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At Howard Bend, during the 1943 floods, we put up an expensive and valiant fight against the Missouri and when the crest was reached we were only 7 inches ahead of disaster! Although we are making plans, we are not absolutely sure that our proposed $250,000 program will protect us from all future eventualities.

While the situation is possibly not so acute at our Chain of Rocks station, still we have through the years suffered frequently and extensively from flood damage. We are apprehensive of the future, however, because a given volume of water coming down the Missouri today produces higher flood stages than that same volume produced in years past. It has been estimated that a repetition of the record flood of 1844 would result in river stages at St. Louis on the order of 6 feet above that actually experienced in 1844. This is largely due to the encroachments of civilization, as in East St. Louis or Kansas City, for example, where enormous areas have been developed industrially and for residential purposes and subsequently protected by levees, thus withdrawn from the floodways. The restricted channel therefore produces higher elevations of water for any given volume of flow.

Water supply is endangered by too little as well as by too much river flowage. Some cities, but not St. Louis, encounter extreme difficulty in constructing intakes which can reach the water and secure sufficient volume at low stages.

But a far more serious consideration which has received too little attention is that of pollution. In summer months the percentage of industrial waste and sanitary sewage as related to the total flow in the Missouri is so high in certain districts as to warrant concern. It is certain that from the standpoint of public health alone no diversion of water should be permitted at times of extremely low stage, but on the other hand, flow at such times should be increased if possible, to the end that wastes and sewage be diluted within safe limits. This is a point that cannot be overemphasized.

We in St. Louis have many indications that we are destined to become the aviation capital of the Midwest. In preparation, we are energetically expanding present airport facilities and acquiring new

The officially adopted policy is to locate an airport in the socalled Columbia Bottoms, which lies at the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi. Here we are to acquire more than 4,000 acres of land and construct one of the world's finest super air terminals. Our total expenditure may well run over $25,000,000 eventually. This site is subject to frequent and extensive overflow from the Missouri, necessitating large expenditures for protection and maintenance. For reasons not necessary to explain here, the city of St. Louis has no other available alternative site. It may fairly be said, therefore, that an adequate flood-prevention program on the Missouri will have an important bearing on the aviation future of St. Louis.

The year 1944 is the second successive year that tremendously destructive floods have ravaged the lower Missouri River Valley. These floods have affected the city of St. Louis both directly and indirectly, because the losses in the trade territory of St. Louis are reflected in a very definite loss to the business interests of the city. Flood losses are nearly always completely uninsured and often result in complete impoverishment of the people who would otherwise be good customers.

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St. Louis is historically a center of navigation activity on the inland waterway system, and the great increases of water-borne traffic that have been developing in recent years promise benefits from this source beyond anything known in the past. The opening of the Missouri River to modern navigation is something which cannot help but have tremendous beneficial effect in our city. Furthermore, uninterrupted flow in sufficient volume from the Missouri River is necessary for maintenance of the channel in the Mississippi River between the Missouri and the mouth of the Ohio.

We in St. Louis realize that there are other interests besides flood control and navigation in this vast Missouri River Basin, the principal of which are power development and irrigation. We desire to cooperate to the fullest extent to the end that all interests are developed as far as possible. Indeed, I believe that it would be totally impossible to develop a formula or policy now, which would adequately and fairly deal with the shifting requirements of each of the localities in each of the years to come. I make this statement in spite of the fact that my present inclination is to assert the primary importance of flood control.

From all the information available at this time it appears that no danger of any water shortage exists, but we hear the demand made that a fixed policy be laid down to be followed by the Government if some conflict shall arise in the unforeseeable future. The position of St. Louis is that no such policy should be adopted, but that if it should occur that such a conflict arise the values existing at the time of the conflict must govern, with all disputes to be settled by conference or by Congress itself in the event that conference fails satisfactorily to resolve the issues.

The position of St. Louis is that any other course will needlessly jeopardize the interests of our community and probably make impossible the task of administering the development of the Missouri River Basin.

It is our considered opinion based on careful study of all information available that the so-called Pick plan of Missouri River development as it appears in the flood-control bill, H. R. 1485, is the proper plan to be adopted at this time because of its flexibility, which will allow it to meet conditions as they arise during the several-year development period. We respectfully ask that this plan be put into effect without any amendments designed to give advantage or priority to any particular interest.

In my opinion, there is considerable merit in the demands which have arisen in certain quarters for a central, unified Missouri River control covering both planning and policy and embracing navigation, flood control, power development, irrigation, water supply, and the many other associated factors. I do not believe, however, that such central control could be attained through the establishment of a new independent agency of the T. V. A. type. The problems of the Missouri Valley are much more extensive and have wider ramifications than have those of the Tennessee Valley. There is much greater diversity of interest as to water control and uses, as well as geographically along the Missouri. Further, Missouri River development must be fully coordinated with that of the Mississippi and other streams. It cannot be handled independently. A central control, if

established, should incorporate several existing governmental agencies, for example, the Federal Power Commission, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Department of Agriculture, and most important of all, the United States Corps of Engineers. Local representation from the affected States should also be provided. The details of such arrangement could be provided in various ways, but unless called upon to do so, I will leave the furnishing of them to others. Senator OVERTON. Thank you very much. That concludes the testimony this morning.

Senator MILLIKIN. Mr. Chairman, may I offer for the record three resolutions--one by Montanans, Inc., one by the Montana Stockgrowers Association, and the other on behalf of the Montana Reclamation Association:

(The matter referred to is as follows:)

STATEMENT OF THE RECLAMATION AND AGRICULTURAL COMMITTEES OF

MONTANANS, INC. Whereas the Reclamation and Agricultural Committees of Montanans, Inc., observing that efforts are now being made by industrial interests in the lower basin States of the Missouri River to secure the enactment of legislation by the Congress of the United States, which would forever dedicate the remaining waters of the Missouri River and all its tributaries to the purposes of navigation, to the complete exclusion of the further development of lands susceptible of irrigation, which have been estimated to total 22,000,000 acres in the States of the arid West; and

Whereas the further development through the use of the waters for irrigation, domestic, and other beneficial uses is so important in the creation of a more stable economic situation for all of the semiarid States: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, That this annual meeting of Montanans Inc., held this 3d day of June 1944, define its attitude with regard to the uses of water from the streams of the West as follows:

It should be the duty of Congress to recognize the interests and rights of the States in determining the development of the watersheds within their borders and likewise their interests and rights in water utilization and control; to preserve and protect to the fullest possible extent established and potential uses for all purposes of the waters of the Nation's rivers; and to limit the authorization and construction of navigation works to those in which a substantial benefit to navigation will be realized therefrom and which can be operated consistently with the appropriate and economic use of the water of such rivers by other users ; that in connection with the construction, operation, and maintenance of navigation works, water for the use thereof arising west of the ninety-seventh meridian shall be subordinate to and shall not adversely affect at any time the beneficial consumptive use, west of the ninety-seventh meridian, of such waters for domestic, irrigation, mining, or industrial purposes.

RESOLUTION No. 1, WATER CONSERVATION AND RECLAMATION Whereas the Montana Stockgrowers Association is an organization of 60 years standing, whose members have witnessed during those years, the disastrous effects of periodic droughts upon the livestock populations of the Great Plains States with resultant dislocations of many other economies; and

Whereas in the course of those 60 years, the cattle-raising States have come into greater and greater production of forage and feed through the use of water for irrigation; and

Whereas such production of feed and forage has enable cattle-producing States to stabilize the inilustry to the extent of meeting the unprecedented demands of a world-wide war, for meat, and related products; and

Whereas efforts are now being made by industrial interests in the lower basin States of the Missouri River to secure the enactment of legislation by the Congress of the United States, which would forever dedicate the remaining waters of the Missouri River and all its tributaries to the purposes of navigation, to the complete exclusion of the further development of lands susceptible of irrigation, which have been estimated to total 22,000,000 acres in the States of the arid West; Now, therefore be it

Resolved, That the Montana Stockgrowers Association, meeting in its sixtieth annual convention in Miles City, Mont., on May 25, 26, and 27, 1944, define its attitude with regard to the use of water from the streams of the West as follows:

It should be the duty of Congress to recognize the interests and rights of the States in determining the development of the watersheds within their borders and likewise their interests and rights in water utilization and control; to preserve and protect to the fullest possible extent established and potential uses, for all purposes, of the waters of the Nation's rivers; and to limit the authorization and construction of navigation works to those in which a suhstantial benefit to navigation will be realized therefrom and which can be operated consistently with the appropriate and economic use of the water of such rivers by other users; that in connection with the construction, operation, and maintenance of navigation works, water for the use thereof arising west of the ninety-seventh meridian shall be subordinate to and shall not adversely affect at any time the beneficial consumptive use, west of the ninety-seventh meridian, of such waters for domestic, irrigation, mining, or industrial purposes.

Attest: This is a true copy of resolution No. 1 adopted unanimously at the sixtieth annual convention of the Montana Stockgrowers Association in Miles City, Mont., on May 25, 26, and 27, 1944.

E. A. PHILLIPS, Secretary,

BRIEF OF THE MONTANA RECLAMATION ASSOCIATION, WILSALL, MONT., JUNE 5, 1944 COMMERCE COMMITTEE OF THE SENATE:

This brief is filed on behalf of the Montana Reclamation Association, a Montana organization with members in every county of the State that works for the development and best use of the land and water resources of Montana.

It is filed in opposition to certain features of H. R. 4485 that the Montana Reclamation Association considers detrimental to the best interests of the development and best use of our land and water resources. A full understanding of the implications of this bill can be had only after a careful study of the recommendations of the Chief of Army Engineers in House Document 475, Seventyeighth Congress, second session. The authorization contained in this bill would make irrigation subordinate to flood control and navigation. We in Montana believe the contrary should be true.

First, because we are convinced there is not enough water for navigation in the lower basin as has been indicated by some of the Army engineers' studies, and for even the more feasible irrigation projects in the arid and semiarid States. Second, we believe water used for irrigation is a much more valuable asset to the country than when used for navigation and also that there are many substitutes for transportation of goods besides navigation but that no substitute can be had for water used in growing crops. Third, when full irrigation development in our State is had only 5 percent of land will be watered and this small proportion is absolutely necessary for growing of hay and grain to stabilize the use of the ranges. Fourth, irrigated acreage is needed for the use of returned soldiers who wish to acquire farms and the denial of the paramount use of this water for irrigation precludes the development of these farms.

We object to section 3 of this bill in that it grants to the Secretary of War such broad powers that it could enter into the construction and operation of irrigation works. We believe this should be left in the hands of the Bureau of Reclamation which was established by Congress for this purpose and has had years of experience in this kind of work.

We object to section 6 in that it in no way recognizes the laws of our State in the distribution of water, but on the contrary permits the sale of water "whenever in the opinion of the Secretary of War and the Chief of Engineers any dam and reservoir project operated under the direction of the Secretary of War can be consistently used for reclamation of arid lands." We believe that if water rises in or flows through an arid or semiarid State local laws, customs, and uses should be recognized in its use and development.

The Montana Reclamation Association firmly believes that Congress should so amend this bill as to recognize the interests and rights of the States in determining the development of the watersheds within their borders and likewise their

interests and rights in water utilization and control; to preserve and protect to the fullest possible extent established and potential uses, for all purposes, of the waters of the Nation's rivers; and to limit the authorization and construction of navigation works to those in which a substantial benefit to navigation will be realized therefrom and which can be operated consistently with the appropriate and economic use of the water of such rivers by other users; that in connection with the construction, operation, and maintenance of navigation works, water for the use thereof arising west of the ninety-seventh meridian shall be subordinate to and shall not adversely affect at any time the beneficial consumptive use, west of the ninety-seventh meridian, or such waters for domestic, irrigation, mining, or industrial purposes.

WERLEY A. D'EWART,

President, Montana Reclamation Association. Senator OVERTON. All right. I also offer for the record a statement by Representative James F. O'Connor of Montana; which will be included at this point.

(The statement referred to is as follows:)

STATEMENT OF HON. JAMES F. O'CONNOR, A REPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS FROM

THE STATE OF MONTANA

First of all I want to say that I do not, nor do I think does anyone else, doubt the authority of Congress to manage the waters of navigable rivers. Nor do I question the ever active need for additional flood control on the Missouri River and its tributaries. Even in my own State of Montana we saw last year what a rampaging river could do and what a loss and expense follows in its wake. Traffic is still being rerouted on one of our two main east-west highways in the eastern part of the State because of a five-span bridge being washed out-and out there when you reroute traffic you do not simply shift over to another hard-surfaced road, but to a dirt or graveled one.

However, with that authority Congress also has a great responsibility-a responsibility to all the Nation that that great potential bread basket of this great country be not stifled by denying its people sufficient water to carry on their agriculture pursuits. The future development of Montana and all the rest of those Upper Basin States is going to require additional water for their future development and therefore not only the present consumptive use of their waters must be safeguarded but also the future use.

Let me say, I am not an engineer and therefore I do not know whether this call for additional water to maintain a deeper channel is going to mean an additional burden on the already meager water supply of the Upper Basin States or not-the proponents of the 9-foot channel say it will not mean that, but if it will not, as it is claimed, it is then our contention that that fact should be written into the law so that this clash between the beneficial, consumptive use of water in the arid areas for domestic, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and the use of water in the humid areas to maintain a certain channel may be stopped. I am sure that if the people of the humid areas downstream on the Missouri, where water is more often a headache than a worry, knew how water was treasured and conserved by the irrigation farmers of the arid Northwest, they would be better able to understand our great concern in this instance.

In my State irrigation is necessary to sustain agriculture and that is the case in most of the Western States. Years ago, Congress recognized this fact and passed the Federal Reclamation Act which recognized that without irrigation the development of the Western States not only would not progress but that those States would remain the vast, arid, barren places they were then.

Although the population of Montana is less than a half million people we have the third largest State in the Union-it being 600 miles across and 300 miles wide. Now that means that we have a lot of space to make homes for a lot of people. Just think of the agricultural and cattle- and sheep-raising potentialities of that one State alone. However, to make an actuality out of those potentialities it is vitally necessary that Montana be assured of first use of its waters. We claim the finest land in the United States—anything can be grown on it and cattle and sheep grow fat on its grasses—but without sufficient water it would be a barren wilderness.

That is the reason and the only reason that we are opposed to any draft being made upon our waters. We all remember too vividly the most recent dronght out there in the West—when cattle and crops alike died for want of moisture.

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