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ment, except that any such assignment may be made to one party as agent or trustee for two or more parties participating in such financing; 4. That in the event of any such assignment, the assignee thereof shall file written notice of the assignment together with a true copy of the instrument of assignment with (a) the contracting officer or the head of his department or agency; (b) the surety or su reties upon the bond or bonds, if any, in connection with such contract; and (c) the disbursing officer, if any, designated in such contract to make payment.

Notwithstanding any law to the contrary governing the validity of assignments, any assignment pursuant to this section, shall constitute a valid assignment for all purposes.

In any case in which moneys due or to become due under any contract are or have been assigned pursuant to this section, no liability of any nature of the assignor to the United States or any department or agency thereof, whether arising from or independently of such contract, shall create or impose any liability on the part of the assignee to make restitution, refund, or repayment to the l'nited States of any amount heretofore since July 1, 1950, or hereafter received under the assignment.

Any contract of the Department of Defense, the General Services Administration, the Atomic Energy Commission, or any other department or agency of the United States designated by the President, except any such contract under which full payment has been made, may in time of war or national emergency proclaimed by the President (including the national emergency proclaimed December 16, 1950) or by Act or joint resolution of the Congress and until such war or national emergency has been terminated in such manner, provide or be amended, without consideration to provide that payments to be made to the assignee of any moneys due or to become due under such contract shall not be subject to reduction or set-off, and if such provision or one to the same general effect has been at any time heretofore or is hereafter included or inserted in any such contract, payments to be made thereafter to an assignee of any moneys due or to become due under such contract, whether during or after such war or emergency, shall not be subject to reduction or set-off for any liability of any nature of the assignor to the United States or any department or agency thereof which arises independently of such contract, or hereafter for any liability of the assignor on account of (1) renegotiation under any renegotiation statute or under any statutory renegotiation article in the contract, (2) fines, (3) penalties (which term does not include amounts which may be collected or withheld from the assignor in accordance with or for failure to comply with the terms of the contract), or (4) taxes, social security contributions, or the withholding or nonwithholding of taxes or social security contributions, whether arising from or independently of such contract.

Except as herein otherwise provided, nothing in this section, shall be deemed to affect or impair rights or obligations heretofore accrued. (R. S. § 3737; Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 779, § 1, 54 Stat. 1029; May 15, 1951, ch. 75, 65 Stat. 41.)

INTEREST OF MEMBER OF CONGRESS

41 U.S.C., sec. 22

Sec. 22. Interest of Member of Congress

In every contract or agreement to be made or entered into, or accepted by or on behalf of the United States, there shall be inserted an express condition that no Member of or Delegate to Congress shall be admitted to any share or part of such contract or agreement, or to any benefit to arise thereupon. Nor shall the provisions of this section apply to any contracts or agreements here tofore or hereafter entered into under the Agriculture Adjustment Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act, the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act of 1933, the Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation Act, the Farm Credit Act of 1933, and the Home Owners' Loan Act of 1933, and shall not apply to contracts or agreements of a kind which the Secretary of Agriculture may enter into with farmers: Provided, That such exemption shall be made a matter of public record. (R. S. 8 3741; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, § 1, 19 Stat. 249; Jan. 25, 1934, ch. 5, 48 Stat. 337; June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, $ 510, 48 Stat. 1264; Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 821, 50 Stat. 838.)

CONTRACTS, ETC., PLACED WITH GOVERNMENT-OWNED ESTABLISHMENT DEEMED OBLIGATION

41 U.S.C., sec. 23

Sec. 23. Orders or contracts for material placed with Govern

ment-owned establishments deemed obligations

All orders or contracts for work or material or for the manufacture of material pertaining to approved projects heretofore or hereafter placed with Government-owned establishments shall be considered as obligations in the same manner as provided for similar orders or contracts placed with commercial manufacturers or private contractors, and the appropriations shall remain available for the payment of the obligations so created as in the case of contracts or orders with commercial manufacturers or private contractors. (June 5, 1920, ch. 240, 41 Stat. 975; July 1, 1922, ch. 259, 42 Stat. 812; June 2, 1937, ch. 293, 50 Stat. 245.)

"WALSH-HEALEY ACT

41 U.S.C., secs. 3545

Sec. 35. Contracts for materials, etc., exceeding $10,000; repre

sentations and stipulations

In any contract made and entered into by any executive department, indepen. dent establishment, or other agency or instrumentality of the United States, or by the District of Columbia, or by any corporation all the stock of which is beneficially owned by the United States (all the foregoing being hereinafter designated as agencies of the United States), for the manufacture or furnishing of materials, supplies, articles, and equipment in any amount exceeding $10,000, there shall be included the following representations and stipulations :

(a) That the contractor is the manufacturer of or a regular dealer in the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment to be manufactured or used in the performance of the contract;

(b) That all persons employed by the contractor in the manufacture or furnishing of the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment used in the performance of the contract will be paid, without subsequent deduction or rebate on any account, not less than the minimum wages as determined by the Secretary of Labor to be the prevailing minimum wages for persons employed on similar work or in the particular or similar industries or groups of industries currently operating in the locality in which the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment are to be manufactured or furnished under said contract;

(c) That no person employed by the contractor in the manufacture or furnishing of the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment used in the performance of the contract shall be permitted to work in excess of eight hours in any one day or in excess of forty hours in any one week : Provided, That the provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any em yer who shall have entered into an agreement with his employees pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (b) of section 207 of Title 29;

(d) That no male person under sixteen years of age and no female person under eighteen of age and no convict labor will be employed by the contractor in the manufacture or production or furnishing of any of the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment included in such contract; and

(e) That no part of such contract will be performed nor will any of the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment to be manufactured or furnished under said contract be manufactured or fabricated in any plants, factories, buildings, or surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary or hazardous or dangerous to the health and safety of employees engaged in the per

formance of said contract. Compliance with the safety, sanitary, and factory inspection laws of the State in which the work or part thereof is to be performed shall be prima-facie evidence of compliance with this subsection. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, § 1, 49 Stat. 2036; May 13, 1942, ch. 306, 56 Stat. 277.) Sec. 36. Same; liability for breach; cancellation; completion by

Government agency; employee's wages Any breach or violation of any of the representations and stipulations in any contract for the purposes set forth in section 35 of this title shall render the party responsible therefor liable to the United States of America for liquidated damages, in addition to damages for any other breach of such contract, the sum of $10 per day for each male person under sixteen years of age or each female person under eighteen years of age, or each convict laborer knowingly employed in the performance of such contract, and a sum equal to the amount of any deductions, rebates, refunds, or underpayment of wages due to any employee engaged in the performance of such contract; and, in addition, the agency of the United States entering into such contract shall have the right to cancel same and to make open-market purchases or enter into other contracts for the completion of the original contract, charging any additional cost to the original contractor. Any sums of money due to the United States of America by reason of any violation of any of the representations and stipulations of said contract set forth in section 35 of this title may be withheld from any amounts due on any such contracts or may be recovered in suits brought in the name of the United States of America by the Attorney General thereof. All sums withheld or recovered as deductions, rebates, refunds, or underpayments of wages shall be held in a special deposit account and shall be paid, on order of the Secretary of Labor, directly to the employees who have been paid less than minimum rates of pay as set forth in such contracts and on whose account such sums were withheld or recovered : Provided, That no claims by employees for such payments shall be entertained unless made within one year from the date of actual notice to the contractor of the withholding or recovery of such sums by the United States of America. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, § 2, 49 Stat. 2037.) Sec. 37. Same; distribution of list of persons breaching contract;

future contracts prohibited The Comptroller General is authorized and directed to distribute a list to all agencies of the United States containing the names of persons or firms found by the Secretary of Labor to have breached any of the agreements or representations required by sections 35-45 of this title. Unless the Secretary of Labor otherwise recommends no contracts shall be awarded to such persons or firms or to any firm, corporation, partnership, or association in which such persons or firms have a controlling interest until three years have elapsed from the date the Secretary of Labor determines such breach to have occurred. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, § 3, 49 Stat. 2037.)

Sec. 38. Same; administration; officers and employees; appoint

ment; investigations; rules and regulations The Secretary of Labor is authorized and directed to adminster the provisions of sections 35-45 of this title and to utilize such Federal officers and employees and, with the consent of the State, such State and local officers and employees as he may find necessary to assist in the administration of said sections and to prescribe rules and regulations with respect thereto. The Secretary shall appoint an administrative officer, and such attorneys and experts, and other employees with regard to existing laws applicable to the employment and compensation of officers and employees of the United States, as he may from time to time find necessary for the administration of sections 35–45 of this title. The Secretary of Labor or his authorized representatives shall have power to make investigations and findings as provided in sections 35 45 of this title, and prosecute any inquiry necessary to his functions in any part of the United States. The Secretary of Labor shall have authority from time to time to make, amend, and rescind such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of sections 35–45 of this title. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, § 4, 49 Stat. 2038.)

Sec. 39. Same; hearings by Secretary of Labor; witness fees;

failure to obey order; punishment Upon his own motion or on application of any person affected by any ruling of any agency of the United States in relation to any proposal or contract involving any of the provisions of sections 35–45 of this title, and on complaint of a breach or violation of any representation or stipulation as provided in said sections, the Secretary of Labor, or an impartial representative designated by him, shall have the power to hold hearings and to issue orders requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence under oath. Witnesses shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States. In case of contumacy, failure, or refusal of any person to obey such an order, any District Court of the United States or of any Territory or possession, or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, within the jurisdiction of which the inquiry is carried on, or within the jurisdiction of which said person who is guilty of contumacy, failure, or refusal is found, or resides or transacts business, upon the application by the Secretary of Labor or representative designated by him, shall have jurisdiction to issue to such person an order requiring such person to appear before him or representative designated by him, to produce evidence if, as, and when so ordered, and to give testimony relating to the matter under investigation or in question; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by said court as a contempt thereof; and shall make findings of fact after notice and hearing, which findings shall be conclusive upon all agencies of the United States, and if sup ported by the preponderance of the evidence, shall be conclusive in any court of the United States; and the Secretary of Labor or authorized representative shall have the power, and is authorized, to make such decisions, based upon findings of fact, as are deemed to be necessary to enforce the provisions of sections 35-45 of this title. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, 85, 49 Stat. 2038; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 32 (b), 62 Stat. 991 ; May 24, 1919, ch. 139, 8 127, 63 Stat. 107.) Sec. 40. Same; exceptions; modification of contracts; variations;

overtime; suspension of representations and stipulations Upon a written finding by the head of the contracting agency or department that the inclusion in the proposal or contract of the representations or stipulations set forth in section 35 of this title will seriously impair the conduct of Government business, the Secretary of Labor shall make exceptions in specific cases or otherwise when justice or public interest will be served thereby. Upon the joint recommendation of the contracting agency and the contractor, the Secretary of Labor may modify the terms of an existing contract respecting minimum rates of pay and maximum hours of labor as he may find necessary and proper in the public interest or to prevent injustice and undue hardship. The Secretary of Labor may provide reasonable limitations and may make rules and regulations allowing reasonable variations, tolerances, and exemptions to and from any or all provisions of sections 35 45 of this title respecting minimum rates of pay and maximum hours of labor or the extent of the application of said sections to contractors, as hereinbefore described. Whenever the Secretary of Labor shall permit an increase in the maximum hours of labor stipulated in the contract, he shall set a rate of pay for any overtime, which rate shall be not less than one and one-half times the basic hourly rate received by any employee affected : Provided, That whenever in his judgment such course is in the public interest, the President is authorized to suspend any or all of the representations and stipulations contained in section 35 of this title. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, $ 6, 49 Stat. 2038; June 28, 1940, ch. 440, Title I, § 13, 54 Stat. 681.)

Sec. 41. Same; “person" defined

Whenever used in sections 35–45 of this title, the word "person" includes one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, or receivers. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, $ 7,49 Stat. 2038.)

Sec. 42. Same; effect of sections 35–45 on other laws

The provisions of sections 35 45 of this title shall not be construed to modify or amend Title III of the act entitled “An Act making appropriations for the Treasury and Post Office Departments for the fiscal year nding June 30, 1934, and for other purposes”, approved May 3, 1933, (commonly known as the Buy American Act), nor shall the provisions of sections 35 45 of this title be construed to modify or amend section 276a to 276a-5 of Title 40, nor the labor provisions of Title II of the National Industrial Recovery Act, approved April 8, 1935; as extended, or of section 7 of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, approved April 8, 1935; nor shall the provisions of sections 35-45 of this title be construed to modify or amend sections 744a-744n of Title 18. (June 30, 1936. ch. 881, 8 8, 49 Stat. 2039.) Sec. 43. Same; sections 35-45 not applicable to certain contracts

Sections 35-45 of this title shall not apply to purchases of such materials, supplies, articles, or equipment as may usually be bought in the open market ; nor shall they apply to perishables, including dairy, livestock and nursery products, or to agricultural or farm products processed for first sale by the original producers; nor to any contracts made by the Secretary of Agriculture for the purchase of agricultural commodities or the products thereof. Nothing in said sections shall be construed to apply to carriage of freight or personnel by vessel, airplane, bus, truck, express, or railway line where published tariff rates are in effect or to common carriers subject to the Communications Act of 1934. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, $ 9, 49 Stat. 2039.) Sec. 43a. Applicability of Administrative Procedure Act; wage

determinations; administrative review; judicial review (a) Notwithstanding any provision of section 1003 of Title 5, sections 10011011 of Title 5 shall be applicable in the administration of sections 35-39 and 41-43 of this title.

(b) All wage determinations under section 35 (b) of this title shall be made on the record after opportunity for a hearing. Review of any such wage determination, or of the applicability of any such wage determination, may be had within ninety days after such determination is made in the manner provided in section 1009 of Title 5 by any person adversely affected or aggrieved thereby, who shall be deemed to include any manufacturer of, or regular dealer in, materials, supplies, articles or equipment purchased or to be purchased by the Government from any source, who is in any industry to which such wage determination is applicable.

(c) Nothwithstanding the inclusion of any stipulations required by any provision of sections 35–45 of this title in any contract subject to said sections, any interested person shall have the right of judicial review of any legal question which might otherwise be raised, including, but not limited to, wage determinations and the interpretation of the terms "locality”, “regular dealer”, "manufacturer”, and “open market”. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, § 10, as added June 30, 1952, 9:36 a.m., E. D. T., ch. 530, title III, § 301, 66 Stat. 308.)

Sec. 44. Same; separability

If any provision of sections 35–45 of this title, or the application thereof to any persons or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of said sections, and the application of such provisions to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, § 11, formerly $ 10, 49 Stat. 2039, renumbered June 30, 1952, 9:36 a.m., E. D. T., ch. 530, title III, § 301, 66 Stat. 308.)

Sec. 45. Same; effective date; exception as to representations

with respect to minimum wages Sections 35-45 of this title shall apply to all contracts entered into pursuant to invitations for bids issued on or after ninety days from June 30, 1936: Provided, however, That the provisions requiring the inclusion of representations with respect to minimum wages shall apply only to purchases or contracts relating to such industries as have been the subject matter of a determination by the Secretary of Labor. (June 30, 1936, ch. 881, § 12, formerly $ 11, 49 Stat 2039, renumbered June 30, 1952, 9:36 a.m., E. D. T., ch. 530, title III, 8 301, 66 Stat. 308.)

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