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The term “maintenance” means the preservation of the entire highway, including surface, shoulders, roadsides, structures, and such traffic-control devices as are necessary for its safe and efficient utilization.

The term “park roads and trails” means those roads or trails, including the necessary bridges, located in national parks or monuments, now or hereafter established, or in other areas administered by the National Park Service of the Department of the Interior (excluding parkways authorized by Acts of Congress) and also including approach roads to national parks or monuments authorized by the Act of January 31, 1931 (46 Stat. 1053), as amended.

The term “parkway as used in chapter 2 of this title means a parkway authorized by an Act of Congress on lands to which title is vested in the United States.

The term "project" means an undertaking to construct a particular portion of a highway, or if the context so implies, the particular portion of a highway so constructed.

The term “project agreement” means the formal instrument to be executed by the State highway department and the Secretary as required by the provisions of subsection (a) of section 110 of" this title.

The term "public lands development roads and trails" means those roads or trails which the Secretary of the Interior determines are of primary importance for the development, protection, administration, and utilization of public lands and resources under his control.'

The term “public lands highways” means main highways through unappropriated or unreserved public lands, nontaxable Indian lands, or other Federal reservations.

The term “rural areas” means all areas of a State not included in urban areas.

The term "Secretary” means Secretary of Commerce.

The term "State” means any one of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, or Puerto Rico.8

The term "State funds" includes funds raised under the authority of the State or any political or other subdivision thereof, and made available for expenditure under the direct control of the State highway department.

The term “State highway department” means that department, commission, board, or official of any State charged by its laws with the responsibility for highway construction.

The term “Federal-aid system” means any one of the Federal-aid highway systems described in section 103 of this title.

The term “Federal-aid primary system” means the Federal-aid highway system described in subsection (b) of section 103 of this title.

The term “Federal-aid secondary system" means the Federal-aid highway system described in subsection (c) of section 103 of this title.

The term “Interstate System" means the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways described in subsection (d) of section 103 of this title.

The term "urban area” means an area including and adjacent to a municipality or other urban place having a population of five thou

7 Amended by sec. 6 (a) of Public Law 87–866, Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1145).

* Amended by sec. 21 (é) (1) of Public Law 86–70, June 25, 1959 (73 'Stat. 141), and by sec. 17 (a) of Public Law 86-624, July 12, 1960 (74 Stat. 411).

sand or more, as determined by the latest available Federal census, within boundaries to be fixed by a State highway department subject to the approval of the Secretary.

(b) It is hereby declared to be in the national interest to accelerate the construction of the Federal-aid highway systems, including the National System of Interstate and Defense Mighways, since many of such highways, or portions thereof, are in fact inadequate to meet the needs of local and interstate commerce, for the national and civil defense.

It is hereby declared that the prompt and early completion of the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, so named because of its primary importance to the national defense and hereafter referred to as the “Interstate System”, is essential to the national interest and is one of the most important objectives of this Act. It is the intent of Congress that the Interstate System be completed as nearly as practicable over the period of availability of the fifteen years' appropriations authorized for the purpose of expediting its construction, reconstruction, or improvement, inclusive of necessary tunnels and bridges, through the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, under section 108 (b) of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 (70 Stat. 374), and that the entire System in all States be brought to simultaneous completion. Insofar as possible in consonance with this objective, existing highways located on an interstate route shall be used to the extent that such use is practicable, suitable, and feasible, it being the intent that local needs, to the extent practicable, suitable, and feasible, shall be given equal consideration with the needs of interstate commerce. Sec. 102. Authorizations

The provisions of this title apply to all unappropriated authorizations contained in prior Acts, and also to all unexpended appropriations heretofore made, providing for the expenditure of Federal funds upon the Federal-aid systems. All such authorizations and appropriations shall continue in full force and effect, but hereafter obligations entered into and expenditures made pursuant thereto shall be subject to the provisions of this title. Sec. 103. Federal-aid systems

(a) For the purposes of this title, the three Federal-aid systems, the primary and secondary systems, and the Interstate System, are continued pursuant to the provisions of this section.

(b) The Federal-aid primary system shall consist of an adequate system of connected main highways, selected or designated by each State through its State highway department, subject to the approval of the Secretary as provided by subsection (e) of this section. This system shall not exceed 7 per centum of the total highway mileage of such State, exclusive of mileage within national forests, Indian, or other Federal reservations and within urban areas, as shown by the records of the State highway department on November 9, 1921. Whenever provision has been made by any State for the completion and maintenance of 90 per centum of its Federal-aid primary system, as originally designated, said State through its State highway department by and with the approval of the Secretary is authorized to in

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crease the mileage of its Federal-aid primary system by additional mileage equal to not more than 1 per centum of the total mileage of said State as shown by the records on November 9, 1921. Thereafter, it may make like 1 per centum increases in the mileage of its Federalaid primary system whenever provision has been made for the completion and maintenance of 90 per centum of the entire system, including the additional mileage previously authorized. This system may be located both in rural and urban areas. The mileage limitations in this paragraph shall not apply to the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Alaska, or Puerto Rico.

(c) The Federal-aid secondary system shall be selected by the State highway departments and the appropriate local road officials in cooperation with each other, subject to approval by the Secretary as provided in subsection (e) of this section. In making such selections, farm-to-market roads, rural mail routes, public school bus routes, local rural roads, county roads, township roads, and roads of the county road class may be included, so long as they are not on the Federal-aid primary system or the Interstate System. This system may be located both in rural and urban areas, but any extension of the system into urban areas shall be subject to the condition that such extension pass through the urban area or connect with another Federal-aid system within the urban area.10

(d) The Interstate System shall be designated within the United States, including the District of Columbia and it shall not exceed fortyone thousand miles in total extent. It shall be so located as to connect by routes as direct as practicable, the principal metropolitan areas, cities, and industrial centers, to serve the national defense, and to the greatest extent possible, to connect at suitable border points with routes of continental importance in the Dominion of Canada and the Republic of Mexico. The routes of this system, to the greatest extent possible, shall be selected by joint action of the State highway departments of each State and the adjoining States, subject to the approval by the Secretary as provided in subsection (e) of this section. All highways or routes included in the Interstate System as finally approved, if not already coincident with the primary system, shall be added to said system without regard to the mileage limitation set forth in subsection (b) of this section. This system may be located both in rural and urban areas. 11

(e) The Secretary shall have authority to approve in whole or in part the Federal-aid primary system, the Federal-aid secondary system, and the Interstate System, as and when such systems or portions thereof are designated, or to require modifications or revisions thereof. No Federal-aid system or portion thereof shall be eligible for projects in which Federal funds participate until approved by the Secretary.

(f) See footnote.12

(g) See footnote.13 Sec. 104. Apportionment

(a) Whenever an apportionment is made of the sums authorized to be appropriated for expenditure upon the Federal-aid systems, the Secretary shall deduct a sum, in such amount not to exceed 334 per

10 Amended by sec. 8(a) of Public Law 87-866, Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1145).
11 Amended by sec. 17(c) of Public Law 86-624, July 12, 1960 (74 Stat. 411).
12 Repealed by sec. 21 (d) (1) of Public Law 86–70, June 25, 1959 (73 Stat. 141).
13 Repealed by sec. 17(b) of Public Law 86–624, July 12, 1960 (74 Stat. 411).

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centum of all sums so authorized, as the Secretary may deem necessary for administering the provisions of law to be financed from appropriations for the Federal-aid systems and for carrying on the research authorized by subsections (a) and (b) of section 307 of this title. In making such determination, the Secretary shall take into account the unexpended balance of any sums deducted for such purposes in prior years. The sum so deducted shall be available for expenditure from the unexpended balance of any appropriation made at any time for expenditure upon the Federal-aid systems, until such sum has been expended.

(b) On or before January 1 next preceding the commencement of each fiscal year, except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection, the Secretary, after making the deduction authorized by subsection (a) of this section, shall apportion the remainder of the sums authorized to be appropriated for expenditure upon the Federalaid systems for that fiscal year, among the several States in the following manner: (1) For the Federal-aid primary system:

One-third in the ratio which the area of each State bears to the total area of all the States; one-third in the ratio which the population of each State bears to the total population of all the States as shown by the latest available Federal census; onethird in the ratio which the mileage of rural delivery routes and star routes in each State bears to the total mileage of rural delivery and star routes in all the States at the close of the next preceding calendar year, as shown by a certificate of the Postmaster General, which he is directed to make and furnish annually to the Secretary. No State shall receive less than one-half of 1 per centum of each year's apportionment.14, 15 (2) For the Federal-aid secondary system :

One-third in the ratio which the area of each State bears to the total area of all the States; one-third in the ratio which the rural population of each State bears to the total rural population of all the States as shown by the latest available Federal census; and one-third in the ratio which the mileage of rural delivery and star routes, certified as above provided, in each State bears to the total mileage of rural delivery and star routes in all the States. No State shall receive less than one-half of 1 per centum of each year's apportionment.16 (3) For extensions of the Federal-aid primary and Federal-aid secondary systems within urban areas:

In the ratio which the population in municipalities and other urban places of five thousand or more in each State bears to the total population in municipalities and other urban places of five thousand or more in all the States as shown by the latest available

Federal census. 17 (4) For the Interstate System, for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1957, June 30, 1958, and June 30, 1959:

One-half in the ratio which the population of each State bears to the total population of all the States as shown by the latest

14 16 Amended by sec. 21 (e) (2) of Public Law 86–70, June 25, 1959 (73 Stat. 141). 15 Amenderl by sec. 10(a) of Public Law 87-866, Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1145). 17 Amended by sec. 2 of Public Law 88–157, Oct. 24, 1963 (77 Stat. 276).

available Federal census, except that no States shall receive less than three-fourths of 1 per centum of the funds so apportioned; and one-half in the manner provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection. The sums authorized by section 108(b) of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1958, and June 30, 1959, shall be apportioned on a date not less than six months and not more than twelve months in advance of

the beginning of the fiscal year for which authorized. (5) For the Interstate System for the fiscal years 1960 through 1971:

For the fiscal years 1960 through 1966, in the ratio which the estimated cost of completing the Interstate System in such State, as determined and approved in the manner provided in this paragraph, bears to the sum of the estimated cost of completing the Interstate System in all of the States. For the fiscal years 1967 through 1971, in the ratio which the Federal share of the estimated cost of completing the Interstate System in such State, as determined and approved in the manner provided in this paragraph, bears to the sum of the estimated cost of the Federal share of completing the Interstate System in all of the States. Each apportionment herein authorized for the fiscal years 1960 through 1971, inclusive, shall be made on a date as far in advance of the beginning of the fiscal year for which authorized as practicable but in no case more than eighteen months prior to the beginning of the fiscal year for which authorized. As soon as the standards provided for in subsection (b) of section 109 of this title have been adopted, the Secretary, in cooperation with the State highway departments, shall make a detailed estimate of the cost of completing the Interstate System as then designated, after taking into account all previous apportionments made under this section, based upon such standards and in accordance with rules and regulations adopted by him and applied uniformly to all of the States. The Secretary shall transmit such estimates to the Senate and the House of Representatives within ten days subsequent to January 2, 1958. Upon approval of such estimate by the Congress by concurrent resolution, the Secretary shall use such approved estimate in making apportionments for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1960, June 30, 1961, and June 30, 1962. The Secretary shall make a revised estimate of the cost of completing the then designated Interstate System, after taking into account all previous apportionments made under this section, in the same manner as stated above, and transmit the same to the Senate and the House of Representatives within ten days subsequent to January 2, 1961. Upon approval of such estimate by the Congress by concurrent resolution, the Secretary shall use such approved estimate in making apportionments for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1963, June 30, 1964, June 30, 1965, and June 30, 1966. The Secretary shall make a revised estimate of the cost of completing the then designated Interstate System, after taking into account all previous apportionments made under this section, in the same manner as stated above, and transmit the same to the Senate and the House of Representatives within ten days subsequent to January 2, 1965. Upon the approval of such estimate by the Congress, the Secretary shall use

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