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for at that time brake forth that, yet continued, sacre mentary dissension between Martin Luther and Huldericit Zuinglius, pastor of the church at Zurich, concerning that eucharist, which caused a great dissention between the churches of Switzerland and Saxony. Oecolampadius 12 deavoured, but with little success, to heal these dissere sions by publishing a book upon the true meaning of the words, « Hoc est corpus meum ;” and by many strong arguments affirmed, that it was a tropial phrase.
This intended reformation was again hindered by Eckius and his followers, who taught, 1. That the sub stantial body and blood of Christ was in the sacramento the altar. 2. That they' were truly offered up in the mag both for the living and the dead. 3. That the Virgin Mary and the Saints were to be worshipped as interces sors. 4. That the images of Jesus and the Saints were not to be abolished. 5. That after this life there was al purgatory. These positions were vehemently opposed by Oecolampadius at the public disputation beld at Baden: the consequence or which was, that some of the Helsetians or Switzers, subscribed the arguments of Eckius, and others those of Oecolampadius ; so that their dis. sension still remained ; nor could it be removed by any means, although attempted by many worthy instruments of Christ, who encountered many dangers, in order to accomplish an end so desirable. However Oecolampadius wrought so with the people, that liberty of conscience was granted to the citizens in matters of religion.. : Luther was introducing the Reformation in Germany while Zuinglius began to introduce it in Switzerland, by :publicly preaching against the corruptions of the Roman church. Oecolampadius assisted Zuinglius. Both these persons had declared openly enough, that they followed not the sentiments of Luther in all things: yet they spoke of Luther with respect'; and these differences were not a concerning things essential and fundamental. • Whilst Lutheranism was settling in Germany, the doc trine of the new sect, founded in Switzerland by Zuinglius, was called, “Evangelical Truth;" and Zuinglius boldly opposed the errors of the church of Rome. Upon this foundation he continued preaching from the beginning of 1519, not only against indulgences, but also against the intercession and invocation of saints, the sacrifice of
, sacthe måss, the ecclesiastical vows, the celibacy of priests, dericund abstinence from meats. However, he attempted no ning talteration in the outward and public worship of God till een 1523, when he found the magistrates and citizens of bu Lurich disposed to cast off the Řomish doctrine, and redetteive the reformed. of the About this time, the sect of Anabaptists sprung up in . streGermany, under Nicholas Stork and Thomas Muntzes,
who had been followers of Luther. They taught, that red the goods of all men ought to be common : that all men he should be free, and independent: that God would no. menlonger permit the oppressions of kings, and the injustice nenof magistrates: that the time was come for them to be El deposed, and men of honesty and religion set up in their
ter places. This seditious doctrine was dispersed in Germany, es and caused a rebellion among the peasants in most places.
While the German princes were crushing this rebellion of
the peasants, there happened great disputes in Germany Band Switzerland between the Romish priests and the reHi formers; as also between the Lutherans, Zuinglians, and E Anabaptists. Luther declared himself against the doctrine - of Zuinglius concerning the Lord's Supper : but Oeco
lampadius concurred with Zuinglius, and taught the same doctrine at Basil. But although Oecolampadius agreed with Zuinglius in the nature of the doctrine ; yet he gave - a different sense of our Lord's words. Zuinglius placed
the figure of these words, “ This is my body," in the verb "is ;' which he held to be taken for “ signifies.” Oecolampadius laid it upon the noun, body; and affirmed that the bread is called, the body, by a metonymy, which al. dows the name of the thing signified to be given to the sign. - The Lutherans, in Swabia and Bavaria, decried the doctrine of Oecolampadius in their sermons, which obliged him to dedicate a treatise upon the words of the institution of the Lord's Supper to them, printed at Strasburgh in 1525;. and afterwards in the German tongue at Basil, where it was at first forbidden. So soon as this formidable book appeared, the magistrates of Basil consulted two divines and two lawyers, to know whether the public sale of it might be permitted. The divines were Erasmus and Berus; the lawyers were Bonifacius Amerbachius: and Claudius Canzonetta. Erasmus says, that, in giving his answer upon this point, he made no invectives, against
VOL. III.No. 70. .. 3 P . Decolampadius;
: Decolampadius; and so the book was allowad to be sold. He adds, Zuinglius, Oecolampadius, Capito, and Pellican, were alarmed at this procedure; and that Capito wrote from Strasburgh, desiring that too much deference might not be paid to the judgement of these four arbitrators.
Brentius answered Oecolampadius, in the name of all the Lutheran ministers of Swabia, in a book entitled, “ Syngramma Suevicum super verbis cænæ,' in which he asserted, “ That Jesus Christ is present in the sacrament, and in the action of the supper: that his body and blood are received, although in an invisible manner, by faith ; as remission of sins is received by baptism.”. Yet he intiinated, that the body and blood of Christ are present only by faith, and are received only spiritually.
Oecolampadius and Zuinglius were obliged to defend themselves against Luther, who answered them, and wrote a book. on purpose upon the eucharist in the German tongue, in which he attempted to prove the ubiquity of the body of Jesus Christ by this argument : “ That in all places where the divinity of our Saviour is, there his humanity ought also to be present.” Oecolampadius and Zuinglius immediately replied: and Oecolampadius and Bucer confuted the large confession of Luther. Brentius opposed their opinions in his Exposition upon the Gospel of St. John; and the other Lutherans persisted resolutely in the condemnation of it. The consequence of these disputes was a division among the reformers into two considerable sects : the Lutherans, and the Zuinglians, or Sacramentarians. The Saxons continued firm to the doc. trine of Luther ; and that of Zuinglius was received by the Switzers, and some cities of the upper Germany,
All this time, the Gospel was preached in no other of the Swiss cantons, than Zurich. The other twelve cantons, therefore, appointed among themselves a disputation to be held at Baden, at which' place were assembled the famous Eckius, John Faber, Murner, &c. together with the bishop's legates of Lucern, Basil, Lausanne, &c. The points disputed were, transubstantiation, the propitiation offered in the mass, the invocation of saints, the worship of images, and purgatory. Oecolampadius, - with others, disputed against these theses; but came to no other conclusion, than to refer the decision to the authority of the next general council, when it should be convened.
A conference · A conference between the Zuinglians, Lutherang, and Papists, was held at Bern, January 7, 1528. This disputation was particularly on the proposition of the sacrament; and Oecolampadius, together with Zuinglius, Bucer, Capito, Blauretus, and several other Sacramentarians, maintained it against the Papists and Lutherans. It ended in the abolition of the superstitious ceremonies "of the Romish chorch, throughout the canton of Bern. The cities of Constance and Geneva immediately followed the example: but it was not effected in the cities of Basil and Strasburgh till 1529. - Oecolampadius was married this year to the widow of Cellarius. It is remarkable, that, after the death of Oecolampadius, she was married to Wolfgang Capito; and, lastly, to Martin Bucer..'
The troubles of Germany increased, and the emperor Charles V. was obliged to call a diet at Spire, in March 1529 ;-in the first place, to require the assistance of the princes of the empire against Solyman, who had taken Buda, and threatened to conquer all Hungary; and in the next place, to find out some way to allay the disputes about religion. The Catholics laboured all they could to divide the Lutherans, and Sacramentarians; and had accomplished their design, if the landgrave of Hesse had not prevented their divisions from breaking ont. The Lutheran princes protested against: the edict published at the diet of Spire; and, for that reason, were called Protestants. In the following year they presented to the em. peror, at the diet of Augsburg, their confession of faith ; and entered into a defensive league, 'at Smalcald, for their common security.... :01:183cs, ?
The article of the protestation, which concerned the doctrine of the Sacramentarians, was particularly worded, that the princes might take away the difference between the Lutherans and Zuinglians, without approving the doetrine of the Sacramentarians. Oecolampadius complained, in a letter wrote to Melantthon, that Faber, bishop of Vienna, attempted to procure the condemnation of their opinions : and he desired Melanethon to declare on his., side.. Melanćthon answered him, that he could not apoi prove their opinion, as he found no sufficient reason to depart from the literal sense of the words. He desired Decolampadius to consider the importance of the question in debate; and adds, it wonld be convenient that some
good men should confer together upon that head, Decolampadius replied to this letter of Melancthon, and yielded to the necessity of some conferences; but observed, that the persons to be appointed should be men free froni pas. sion, and not of contentious spirits ; otherwise they would be unable to discover the truth, and only increase their enmity. The landgrave of Hesse, in pursuance of these propositions, invited Zuinglius and-Luther to a friendly conference at Marpurg, in October following. Both parties were unwilling to accept the proposal; but Oecolampadius prevailed on Zuinglius, Bucer, and Hedio, to embrace it, and repair tó Marpurg, where they were fol. lowed by Luther, Melancthon, Justus Jonás, Andreas Osiander, Brentius, and Agricola. Before they held their public conference, there was a private meeting between Oecolampadius-and Zuinglius, Luther' and Melancthon. They disagreed upon the article of the Lord's Supper, and debated it before the landgrave himself. This conference held three days; wherein Luther kept close to the words of the institution, which he affirmed to be full and positive for the corporal manducauion. Oecolampadius asserted, that they ought to be understood metaphorically, and of a spiritually presence; but afhrmed, that it did not exclude the corporal. Many authorities and arguments were produced on both sides; though neither was convinced. Bucer endeavoured to reconcile the Lyiberaps and Zuidglians at the diet of Augsburg : but Oecolampadius disapproved of his articles and his labours to procure an union were ineffectual. In 1531, A civil war broke out between the Popish and Protestant cantons in Switzerland, in which Zuinglius was killed. The same year the book, published by Serve us about the erros concerniog the Trinity, was brought into Switzerland, where it disgusted several of the Protestant divines, as appears from a letter of Oecolampadius to Bucer, dated August 5, 45311. The magistrates of Basil desired: Oecolampadius would give them his opinion concerning the book of Servetus ; and the refornier made 4 short discourse in their presence, wherein he shewed that it was a pernicious book; but he expressed himself with great moderation. Oecolampadius also wrote two letters to Servetus about his book, wherein he confuted him in a very civil manner, and entreated him to fenounce his errors. He blamed Servetus for expressing