, is peculiarly styled the last days: grievous—-Troublesome and dangerous.

V. s. For men—Even in the church, will be—In great numbers, and to a higher degree than ever, lovers of themselves—Only, not their neighbours, the first root of evil: lovers of money—The second.

V. 3. Without natural affection—To their own children, intemperate, fierce— Both too soft, and too hard.

V. 4. Lovers of sensual pleasure—Which naturally extinguishes all love and sense of God.

V. 5. Having a form—Aa appearance of godliness, but not regarding, nay, even denying and blaspheming the inward power and reality of it. Is not this eminently fulfilled at this day?

V. 6. Of these—That is, mere formalists.

V. 7. Ever learning—New things; but not the truth of God.

V. 8. Several ancient writers speak of Jaunes and Jambres, as the chief of the Egyptian magicians: Men of corrupt minds— Impure notions and wicked inclinations; void of judgment —Quite ignorant, as well as careless, of true, spiritual religion.

V. 9. They shall proceed no farther—In gaining proselytes.

V. i2. Alt that are resolved to live godly—Therefore count the cost. Art thou resolved? in Christ—Out of Christ there is no godliness; shall suffer persecution—More or less. There is no exception. Either the truth of Scripture fails, or those that think they are religious, and are not persecuted, in some shape or other, on that very account, deceive themselves.

V. 13. Deceiving and being deceived—He who has once begun to deceive others, is both the less likely to recover from his own error, and the more ready to embrace the errors of other men.

14 and worse, deceiving and being deceived. But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned, and been fully assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them,

15 And that from an infant thou hast known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation,

16 through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All Scripture is inspired of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof,

17 for correction, for instruction in righteousness; That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto

IV. every good work. 1. I charge thee, therefore, before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living

2 and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom, Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; convince, rebuke,

3 exhort, with all long-suffering and teaching. For the time will come, when they will not endure wholesome doctrine, but will heap up to themselves teachers, accord

4 ing to their own desires, having itching ears. And they will turn away their ears from the truth, and turn aside

5 to fables. But watch thou in all things, endure affliction,

V. 14. Of whom—Even from me, a teacher approved of God.

V. is. From an infant thou hast known the holy Scriptures—Of the Old Testament. These only were extant when Timothy was an infant; which are able to make thee wise unto salvation, through faith in the Messiah that was to come. How much more are the Old and New Testament together able, in God's hand, to make us more abundantly wise unto salvation? Even such a salvation, as was not known before Jesus was glorified.

V. 16. All Scripture is inspired of God—The Spirit of God not only once inspired those who wrote it, but continually inspires, supernaturally assists those that read it with earnest prayer. Hence it is so profitable for doctrine, for instruction of the ignorant, for the reproof or conviction of them that are in error or sin; for the correction or amendment of whatever is amiss, and for instructing or training up the children of God in all righteousness.

V. 17. That the man of God—He that is united to and approved of God: may be perfect—Blameless himself, and thoroughly furnished—By the Scripture, either to teach, reprove, correct, or train up others.

CHAP. IV. Ver. 1. I charge thee, therefore—This is deduced from the whole preceding chapter, at his appearing and his kingdom—That is, at his appearing in the kingdom of his glory.

V. 2. Be instant—Insist on, urge these things in season, out of season—That is, continually, at all times and places. It might be translated, with and without opportunity—Not only when a fair occasion is given; even when there is none, one must be made.

V. 3. For they will heap up teachers—Therefore thou hast need of all longsuffering; according to their own desires—Smooth as they can wish; having itching ears—Fond of novelty and variety, which the number of new teachers, as well as their empty, soft, or philosophical discourses pleased. Such teachers, and such hearers, seldom are much concerned with what is strict or to the purpose: heap to themselves—Not enduring sound doctrine, they will reject the sound preachers, and gather together all that suit their own taste. Prohably they send out one another as teachers, and so are never at a loss for numbers.

V. s. Watch—An earnest, constant, persevering exercise. The Scripture t

6 do the work of an evangelist, fulfil thy ministry. For I am now ready to be offered up, and the time of my de

7 parture is at hand. I have fought the good fight, I have

8 finished the course, I have kept the faith; Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord the righteous Judge will render me-in that day, and not to me only, but to all them likewise that have loved his appearing.

9 Do thy diligence to come to me shortly, For Demas

10 hath forsaken me, loving the present world, and is gone to Thessalonica, Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia.

11 Only Luke is with me. Take Mark and bring him with

12 thee, for he is profitable to me for my ministry. Tychi

13 cus I have sent to Ephesus. When thou comest, bring the cloke which I left at Troas with Carpus, and the

14 books, especially the parchments. Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil; the Lord will reward him ac

15 cording to his works. Of whom be thou also aware; for

16 he hath greatly withstood our words. At my first defence

watching, or waiting, implies steadfast faith, patient hope, labouring love, unceasing prayer; yea, the mighty exertion of all the affections of the soul, that a man is capable of: in all things —Whatever you are doing, yet in that, and in all things, Watch: do the work of an evangelist—Which was next to that of an apostle.

V. 6. The time of my departure is at hand—So undoubtedly God had shewn him; I am ready to be offered up—Literally, to be poured out, as the wine and oil were on the ancient sacrifices.

V. 8. The crown of that righteousness—Which God has imputed to me and wrought in me; will render to all—This increases the joy of Paul and encourages Timothens. Many of these St. Paul himself had gained: that have loved his appearing—Which only a real Christian can do. I say it real Christian, to comply with the mode of the times: else they would not understand, although the word Christian necessarily implies whatever is holy, as God is holy. Strictly speaking, to join real or sincere to a word of so complete an import, is grievously to debase its noble signification, and is like adding long to Etern«ty, or wide to IMMENSITY.

V. 9. Come to me—Both that he might comfort him, and be strengtened by him. Timotheus himself is said to have suffered at Ephesus.

Y- 10. Demas—Once my fellow-labourer, Phil. ver. 24, hath forsaken me— Crescens, probably a preacher also, is gone with my consent, to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia, having now left Crete. These either went with him to Ro me, or visited him there.

V. 11. Only Luke—Of my fellow-labourers, is with me—But God is with me; and it is enough. Take Mark—Who, though he once departed from the work, is now again profitable to me.

V. 13. The cloke—Either the toga, which belonged to him as a Roman citizen, or an upper garment, which might be needful as winter came on; which I left at Troas with Carpus—Who was probably his host there j especially the parchments—The books written on parchment.

V. 14. The Lord will reward him—This he spoke prophetically.

V. 16. All—My friends and companions, forsook me—And do we expect to find such as will not forsake ust My first defence—Before the savage emperor Nero.

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