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occurrence which took place, must necessarily have shadowed forth something of a similar and corresponding nature under the gospel. In the history, as well as in the religion, there doubtless would be many incidental or subordinate parts, which had respect only to the present,—while still the great chain and current of events might have been designed to point toward the future, and to cast light upon the coming events of the kingdom of God. And if the way, in which any of them was to do this, were that we have endeavoured to establish,—by unfolding in earthly and temporal things the same ideas, relations and principles, on which the whole scheme of salvation was to be founded, then, we repeat, (whatever limitations it may be necessary to introduce in regard to occasional parts of the transactions, and to which we shall afterwards advert,) the typical character could not, in the nature of things, be confined to a few scattered or disjointed examples; it must have spread itself over a large field, and branched itself out into a thousand particulars: it must, in short, have been developed through an entire and varied system of providential arrangements.
Thus the one point grows by a kind of natural necessity out of the other. If the historical types were what we have represented them to be, they must have embraced a much larger portion of Old Testament history than is allowed by those, who would confine them to the few examples specially noticed by the pen of inspiration; and we have only to refer to these examples themselves, to confirm the argument derived from the general nature of the types, into a ground of assurance as strong, as on such a topic could be reasonably expected. For not only can we discover no essential difference between the historical characters and facts, thus expressly characterized as typical, and a multitude of others recorded in the Old Testament, but the very manner in which the former are noticed, clearly indicates that they were not designed to be held up as the only historical prefigurations of gospel truth, -having been selected for no other apparent reason, than because they were appropriate to the subject, in connexion with which they are referred to,--and so unavoidably strengthening the conviction, that many others might in like manner have been specified, had the purpose of the inspired writers required them to do so. But if this conviction stood in need of any further confirmation, it may surely be found in the circumstance formerly adverted to, that in the Epistle to the Hebrews a reproof is given to the disciples, for not being able to understand, without an instructor, the spiritual truths couched in the history of Melchisedec. Not only so, but the capacity to make such interpretations of Old Testament scripture, in connexion with the spiritual things of the gospel, is represented as a proof of ripened skill and understanding in the things of God, as opposed to the puerile thoughts and apprehensions of childhood. So that there is a sense, in which the saying of Augustine,—“the Old Testament is one great prophecy of the New,"is strictly true, even in regard to those parts of ancient scripture, which seem farthest removed from the prophetical. And if the inspired writers of the New Testament, when seeking to unfold and commend the truth of God to their countrymen, repair for previous manifestations of it, to what is written of Melchisedec, or the brazen serpent, or the deluge, we are but treading in their footsteps, and deriving from the records of God's past dispensations, what their example and their instructions alike teach us to find there, when for a similar purpose we select what is written of Adam, or Noah, or Abraham, or Joseph, or Joshua, or Samson,-for, in so far as the transactions, related in the history of these and other characters of former times, exhibit the mind and government of God, they are all pregnant with gospel principle, and disclose to the enlightened eye the essential elements of the kingdom of heaven.
In pursuing this investigation, we have confined our attention to the light furnished on the subject by New Testament scripture. But very strong and important confirmation to the views now unfolded may be derived also from certain portions of the scriptures of the Old Testament. This we shall endeavour to. show in regard to the prophetical writings, when we come to treat of the combination of type with prophecy. And, meanwhile, we appeal to another portion of Old Testament scripture, which yields a testimony in our favour peculiarly important and convincingthe Book of Psalms. These psalıns are chiefly summaries, in a poetical and impressive form, of great truths and principles, derived from the past acts and revelations of God, by some of the most gifted members of the church, and accompanied with such pious reflections and devout breathings of soul, as the subjects naturally suggested, through God's Spirit, to their minds. In them is expressed, we may say, the very life and essence of the symbolical institutions and manifold transactions in providence, through which the members of the old covenant were instructed in the knowledge, and trained to the service of the true God—and so expressed as to be most admirably fitted for forming the minds of all to right views and feelings concerning God, and enabling them to give due utterance to these in their exercises of devotion. But was this the character and design of the Book of Psalms merely to the Old Testament church? Is it not equally adapted for the suitable expression of pious feeling, for a help to devotion, for a directory of spiritual thought and holy living, to the church of the New Testament? Is there a feature in the divine character as now developed in the gospel, a spiritual principle or desire in the mind of an enlightened Christian, a becoming exercise of affection or a matter of vital experience in the divine life, of which the record is not to be found in this invaluable portion of holy writ? And how could such a book have existed among the sacred writings centuries before the Christian era, but for the fact, that the old and the new covenants, however much they may have differed in outward form, and however the transactions respectively connected with them may have been inferior in the one case to the other, yet were alike pervaded by the same great truths and prin
eiples? Thus the Book of Psalms, standing mid-way between both covenants, and serving equally to the members of each as the handmaid of a living piety, is a witness of the essential identity of their primary and fundamental ideas. There the disciples of Moses and of Christ meet as on common ground, the one taking up as their most natural and fitting expressions of faith and hope, the hallowed words, which the other had been wont to use in their devotions ages before, and then
bequeathed as a legacy to succeeding generations of believers. So intimately connected were they with the affairs and circumstances of the dispensation, which was to vanish away, that they one and all took their occasion from these, and are fraught throughout with references to them; and yet, so accordant are they to the better things of the dispensation that abideth, so perfectly adapted to the ways of God as exhibited in the gospel, and the spiritual life required' of its professors, that they are invariably the most used and relished by those, who are most established in the grace, and most replenished with the blessing of God. It was confessedly carnal institutions, under which the holy men worshipped, who were employed by God to indite these divine songs, as it was also the transactions of an earthly and temporal life, which formed the immediate ground and occasion of the sentiments they unfold; yet where in all scripture will the believer, who "worships in spirit and in truth,” more readily go to find language for expressing his loftiest conceptions of God, for portraying his most spiritual and enlarged views of the character he is called to maintain, or breathing forth his most elevated desires and feelings after divine things? So that the Psalms may well be termed, with Augustine, “an epitome of the whole Scriptures,” and a summary, not as Luther said, of the Old Testament merely, but of both Testaments together, in their grand elements of truth and outlines of history. "What is there necessary for man to know,” says Hooker, “which the Psalms are not able to teach?” They are to beginners an easy and familiar introduction, a mighty augmentation of all virtue and knowledge in such as are entered before, a strong confirmation to the most perfect among others. Heroical magnanimity, exquisite justice, grave moderation, exact wisdom, repentance unfeigned, unwearied patience, the mysteries of God, the sufferings of Christ, the terrors of wrath, the comforts of grace, the works of Providence over this world, and the promised joys of that world which is to come, all good necessarily to be either known, or had, or done, this one celestial fountain yieldeth.”. We may, therefore, conclusively appeal to the character of this extraordinary book, as confirmatory of the general views, which it has been our object to establish. It renders clear as noon-day the perfect identity of those great truths and principles, on which both economies were founded as to the institutions of worship, and the providential dealings respectively connected with them. And as we know the one to have been all arranged in preparation for the other, consequently in pre-ordained connexion with it, we thus learn what was the real nature of the
resemblances, which formed the connecting link between the things of the two covenants, and how we are to explain the one as types and the other as antitypes.*
Let us pause here for a moment to reflect on the light, which the view now given of the connexion between the leading portions of Old Testament history and the truths of the gospel, throws upon the nature and design of that interesting part of scripture, and the transactions recorded in it. It will hardly be denied, that the main and ultimate object of all God's dealing with the old Testament church, the communications he made to her, and the experiences through which he caused her to pass, was to prepare her for the first coming of the Son of God. His manifestation in human flesh, for the purpose of man's redemption, was from the first pointed to as the great era of her history, and her participation of his purchased inheritance of blessing was ever waited and longed for as the glorious consummation of her hopes. Hence the prophetic word began its course with the entrance of sinthe first promise being given on the very spot that witnessed the fall, and that promise containing within its brief but pregnant meaning the whole work and issue of redemption. And that the person, the work and kingdom of Jesus, was the great burden of all that was afterwards delivered in prophecy to the church, a higher than human authority has assured us; for it is declared, that to him “all the prophets gave witness," and that “the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy,"_its pervading scope and object. Accordingly, if we search through the earlier periods of the church's history, we shall never find her long without the prophetic witness—at one time cheering her with hopes of coming honour and enlargement—at another giving intimations of a fearful and desperate conflict with the powers of evil-waxing continually more distinct in its utterances and more copious in its details, as the great purpose
of the Father drew nearer to its accom
*. Some notice was taken in the Introduction of the great change which has of late years been in progress throughout Germany, regarding the subject of types generally; and I here subjoin, in connexion with this immediate branch of it, a quotation from a German periodical, as given by Hartmann, (in his Verbinnung des Alten Test. wit dem Newen, p. 6,) which may at once serve as an additional proof of the improved tone of German theology, and confirm the view above taken of Old Testament history. “ Must not Judaism be of great moment to Christianity, since both stand in brotherly and sisterly relations to each other? The historical books of the Hebrews are also religious books; the religious import is involved in the historical; the history of the people, as a divine leading and management in respect to them, was at the same time a training for religion, precisely as the Old Testament is a preparation for the New. These historical-religious views we must undoubtedly apprehend and maintain in our study and use of the sacred Scriptures, whose grand aim we, in like manner, may not doubt, is to awaken a holy, godlike frame of mind, and to lead us to a pious, heaven-devoted life.”—To the like effect also Jacobi, as quoted by Sack, on the words of Christ, that as the serpent was listed up, so must (uwoonrai Sel) the Son of man be lifted up, &c.: “ History is also prophecy. The past contains within itself the future as an embryo, and at certain points, discernible by the spiritual eye, the greater, as in an image, is seen represented in the smaller, the internal in the external, the present or future in the past. Here there is throughout nothing arbitrary, throughout there is a divine must, connexion and arrangement pregnant with mutual relations."
plishment, until the very time and place of his Son's appearing had come to be well understood, and the sacred remnant of worshippers were like men standing on their .watch-tower, with outstretched necks looking for him, whose coming should be the consolation of Israel.
That this was the leading design of the word of God in regard to the prophecies it contained, admits of no reasonable doubt, the stream of prophecy being in this respect so clear and determinate, and the design having obviously to a considerable extent reached its end. But it is manifest from a slight reflection, that another kind of preparation also was required for the ancient church-one that should bring her sentiments and character into suitable accordance with her expectations, and train her through all her members to the exercise of those feelings, principles and associations, which should make them ready to own and submit to the yoke of Messiah. For the object of Christ's appearing was not to execute an undertaking, that should stand altogether separate and apart from the other manifestations of Godhead-unfolding views of the divine character peculiar to itself, and resting simply on its own inherent evidences for acceptance among men. He came to reveal the Father and finish his work--to carry into effect the divine purpose, which, indeed, had for its aim the achievement of the world's redemption, but through this also the manifestation of the adorabi dhead in its infinite and varied perfections—its peerless majesty, yet lowly condescension—its stainless purity, yet yearning compassion toward the guilty and polluted-its inexorable justice, yet gracious and bountiful provisions for those, who have wantonly exposed themselves to its penalties—all, in short, that there is of mercy and of judgment, of love and holiness, in the character of God, as necessary to be displayed in the redemption and government of fallen man. But as those things, which are highly esteemed among men, are often abomination in the sight of God, so, and for the same reason, the divine principles, which are interwoven with the incarnation of Christ and the spiritual government growing out of it, are most remote from the natural apprehensions of men, most alien to the natural expectations of reason, and painful even as death to the desires and inclinations of the natural heart. The truth of this is witnessed even now by the unblushing infidelity, which maintains its front of opposition amid the full blaze of the gospel-by the worldly and anti-christian sentiments, which so frequently appear in works of science and literature—by every sermon, indeed, that is preached and every missionary effort that is made, which all presuppose the existence, and labour to overcome the opposition, of that evil heart of unbelief, with which the entire mass of humanity is leavened. And could we throw ourselves back to a time, when we should have been utterly ignorant of what from our infancy we have familiarly known—when every thing belonging to redemption should have come upon us with the surprise of unheard-of novelties, differing from all we had previously known in the views and principles they embodied, as well