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FRAUDULENT CLAIMS, VOUCHERS, STATEMENTS, ETC.; JURISDICTION

41 U.S.C., sec. 119 Sec. 119. Fraudulent claims, vouchers, statements, etc.; jurisdic

tion

Every person who makes or causes to be made, or presents or causes to be presented to any officer, agent, or employee of any Government agency any claim, bill, receipt, voucher, statement, account, certificate, affidavit, or deposition, knowing the same to be false, fraudulent, or fictitious or knowing the same to contain or to be based on any false, fraudulent, or fictitious statement or entry, or who shall cover up or conceal any material fact, or who shall use or engage in any other fraudulent trick, scheme, or device, for the purpose of securing or obtaining, or aiding to secure or obtain, for any person any benefit, payment, compensation, allowance, loan, advance, or emolument from the United States or any Government agency in connection with the termination, cancelation, settlement, payment, negotiation, renegotiation, performance, procurement, or award of a contract with the United States or with any other person, and every person who enters into an agreement, combination, or conspiracy so to do, (1) shall pay to the United States an amount equal to 25 per centum of any amount thereby sought to be wrongfully secured or ohtained but not actually received, and (2) shall forfeit and refund any such benefit, payment, compensation, allowance, loan, advance, and emolument received as a result thereof and (3) shall in addition pay to the United States the sum of $2,000 for each such act, and double the amount of any damage which the United States may have sustained by reason thereof, together with the costs of suit.

The several district courts of the United States, the District of Columbia, the several district courts of the Territories of the United States, within whose jurisdictional limits the person, or persons, doing or committing such act, or any one of them, resides or shall be found, shall, wheresoever such act may have been done or committed, have full power and jurisdiction to hear, try, and determine such suit, and such person or persons as are not inhabitants of or found within the district in which suit is brought may be brought in by order of the court to be served personally or by publication or in such other reasonable manner as the court may direct. (July 1, 1944, ch. 358, § 19 (c), 58 Stat. 667; 1946 Ex. Ord. No. 9809, 88, Dec. 12, 1946, 11 F. R. 14281 ; 1947 Reorg. Plan No. 1, $ 201, eff. July 1, 1947, 12 F. R. 4534, 61 Stat. 951 ; June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 8 21, 62 Stat. 862.)

PROCUREMENT PROCEDURES

41 U.S.C., secs. 251–260 Sec. 251. Declaration of purpose of this chapter

The purpose of this chapter is to facilitate the procurement of property and services. (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, 8 301, 63 Stat. 393; July 12, 1952, ch. 703, 81 (m), 66 Stat. 594.) Sec. 252. Purchases and contracts for property (a) Applicability of chapter; delegation of authority

The provisions of this chapter shall be applicable to purchases and contracts for property or services made by

(1) The General Services Administration, for the use of such agency or otherwise; or

(2) any other executive agency (except the departments and activities specified in section 2303 (a) of Title 10) in conformity with authority to apply such provisions delegated by the Administrator in his discretion. Notice of every such delegation of authority shall be furnished to the General Accounting Office.

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(b) Small business concerns; share of business; advance publicity on negotiated

purchases and contracts for property It is the declared policy of the Congress that a fair proportion of the total purchases and contracts for property and services for the Government shall be placed with small business concerns. Whenever it is proposed to make a contract or purchase in excess of $10,000 by negotiation and without advertising, pursuant to the authority of paragraph (7) or (8) of subsection (c) of this section, suitable advance publicity, as determined by the agency head with due regard to the type of property involved and other relevant considerations, shall be given for a period of at least fifteen days, wherever practicable, as determined by the agency head. (c) Negotiated purchases and contracts for property; conditions

All purchases and contracts for property and services shall be made by advertising, as provided in section 253 of this title, except that such purchases and contracts may be negotiated by the agency head without advertising if

(1) determined to be necessary in the public interest during the period of a national emergency declared by the President or by the Congress ;

(2) the public exigency will not admit of the delay incident to advertising;
(3) the aggregate amount involved does not exceed $2,500 ;
(4) for personal or professional services;

(5) for any service to be rendered by any university, college, or other educational institution;

(6) the property or services are to be procured and used outside the limits of the United States and its possessions ;

(7) for medicines or medical property;
(8) for property purchased for authorized resale;
(9) for perishable or nonperishable subsistence supplies;

(10) for property or services for which it is impracticable to secure competition;

(11) the agency head determines that the purchase or contract is for experimental, developmental, or research work, or for the manufacture or furnishing of property for experimentation, development, research, or test: Provided, That beginning six months after July 1, 1949, and at the end of each six-month period thereafter, there shall be furnished to the Congress a report setting forth the name of each contractor with whom a contract has been entered into pursuant to this paragraph since the date of the last such report, the amount of the contract, and, with due consideration given to the national security, a description of the work required to be performed thereunder;

(12) for property or services as to which the agency head determines that the character, ingredients, or components thereof are such that the purchase or contract should not be publicly disclosed;

(13) for equipment which the agency head determines to be technical equipment, and as to which he determines that the procurement thereof without advertising is necessary in special situations or in particular localities in order to assure standardization of equipment and interchangeability of parts and that such standardization and interchangeability is necessary in the public interest;

,(14) for property or services as to which the agency head determines that bid prices after advertising therefor are not reasonable (either as to all or as to some part of the requirements) or have not been independently arrived at in open competition: Provided, That no negotiated purchase or contract may be entered into under this paragraph after the rejection of all or some of the bids received unless (A) notification of the intention to negotiate and reasonable opportunity to negotiate shall have been given by the agency head to each responsible bidder and (B) the negotiated price is the lowest negotiated price offered by any responsible supplier; or

(15) otherwise authorized by law. (d) Bids in violation of antitrust laws

If in the opinion of the agency head bids received after advertising evidence any violation of the antitrust laws he shall refer such bids to the Attorney General for appropriate action. (e) Exceptions to section

This section shall not be construed to (A) authorize the erection, repair, or furnishing of any public building or public improvement, but such authorization shall be required in the same manner as heretofore, or (B) permit any contract for the construction or repair of buildings, roads, sidewalks, sewers, mains, or similar items to be negotiated without advertising as required by section 253 of this title, unless such contract is to be performed outside the continental United States or unless negotiation of such, contract is authorized by the provisions of paragraphs (1)-(3), (10)–(12), or (14) of subsection (c) of this section. (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title II, § 302, 63 Stat. 393; July 12, 1952, ch. 703, § 1 (m), 66 Stat. 594 ; Aug. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85–800, $$ 1-3, 72 Stat. 966.) Sec. 253. Advertising requirements

Whenever advertising is required

(a) The advertisement for bids shall be made a sufficient time previous to the purchase or contract, and specifications and invitations for bids shall permit such full and free competition as is consistent with the procurement of types of property and services necessary to meet the requirements of the agency concerned.

(b) All bids shall be publicly opened at the time and place stated in the advertisement. Award shall be made with reasonable promptness by written notice to that responsible bidder whose bid, conforming to the invitation for bids, will be most advantageous to the Government, price and other factors considered : Provided, That all bids may be rejected when the agency head determines that it is in the public interest so to do. (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, 8 303, 63 Stat. 393; July 12, 1952, ch. 703, § 1 (m), 66 Stat. 594.)

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Sec. 254. Negotiated contracts
(a) Requirements

Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, contracts negotiated
pursuant to section 252(c) of this title may be of any type which in the opinion
of the agency head will promote the best interests of the Government. Every
contract negotiated pursuant to section 252(c) of this title shall contain a
suitable warranty, as determined by the agency head, by the contractor that no
person or selling agency has been employed or retained to solicit or secure such
contract upon an agreement or understanding for a commission, percentage,
brokerage, or contingent fee, excepting bona fide employees or bona fide estab-
lished commercial or selling agencies maintained by the contractor for the
purpose of securing business, for the breach or violation of which warranty the
Government shall have the right to annul such contract without liability or in
its discretion to deduct from the contract price or consideration the full amount
of such commission, percentage, brokerage, or contingent fee.
(b) Barred contracts; fee limitation; determination of use; advance notification

The cost-plus-a-percentage-of-cost system of contracting shall not be used, and in the case of a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract the fee shall not exceed 10 per centum of the estimated cost of the contract, exclusive of the fee, as determined by the agency head at the time of entering into such contract (except that a fee not in excess of 15 per centum of such estimated cost is authorized in any such contract for experimental, developmental, or research work and that a fee inclusive of the contractor's costs and not in excess of 6 per centum of the estimated cost, exclusive of fees, as determined by the agency head at the time of entering into the contract, of the project to which such fee is applicable is authorized in contracts for architectural or engineering services relating to any public works or utility project). Neither a cost nor a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract nor an incentive-type contract shall be used unless the agency head determines that such method of contracting is likely to be less costly than other methods or that it is impractical to secure property or services of the kind or quality required without the use of a cost or cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract or an incentive-type contract. All cost and cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contracts shall provide for advance notification by the contractor to the procuring agency of any subcontract thereunder on a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee basis and of any fixed-price subcontract or purchase order which exceeds in dollar amount either $25,000 or 5 per centum of the total estimated cost of the prime contract; and a procuring agency, through any authorized representative thereof, shall have the right to inspect the plans and to audit the books and records of any prime contractor or subcontractor engaged in the performance of a cost or cost-plus-a-fixedfee contract.

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(c) Examination of books, records, etc., of contractors; time limitation

All contracts negotiated without advertising pursuant to authority contained in this chapter, chapter 11C of Title 5, chapter 10 of Title 40, and chapter 11 of Title 44 shall include a clause to the effect that the Compt roller General of the United States or any of his duly authorized representatives shall until the expiration of three years after final payment have access to and the right to examine any directly pertinent books, documents, papers, and records of the contractor or any of his subcontractors engaged in the performance of and involving transactions related to such contracts or subcontracts. (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, $ 304, 63 Stat. 395; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 652, 65 Stat. 700 ; July 12, 1952, ch. 703, § 1 (m), 66 Stat. 594.) Sec. 255. Advance or other payments; restrictions; conditions (a) Any executive agency may

(1) make advance, partial, progress or other payments under contracts for property or services made by the agency; and

(2) insert in bid solicitations for procurement of property or services a provision limiting to small business concerns advance or progress payments. (b) Payments made under subsection (a) of this section may not exceed the unpaid contract price.

(c) Advance payments under subsection (a) of this section may be made only upon adequate security and a determination by the agency head that to do so would be in the public interest. Such security may be in the form of a lien in favor of the Government on the property contracted for, on the balance in an account in which such payments are deposited, and on such of the property acquired for performance of the contract as the parties may agree. This lien shall be pa ramount to all other liens. (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, § 305, 63 Stat. 396; July 12, 1952, ch. 703 g 1 (m), 66 Stat. 594 ; Aug. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85-800, $ 4, 72 Stat. 966.)

Sec. 256. Repealed. Sept. 10, 1950, ch. 849, § 10(b), 64 Stat. 591,

eff. July 1, 1949 Section, act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, § 306, 63 Stat. 396, related to waiver of liquidated damages, and is now covered by section 256a of this title. Sec. 256a. Waiver of liquidated damages

Whenever any contract made on behalf of the Government by the head of any Federal Agency, or by officers authorized by him so to do, includes a provision for liquidated damages for delay, the Comptroller General upon recommendation of such head is authorized and empowered to remit the whole or any part of such damages as in his discretion may be just and equitable. (Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, 8 10 (a), 64 Stat. 591.) Sec. 257. Administrative determinations (a) Conclusiveness; delegation of powers

The determinations and decisions provided in this chapter to be made by the Administrator or other agency head may be made with respect to individual purchases and contracts or with respect to classes of purchases or contracts, and shall be final. Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the agency head is authorized to delegate his powers provided by this chapter, including the making of such determinations and decisions, in his discretion and subject to his direction, to any other officer or officers or officials of the agency. (b) Nondelegable powers; powers delegable to certain persons

The power of the agency head to make the determinations or decisions specified in paragraphs (12) and (13) of section 252(c) of this title shall not be delegable, and the power to make the determinations or decisions specified in paragraph (11) of section 252(c) of this title shall be delegable only to a chief officer responsible for procurement and only with respect to contracts which will not require the expenditure of more than $25,000. The power of the Administrator to make the delegations and determinations specified in section 252 (a) of this title shall be delegable only to the Deputy Administrator or to the chief official of any principal organizational unit of the General Services Administration.

(c) Basis of determinations; finding conclusive; preservation of findings; copy

Each determination or decision required by paragraphs (11)-(13), or (14) of section 252 (c), by section 254 or by section 255 (c) of this title shall be based upon written findings made by the official making such determination, which findings shall be final and shall be available within the agency for a period of at least six years following the date of the determination. A copy of the findings shall be submitted to the General Accounting Office with the contract. (d) Preservation of data

In any case where any purchase or contract is negotiated pursuant to the provisions of section 252(c) of this title, except in a case covered by paragraphs (2)-(5), or (6) of section 252(c) of this title, the data with respect to the negotiation shall be preserved in the files of the agency for a period of six years following final payment on such contract. (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, 8 307, 63 Stat. 396 ; Aug. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85-800, § 5, 72 Stat. 967.) Sec. 258. Laws applicable to contracts

No purchase or contract shall be exempt from sections 35-45 of this title, or from sections 276a to 276a-5 of Title 40, solely by reason of having been entered into pursuant to section 252(c) of this title without advertising, and the provisions of sections 276a to 276a-5, 324 and 325a of Title 40, if otherwise ap plicable, shall apply to such purchases and contracts. (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, 8 308, 63 Stat. 396.) Sec. 259. Definitions

As used in this chapter

(a) The term "agency head” shall mean the head or any assistant head of any executive agency, and may at the option of the Administrator include the chief official of any principal organizational unit of the General Services Administration.

(b) Repealed. July 12, 1952, ch. 703, & 1 (h), 66 Stat. 593. (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, 8 309, 63 Stat. 396 ; July 12, 1952, ch. 703, & 1(h), 66 Stat. 593.) Sec. 260. Laws not applicable to contracts

(a) The following provisions of law shall not apply to the procurement of property or services (1) by the General Services Administration, or (2) within the scope of authority delegated by the Administrator to any other executive agency :

Section 5 of this title;
Section 13 of this title;

Sections 6 and 6a of this title. (b) Reference in any Act, except subsection (a) of this section, to the applicability of section 5 of Title 41, to the procurement of property or services by the General Services Administration or any constituent organization thereof, or any other executive agency delegated authority pursuant to section 252 (a) (2) of this title, shall be deemed to be reference to section 252(c) of this title. (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, § 310, 63 Stat. 397 ; July 12, 1952, ch. 703, § 1 (m), (n), 66 Stat. 594 ; Aug. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85–800, 8 6, 72 Stat. 967.)

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