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eastern, the low for a single year of the 10-year period being Potter County, central division, with only 3.66 inches of precipitation in 1936. During this period, the assessed number of cattle dropped 32 percent in the western division and gained 5 percent in the eastern division, which division had an average rainfall of 18.90 inches, and this was based on 1,400,000 cattle in the State in 1930. These data are not calculated on the extremely high number of livestock in the State nor the extremely low number of animals assessed in 1937, but for the beginning and end of the decade.

During this same decade, the loss of civil population in South Dakota was 7.2 percent, with the urban population showing a 20percent increase, whereas the rural farm areas show a loss of 21 percent.

South Dakota had 83,175 farms in 1930. By 1940 this had decreased to 72,454 farms, a decrease of over 10,000 farms. By 1940 these remaining farms increased from 438 acres to 554 acres in average size, but the value had dropped 50 percent during the 10 years.

The factor that stabilizes our population and our economy in South Dakota is water. This is clearly established where it is shown that during the drought period of the 1930's population trends are toward the areas of adequate humidity, or where irrigation is adequate to maintain basic economic needs.

In relation to this, I wish to present a thesis on the economic benefits from irrigation to South Dakota from developing the Missouri River by Dr. Lyman Jackson, president of South Dakota State College, Brookings, S. Dak., which was made at the request of Governor Sharpe and distributed to those interested in South Dakota.

Further, in contention of the necessity of irrigation, I wish to present these comparative photographs taken in 1934—I will give you these photographs. You may wish to look at them, sir—taken in 1934, from the reclamation area at Belle Fourche, and those showing the drought conditions that existed in the vicinity of Huron, S. Dak., during the same year. No. 1 shows a barren field near Huron, compared to an irrigated alfalfa field from which the third crop is being cut, near Belle Fourche on September 11, 1934. No. 2 shows a wheat field irrigated near Newell, whereas in comparison we have photographs of a farm in the James River Valley with barren cultivated fields. No. 3 shows a farm home in the irrigated valley near Belle Fourche in comparison with another on the wind-blown area in the James River Valley of South Dakota, where fence posts are nearly covered with eroded top soil.

Senator OVERTON. Let me interrupt you. Are these photographs of exactly the same land before and after irrigation ?

Mr. SVENDBY. No, sir; they are comparing different areas of the State, one that is now irrigated and one that is not irrigated.

The results of the use of water during 1934 show that the average income per acre on all crops on the Belle Fourche project was $23.56, whereas in the vicinity of Huron, livestock had to be sacrificed due to the fact that they had no crop at all and cattle were sold as low as $10 a head, and calves were slaughtered and buried.

During 1936, when a very serious drought condition again existed in western South Dakota, the average yield per acre on the Belle Fourche project was $26.05 per acre, and of this the greatest total income was from alfalfa, a feed crop the remainder of the State lacked.

I wish to present and file these data with your committee.
Senator OVERTON. It is not necessary for that to be published, is it?

Senator MILLIKIN. Is that essential to the exposition of your case, to put it in the record ? Mr. SVENDBY. What we have had so far Senator OVERTON. It is detailed data in respect to what? Mr. SVENDBY. In respect to the amount of crop obtained from the irrigated portion of the State.

Senator OVERTON. Of South Dakota?
Mr. SVENDBY. Yes, that which we have that is now irrigated.
Senator OVERTON. All right. It may be admitted to the record.
(The data are as follows:)
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, BUREAU OF RECLAMATION

Crop yield report7-316 (May 1926)
WATER USER OR PROJECT: BELLE FOURCHE PROJECT. YEAR OF 1936

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Subtotal. Vegetables and truck: 31. Beans, commercial..

Bushel 32. Onions, dry.

Bushel. 33. Potatoes, white.

Bushel 34. Potatoes, sweet.

Bushel. 35. Gardens. 36. Truck?

Bushel. to Cucumbers 7.....

5 Bushel. 42. ().----

Bushel.
Subtotal...------ 397
See footnotes at end of table.

97.83 74.62 67.86

Crop yield report_7-316 (May 1936)-Continued WATER USER OR PROJECT: BELLE FOURCHE PROJECT. YEAR OF 1936-Continued

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1 For remaining grain crops. See note 1, Form 7-332.

? List 2 most important other seed crops, like sugar beets, beans, peas, etc. Use Item 14 for the sum total of all remaining seed crops. 3 See note 3, Form 7-332. See note 4, Form 7-332.

List 2 most important other forage duplicate crops, like beet tops, bean straw, etc. Use item 23 for sum total of remaining other forage crop.

List 2 most important pastures, like ladino, tame, and alfalfa. Use item 30 for sum total of remaining pastures.

7 List 2 most important truck crops, like lettuce, tomatoes, or cabbage. Use item 4210 sum total of other remaining truck crops.

& Includes all other nuts.
• Item 59 for the major crop. Items 60, 61, total of all other miscellaneous.
Item numbers correspond to those on Form 7-332.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CROP YIELD REPORT

1. The crop yield report shall be included in the annual operation and maintenance report, and an advance copy shall be sent to the Commissioner as soon after its compilation as possible.

2. For sake of uniformity, the unit of yield shall be the ton for forage crops and sugar beets, the bushel for grains and vegetables when practical, and the pound for fruits.

3. The value per units of yield shall be the local market price of the crops.

4. Pastures shall be included under areas irrigated for crop purposes, and the value thereof per acre shall be considered to be the same as that of an acre of hay land on the same class of land.

5. Duplicated areas resulting from growing grass and grain on the same land, from raising crops in bearing orchards, and from other similar methods of cropping shall be carefully ascertained and deducted.

6. In reporting areas irrigated for other purposes, there shall be included : Nonbearing orchards, fall-seeded grass fields, fields irrigated for the purpose of cultivation only, class 5 lands irrigated (while lands in suspended status may produce crops, such cropping is in the nature of an experiment to determine whether such lands should be in pay class or excluded from the project), lands without a water right irrigated by pumping from project canals, and lands withheld from production under soil conservation or any other governmental arrangement. Such amount received from Government and the returns from class 5 lands under value.

7. There shall be deducted from areas irrigated for other purposes, areas of crops raised in nonbearing orchards and other similar areas.

8. Owing to the general nature of the information given in this report, the use of decimals shall be reduced to the lowest practicable minimum consistent with reasonable accuracy.

Bonus payments, 1936

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, BUREAU OF RECLAMATION

Crop yield report 7316 (Nov., 1924)
WATER USER OR PROJECT: BELLE FOURCHE. YEAR OF 1934

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Sugar beets, initial payment $4.25; bonus 1933 crop 97 cents; total, $5.22.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CROP YIELD REPORT 1. The crop yield report shall be included in the annual operation and maintenance report, and an advance copy shall be sent to the Commissioner as soon after its compilation as possible.

2. All crops shall be listed separately in the report in alphabetical order.

3. For sake of uniformity, the unit of yield shall the ton for forage crops and sugar beets, the bushel for grains and other vegetables, and the pound for fruits.

4. The values per units of yield shall be the local market price of the crops.

5. Pastures shall be included under areas irrigated for crop purposes, and the value thereof per acre shall be considered to be the same as that of an acre of hay land on the same farm.

6. Duplicated areas resulting from growing grass and grain on the same land, from raising crops in bearing orchards, and from other similar methods of cropping shall be carefully ascertained and deducted.

7. In reporting areas irrigated for other purposes than cropping there shall be included nonbearing orchards, fall-seeded grass fields, and fields irrigated for the purpose of cultivation only.

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