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but little consideration, and sometimes touches on points of difficulty, that have been involved in long and doubtful disputation. Differing, as he has frequently done, from so many others, and in some respects venturing to choose a path for himself in preference to any that has yet been trodden, it would ill become him to complain if some should dissent from the method he has adopted, and the conclusions at which he has arrived. He must say, however, for himself, that his great object has been to ascertain the truth, and to present, in some respects, both a better grounded, and a more complete and orderly exhibition of it, as connected with the earlier revelations of God, than he has been able elsewhere to find. In doing this, he has endeavoured to state his own views without arrogance, and his objections to the views of others so as not to cause needless offence.

In conducting the investigation pursued in the first Part, it was found unavoidable to use some measure of repetition, especially in the second and third chapters, in referring to the typical matter of Old Testament scripture. The necessity for this arose from the Author's anxiety to confine his examples and illustrations to such portions as had on their side the explicit authority of New Testament scripture, that no objection might lie against the inferences drawn from them, on the ground of a valid title not existing for their being accounted typical.-- In the second Part, he has given to some topics what may seem at first sight an undue breadth of place, considering the position they held in respect merely to the revelations of the patriarchal age; in particular, to the cherubim, the hope of the inheritance, and the question respecting the restoration of the Jews. It was absolutely necessary, however, to enter into some consideration of these topics; and it seemed much better to go fully into the investigation of them, when they first appeared on the field of inquiry, than to treat them slightly now, and afterwards return to a more lengthened examination of them. Besides, the portion of Revelation, to which the particular application of the principles remains to be made, that, namely, which respects the dispensation of Moses, presents so wide and important a field of inquiry, that it was desirable to let no topic stand over for examination, which could with propriety be brought into the present volume. In regard to the last of the three topics mentioned above, the Author refers to the note on p. 321 for an explanation of the change his sentiments have undergone concerning it. His views there, however, need to be taken in connexion with what is written on the hope of the inheritance, to learn the extent of the change.

It may be proper to notice, that a reference has been made at p. 103 to Ps. xxiv. 6, which may seem hardly consistent with the brief explanation given of its meaning in the note to p. 301. In the first of these places the text is cited in proof of Christ's being called Jacob, and in that light it may still so far be regarded, notwithstanding the explanation given in the other place, as in him alone of all the seed of Jacob can the description of the Psalmist be said fully and perfectly to realize itself. It does not appear, however, although this does not in the least affect the substance of the representation given in the portion referred to, that Christ is ever directly and properly addressed by the name of Jacob; while he undoubtedly is, by the name of Israel.

The Author cannot allow this volume to go into the hands of the public without acknowledging the obligations under which he lies to the Rev. Dr. Watson, Edinburgh, who has kindly given himself the trouble of perusing the MS., and to whom the Author is indebted for much encouragement in the prosecution of his labours, and many valuable and important suggestions in the treatment of the different parts. Imperfect as the volume still is, it had been much more so, if the various portions had not, in their first shape, passed through the hands of one, who is equally distinguished for the correctness of his taste, the soundness of his judgment, and his extensive acquaintance with theological literature.

May the Lord be pleased to look with favour upon this effort to explain and defend the truths of his word! May he graciously forgive and bring to light whatever error may unconsciously have crept into it, and render it subservient, in so far as it accords with the revelations of his mind and will, to the enlightened and profitable study of those Scriptures, which make wise to salvation !

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* In the following Table of Contents, as some topics have been introduced in the course of the
Volume, by way of illustration or otherwise, which might possibly have been either omitted, or
differently placed, they are here printed in italics, that they may be the more easily distinguished.

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1. Nothing to be regarded as typical, which is of an improper and sinful

nature. The ground of this explained, and exemplified in the case of

Esau and Jacob, 69–72.- Mistakes of some late writers, in particular

Kanne, 72–73.-Certain limitations to the principle, 73–74.-2. The

existence and meaning of particular types to be ascertained, not from

the light possessed by the ancient worshippers concerning their pro-

spective fulfilment, but from the light thrown on them by the great

truths and realities of the gospel, 74.—The ground of this principle

explained, 75.–Violated by many modern writers, Owen, Edwards,

Warburton, Graves, Kanne, Chevalier, &c., 76.- Impossibility of ascer-

taining how far, or when Old Testament believers understood the ultimate

meaning of either prophecy or type, 77–79,—but certain that their views of

both were very defective, 79–81.-3. In the interpretation of types our

first care must be to make ourselves acquainted with the truths or ideas

involved in them, merely as providential transactions or religious ser-

vices, 81.–The ground of this principle explained, and exemplified in

the case of Jacob at Bethel, the brazen serpent, &c., viewed in connex-

ion with the erroneous explanations of Guild, Kanne, Justin Martyr, and

others, 82–86.-4. Though each type is to be regarded as having but

one radical meaning, yet the fundamental idea or principle involved

in it may often be capable of more than one application to gospel things,

as, for example, to Christ and his people, 86–91.-5. Due regard must

be had to the essential difference between the nature of type and anti-

type,—the one being the development of the same truth or principle on

a lower stage than the other, or in regard to inferior objects and con-

cerns, 91-95.-Two apparent exceptions noticed, Christ's descent into

Egypt, and the preservation of his bones from being broken,


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