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TO THE REGISTER OF DEBATES IN CONGRESS.
NINETEENTH CONGRESS-Second Session.
List of Members of the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States.
, Garrison, George Holcombe, Samuel Swan, Ebenezer Tuck. SENATE.
1 PENNSYLVANIA-William Addams, James Buchanan, MAINE-John Chandler, John Holmes.
Samuel Exlwards, Chauncey Forward, John Findlay, Robert NEW HAMPSHIRE-Samuel Bell, Levi Woodbury. Harris, Samuel D. logham, Thomas Kitlera, Jacob Krebs, MASSACHUSETTS-Nathaniel Silsbee, Elijah H. Mills.
George Kremer, Joseph Lawrence, Samuel McKean, Philip RHODE ISLAND-Nehemiah R. Knight, Asher Robbins. S. Markley, Daniel H. Miller, Charles Miner, James S. MitCONNECTICUT-Henry W. Edwards, Calvin Willey. chell. John Mitchell, Robert Orr, George Plumer, Thomas VERMONT-Dudley Chase, Horatio Seymour.
H. Sill, Andrew Stewart, James S. Stevenson, Espy Van NEW YORK-Martin Van Buren, Nathian Sanford. Horn, James Wilson, George Wolf, John Wurt3-26. NEW JERSEY-Mahlon Dickerson, Ephraim Bateman.
DELAWARE-Louis McLane-1. PENNSYLVANIA-William Findlay, William Marks.
MARYLAND-John Barney, Clement Dorsey,John Leeds DELAWARF-Thomas Clayton, Daniel Rodney.
Kerr, Peler Little, Robert N. Martin, George E. Mitchell, MARYLAND-Ezekiel F. Chambers, Samuel Smith. George Peter, John C. Weems, Thomas C. Worthington. VIRGINI 1-Littleton W. Tazewell, John Randolph.
-9. NORTH CAROLINA-John Branch, Nathaniel Macon. | VIRGINIA.-Mark Alexander, William S. Archer, WilSOUTH CAROLINA-William Smith, Robert Y. Hayne. liam Armstrong, John S. Barbour, Burwell Basselt, Naihaniel GEORGIA- John M. Berrien, Thomas W. Cobb.
H. Claiborne, George W. Crump, Thomas Davenport, Ben. KENTUCKY-Richard M Johnson, John Rowan.
jamin Estill, John Floyd, Robert S. Garnett, Joseph JohoTENNESSEE-John H. Eaton, Hugh L. White.
son, William McCoy, Charles F. Mercer, Thomas Newton, OHIO—William H. Harrison, Benjamin Ruggles.
Alfred H. Powell, William C. Rives, Willian Smith, Ana LOUISIANA-Dominique Bouligny, Josiah S. Johnston. drew Stevenson, John Taliaferro, Robert Taylor, James TrezINDLANA-William Hendricks, James Noble.
vant-22. MISSISSIPPI-Thomas B. Reed, Thomas H. Williams NORTH CAROLINA-Willis Alston, Daniel L. BarrinILLINOIS-Elias K. Kane, Jesse B. Thomas.
ger, John H. Bryan, Samuel P. Carson, Henry W. Conner. ALABAMA-William R. King, (One vacancy.]
Weldon N. Edwards, Richard Hines, Gabriel Holmes, John MISSOURI-David Barton, Thomas H. Renton.
Long, Archibald McNeill, Romulus M. Saunders, Lemuel
SOUTH CAROLINA.-John Carter, William Drayton,
Joseph Gisl, Andrew R. Govan, James Hamilton, George HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
McDuffie, Thomas R Mitchell, Starling Tucker, John Wil
son—9. MAINE-John Anderson, Willian Burleigh, Ebenezer GEORGIA-George Carey, Alfred Cuthbert, Jobn ForHerrick, David Kidder, Jeremiah O'Brien, Peleg Sprague, syth, Charles E. Haynes, James Merriwether, Edward F. Tat[One racant.-6.
nall, Wiley Thompson—7. NEW HAMPSHIRE-Ichabod Rartlett, Titus. Brown,
1 KENTUCKY-Richard A. Backner, James Clarke, John Nehemiah Eastman, Jonathan Harvey, Joseph Healy, Tho-F. Henry, Francis Johnson, Joseph Lecompt, Robert P. Letmas Whipple. Jr.-6.
cher, Robert Mcllation, Thomas Metcaite, Thomas P. MASSACHUSETTS-Samuel C. Allen, John Bailey, Moore, David Trimble, Charles A. llickliffe, Wilham 8. Francis Baylies, Benjamin W. Erowninshield, John Davis, | Youne-12. Henry W. Dwight, Edward Everett, Aaron Hobat, Samuel TENNESSEE-Allam R. Alexander, Robert Allen, Joha Lathrop, John Locke, John Reed, John Varnum, Daniel Blair, John Cocke, Samuel Houston, Jacob C. Isacks, John H. Webster-13
Marable, James C. Mitchell, James K. Polk-9. RHODE ISLAND-Tristam Burges, Dutee ). Pearce-2. OHIO-Mordecai (Bartley, Philemon Beecher, John W.
CONNECTICUT- John Baldwin, Noyes Barber, Ralph J. Campbell, James Findlay, McLean, Thomas Shannon, John Ingersoll, Orange Merwin, Elisha Phelps, Gideon Tomlinson. Sloane, John Thompson, Joseph Vance, Samuel F. Vinton, - 6.
Elisha 'Whittlesey, William Wilson, John Woods, John C. VERMONT-William C. Bradley, Rollin C. Mallary, John | Wright-14. Matlocks, Ezra Meech, George E. Wales-5.
LOUISIANA-William L. Brent, Henry H. Gurley, Ed. NEW YORK - Parmenio Adams, William G. Angel, Hen
ward Livingston-3. ry Ashley, Luther Badger, Churchill C. Cambreleng, William MISSISSIPPI-William Haile-1. Deitz, Nicholl Fosdick, Daniel G. Garnsey, John Hallock, Jr. INDIANA-Ratliff Boone, Jonathan Jennings, John Test Abraham B. Hasbrouck, Moses Hayden, Michael Hoffman, Da
- 3. niel Hugunin, Charles Humphrey, Jeromus Johnson, Charles ILLINOIS-Daniel P. Cook-1, Kellog, William McManus, Henry C. Martindale, Henry ALABAMA-John McKee, Gabriel Moore, George W. Maikell, Dudley Marvin, John Miller, Timothy H. Porter,
ARKANSAS TERRITORY-Henry W. Conway.
19th Congress, ?
2d Session. S
Tessage of the President, at the opening of the Session. (Sen. and H. of R.
MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT,' who enjoyed, as he merited, the entire confidence of his
new Sovereign, as he had eminently responded to that of
his predecessor. But we bave had the most satisfactory At the commencement of the Second Session of assurances, that the sentiments of the reigning Emperor the Nineteenth Congress.
towards the United States are altogether conformable to DECEMBER 5, 1826.
those which had so long and so constantly animated his imperial brother ; and we have reason to hope that they
will serve to cement that harmony and good understand. Fellow-Citizens of the Senate,
ing between the two nations, which, founded in congenial and of the House of Representatives :
interests, cannot but result in the advancement of the The assemblage of the Representatives of our Union in welfare and prosperity of both. . both Houses of Congress, at this time, occurs under cir. Our relations of commerce and navigation with France cumstances calling for the renewed homage of our grate are, by the operation of the Convention of 24th of June, ful acknowledgements to the Giver of all Good. With 1822, with that nation, in a state of gradual and progres. the exceptions incidental to the most felicitous condition sive improvement Convinced by all our experience, no of human existence, we continue to be highly favored in less than by the principles of fair and liberal reciprocity, all the elements which contribute to individual comfort which the United States have constantly tendered to all and to national prosperity. In the survey of our exten- the nations of the earth, as the rule of commercial intersive country, we have generally to observe abodes of course which they would universally prefer, that fair and health and regions of plenty. In our civil and political equal competition is most conducive to the interests of relations, we have peace without, and tranquillity within, both parties, the United States, in the negotiation of that our borders. We are, as a People, increasing with un- Convention, earnestly contended for a mutual renunciabated rapidity in population, wealth, and national re-ation of discriminating duties and charges in the ports of sources; and, whatever differences of opinion exist the two countries. Unable to obtain the immediate reamong us, with regard to the mode and the means by cognition of this principle in its full extent, after reducwhich we shall turn the beneficence of Heaven to the ing the duties of discrimination, so far as it was found atimprovement of our own condition, there is yet a spirit, tainable, it was agreed that, at the expiration of two animating us all, which will not suffer the bounties of years from the 1st of October, 1822, when the ConvenProvidence to be showered upon us in vain, but will re- tion was to go into effect, unless a notice of six months on ceive them with grateful hearts, and apply them, with either side should be given to the other that the Convenunwearied hands, to the advancement of the general tion itself must terminate, those duties should be reduced good.
one-fourth ; and that this reduction should be yearly reOf the subjects recommended to Congress at their last peated until all discrimination should cease while the session, some were then definitively acted upon. Others, Convention itself should continue in force. By the effect left unfinished, but partly matured, will recur to your at of this stipulation, three fourths of the discriminating dutention, without needing a renewal of notice from me. ties which had been levied by each party upon the ves. The purpose of this communication will be, to present to sels of the other in its ports, have already been removed ; your view the general aspect of our public affairs at this and, on the 1st of next October, should the Convention moment, and the measures which have been taken to be still in force, the remaining fourth will be disconti. carry into effect the intentions of the Legislature, as sig.nued. French vessels, laden with French produce, will nified by the laws then and heretofore enacted.
be received in our ports on the same terms as our own ; Inour intercourse with the other nations of the earth, we and ours, in return, will enjoy the same advantages in the have still the happiness of enjoying peace and a general ports of France. By these approximations to an equality good understanding-qualified, however, in several im- of duties and of charges, not only has the commerce be. portant instances, by collisions of interest, and by unsa-tween the two countries prospered, but friendly dispositisfied claims of justice, to the settlement of which, the tions have been, on both sides, encouraged and promoted. constitutional interposition of the legislative authority They will continue to be cherished and cultivated on the may become ultimately indispensable.
I part of the United States. It would have been gratifying By the decease of the Emperor Alexander of Russia, to have had it in my power to add, that the claims upon which occurred cotemporaneously with the commence the justice of the French Government, involving the proment of the last session of Congress, the United States perty and the comfortable subsistence of many of our felhave been deprived of a long-tried, steady, and faithful low-citizens, and which have been so long and so earnestly friend. Born to the inheritance of absolute power, and urged, were in a more promising train of adjustment than trained in the school of adversity, from which no power at your last meeting ; but their condition remains unal. on earth, however absolute, is exempt, that monarch, tered. from his youth, had been taught to feel the force and val With the Government of the Netherlands, the mutual lue of public opinion, and to be sensible that the inter- abandonment of discriminating duties had been regulated ests of his own Government would best be promoted by by legislative acts on both sides. The act of Congress a frank and friendly intercourse with this Republic, as of the 20th of April, 1818, abolished all discriminating du. those of his people would be advanced by a liberal com- ties of impost and tonnage, upon the vessels and produce mercial intercourse with our country. A candid and of the Netherlands in the ports of the United States, up. confidential interchange of sentiments between him and on the assurance given by the Government of the Netherthe Government of the United States, upon the affairs of lands, that all such duties operating against the shipping Southern America, took place at a period not long and commerce of the United States, in that Kingdom, preceding his demise, and contributed to fix that course had been abolished. These reciprocal regulations had of policy which left to the other Governments of Europe continued in force several years, when the discriminat. no alternative but that of sooner or later recognizing the ing principle was resumed by the Netherlands, in a new independence of our Southern neighbors, of which the and indirect form, by a bounty of ten per cent. in the example had, by the United States, already been set. shape of a return of duties to their national vessels, and The ordinary diplomatic communications between his in which those of the United States are not permitted to successor, the Emperor Nicholas, and the United States, participate. By the act of Congress of 7th January, 1824, have suffered some inrerruption by the illness, departure, all discriminating duties in the United States were again and subsequent de cease of his Minister residing here, suspended, so far as related to the vessels and produce of
21549 . APPENDIX- To Gales & Seaton's Register. 1550
s 19th CONGRESS, *** Sen. and H. of R.] Message of the President, at the opening of the Sess
? 2d Session.
the Netherlands, so long as the reciprocal exemption With Prussia, Spain, Portugal, and in general all the Le should be extended to the vessels and produce of the European Powers, between whom and the United States * United States in the Netherlands. But the same act relations of friendly intercourse have existed, their cones provides that, in the event of a restoration of discrimi. dition has not materially varied since the last session of o nating duties, to operate against the shipping and com- Congress. I regret not to be able to say the same of our med merce of the United States, in any of the foreign coun-commercial intercourse with the Colonial Possessions of
tries referred to therein, the suspension of discriminating Great Britain, in America. Negotiations of the highest he duties in favor of the navigation of such foreign country importance to our common interests have been for seve
should cease, and all the provisions of the acts imposing ral years in discussion between the two Governments; discriminating foreign tonnage and impost duties in the and, on the part of the United States have been invariaUnited States, should revive, and be in full force with re- bly pursued in the spirit of candor and conciliation. Ingard to that nation.
terests of great magnitude and delicacy had been adjustIn the correspondence with the Government of the Need by the Conventions of 1815 and 1818, while that of therlands upon this subject, they have contended that the 1822, mediated by the late Emperor Alexander, had favor shown to their own shipping, by this bounty upon promised a satisfactory compromise of claims which the their tonnage, is not to be considered as a discriminating Government of the United States, in justice to the rights duty. But it cannot be denied that it produces all the of a numerous class of their citizens, was bound to sustain. same effects. Had the mutual abolition been stipulated But, with regard to the commercial intercourse between by treaty, such a bounty upon the national vessels could the United States and the British Colonies in America, it scarcely have been granted, consistently with good faith. has been hitherto found impracticable to bring the parties Yet, as the act of Congress of 7th January, 1824, has not to an understanding satisfactory to both. The relative expressly authorized the Executive authority to deter- geographical position, and the respective products of namine what shall be considered as a revival of discrimi- ture cultivated by human industry, had constituted the nating duties by a foreign Government to the disadvan. elements of a commercial intercourse between the Unit. tage of the United States, and as the retaliatory measure ed States and British America, insular and continental, on our part, however just and necessary, may tend rather important to the inhabitants of both countries. But, it to that conflict of legislation which we deprecate, than to had been interdicted by Great Britain, upon a principle that concert to which we invite all commercial nations, as heretofore practised upon by the colonizing nations of most conducive to their interest and our own, I have Europe, of holding the trade of their Colonies, each in
thought it more consistent with the spirit of our institu- exclusive monopoly to herself. After the termination of : . tions to refer the subject again to the paramount authority the late war, this interdiction had been revived, and the
of the Legislature to decide what measure the emergency British Government declined including this portion of may require, than abruptly, by proclamation, to carry our intercourse with her possessions in the negotiation of into effect the minatory provisions of the act of 1824. the Convention of 1815. The trade was then carried on
During the last session of Congress, Treaties of Amity, exclusively in British vessels, till the act of Congress conNavigation, and Commerce, were negotiated and signed cerning navigation, of 1818, and the supplemental act of at this place, with the Government of Denmark, (in Eu-1820, met the interdict by a corresponding measure on rope,) and with the Federation of Central America, (in the part of the United States. These measures, not of this hemisphere.) These Treaties then received the con- retaliation, but of necessary self-defence, were soon sucstitutional sanction of the Senate, by the advice and con- ceeded by an Act of Parliament, opening certain colo. sent to their ratification. They were accordingly ratified, nial ports to the vessels of the United States, coming dion the part of the United States, and, during the recess rectly from them, and to the importation from them of of Congress, have been also ratified by the other respect. certain articles of our produce, burdened with heavy du. ive contracting parties. The ratifications have been exties, and excluding some of the most valuable articles of changed, and they have been published by proclamations, our exports. The United States opened their ports to copies of which are herewith communicated to Congress. British vessels from the Colonies, upon terms as exactly These Treaties have established between the contracting corresponding with those of the Act of Parliament, as, in parties the principles of equality and reciprocity in their the relative position of the parties, could be made. And broadest and most liberal extent: each party admitting a negotiation was commenced by mutual consent, with the vessels of the other into its ports, laden with cargoes the hope, on our part, that a reciprocal spirit of accom. the produce or manufacture of any quarter of the globe, modation and a common sentiment of the importance of upon the payment of the same duties of tonnage and in the trade to the interests of the two countries, between post that are chargeable upon their own. They have fur whom it must be carried on, would ultimately bring the ther stipulated, that the parties shall hereafter grant no parties to a compromise, with which both might be safavor of navigation or commerce to any other nation, which tisfied. With this view, the Government of the United shall not, upon the same terms, be granted to each other; States had determined to sacrifice something of that enand that neither party will impose upon articles of mer tire reciprocity which, in all commercial arrangements chandise, the produce or manufacture of the other, any with foreign Powers, they are entitled to demand, and to other or biglier duties than upon the like articles, being acquiesce in some inequalities disadvantageous to our. the produce or manufacture of any other country. To selves, rather than to forego the benefit of a final and
these principles there is, in the Convention with Den permanent adjustment of this interest, to the satisfaction = 'mark, an exception, with regard to the Colonies of that of Great Britain herself. The negotiation, repeatedly
Kingdom in the Arctic Seas, but none with regard to her suspended by accidental circumstances, was, however, Colonies in the West Indies.
by mutual agreement and express assent, considered as In the course of the last Summer, the term to which our pending, and to be speedily resumed. In the mean time, last Commercial Treaty with Sweden was limited, has another Act of Parliament, so doubtful and ambiguous expired. A continuation of it is in the contemplation of in its import as to have been misunderstood by the offi. the Swedish Government, and is believed to be desirable cers in the Colonies who were to carry it into execution, on the part of the United States. It has been proposed opens again certain colonial ports, upon new conditions by the King of Sweden, that, pending the negotiation of and terms, with a threat to close them against any nation renewal, the expired Treaty should be mutually consider. which may not accept those terms, as prescribed by the ed as still in force--a measure which will require the sanc. British Government. This act passed in July, 182), not tion of Congress to be carried into effect on our part, and communicated to the Government of the United States. which I therefore recommend to your consideration. 'not understood by the British officers of the Customs in
NGRESS, 2d SESSION.
Message of the President, at the opening of the Session. (Sen. and H. of R.
the Colonies where it was to be enforced, was, neverthe. With the American Governments of this hemisphere, less, submitted to the consideration of Congress, at their we continue to maintain an intercourse altogether friend. last session. With the knowledge that a negotiation ly, and between their nations and ours, that commercial upon the subject had long been in progress, and pledges interchange, of which mutual benefit is the source, and given of its resumption at an early day, it was deemed mutual comfort and harmony the result, is in a continual expedient to await the result of that negotiation, rather state of improvement. The war between Spain and than to subscribe implicitly to terms the import of which them, since the total expulsion of the Spanish military was not clear, and which the British authorities them- force from their continental territories, has been little selves, in this hemisphere, were not prepared to explain. more than nominal ; and their internal tranquillity, though
Immediately after the close of the last Session of Con- occasionally menaced by the agitations which civil wars gress, one of our most distinguished citizens was des- never fail to leave behind them, has not been affected by patched as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- any serious calamity, tentiary to Great Britain, furnished with instructions The Congress of Ministers from several of those na. which we could not doubt would lead to a conclusion of tions which assembled at Panama, after a short session this long-controverted interest, upon terms acceptable there, adjourned to meet again, at a more favorable sea. to Great Britain. Upon his arrival, and before he had son, in the neighborhood of Mexico. The decease of delivered his letters of credence, he was met by an Order one of our Ministers on his way to the Isthmus, and the of the British Council, excluding, from and after the first impediments of the season, which delayed the departure of December, now current, the vessels of the United of the other, deprived us of the advantage of being re. States from all the Colonial British ports, excepting those presented at the first meeting of the Congress. There immediately bordering upon our Territories. `In answer is, however, no reason to believe that any of the transacto his expostulations upon a measure thus unexpected, tions of the Congress were of a nature to affect injurioushe is informed that, according to the ancient maxims of ly the interests of the United States, or to require the inpolicy of European nations having colonies, their trade terposition of our Ministers, had they been present. is an exclusive possession of the mother country. That Their absence has, indeed, deprived us of the opportuni. all participation in it by other nations is a boon or favor, ty of possessing precise and authentic information of the not forming a subject of negotiation, but to be regulated treaties which were concluded at Panama ; and the whole by the Legislative Acts of the Power owning the colony. result has confirmeil me in the conviction of the expeThat the British Government, therefore, declines nego. diency to the United States of being represented at the tiating concerning it ; and that, as the United States did Congress. The surviving member of the Mission, ap. not forthwith accept purely and simply the terms offered pointed during your last session, has accordingly proby the Act of Parliameni, of July 1825, Great Britain ceeded to his destination, and a successor to his distinwould not now admit the vessels of the United States, guished and lamented associate will be nominated to the even upon the terms on which she has opened them to Senate. A Treaty of Amity, Navigation, and Commerce, the navigation of other nations. We have been accus. has, in the course of the last Summer, been concluded tomed to consider the trade which we have enjoyed with by our Minister Plenipotentiary at Mexico, with the the British Colonies, rather as an interchange of mutual United States of that Confederacy, which will also be laid benefits, than as a mere favor received ; that, under before the Senate, for their advice with regard to its ra. every circumstance, we have given an ample equivalent. tification. We have seen every other nation, holding Colonies, ne. In adverting to the present condition of our fiscal gotiate with other nations, and grant them, freely, ad. concerns, and to the prospects of our Revenue, the mission to the Colonies by Treaty; and, so far are the first remark that calls our attention, is, that they are other colonizing nations of Europe now from refusing to less exuberantly prosperous than they were at the negotiate for trade with their Colonies that we ourselves corresponding period of the last year. Tie severe have secured access to the Colonies of more than one of shock so extensively sustained by the commercial and them by Treaty. The refusal, however, of Great Britain manufacturing interests in Great Britain, has not been to negotiate, leaves to the United States no other alter-without a perceptible recoil upon ourselves. A reduced native than that of regulating, or interdicting alto importation from abroad is necessarily succeeded by a regether, the trade on their part, according as either mea. duced return to the Treasury at home. The nett revesure may affect the interests of our own country ; and, nue of the present year will not equal that of the last. with that exclusive object, I would recommend the whole And the receipts of that which is to come will fall short subject to your calm and candid deliberations.
of those in the current year. The diminution, however, It is hoped that our unavailing exertions to accomplish is in part attributable to the flourishing condition of some a cordial good understanding on this interest will not of our domestic manufactures, and so far is compensated have an unpropitious effect upon the other great topics by an equivalent more profitable to the nation. It is also of discussion between the two Governments. Our North- highly gratifying to perceive, that the deficiency in the eastern and Northwestern boundaries are still unadjusted. revenue, while it scarcely exceeds the anticipations of The Commissioners under the 7th article of the Treaty the last year's estimates from the Treasury, bas not inof Ghent have nearly come to the close of their labors; terrupted the application of more than eleven millions nor can we renounce the expectation, enfeebled as it is, during the present year, to the discharge of the principal that they may agree upon their report to the satisfaction and interest of the debt, nor the reduction of upwards of or acquiescence of both parties. The Commission for li. seven millions of the capital of the debt itself. 'The baquidating the claims for indemnity for slaves carried away lance in the Treasury on the 1st of January last, was five after the close of the war, has been sitting with doubtful millions two hundred and one thousand six hundred and prospects of success. Propositions of compromise have, fifty dollars and forty-three cents. The receipts from however, passed between the two Governments, the re- that time to the 30th of September last, were nineteen sult of which, we Aatter ourselves, may yet prove satis- millions five hundred and eighty-five thousand nine hunfactory. Our own disposition and purposes towards dred and thirty-two dollars and fifty cents. The receipts Great Britain are all friendly and conciliatory ; nor can of the current quarter, estimated at six millions of dol. we abandon, but with strong reluctance, the belief that lars, yield, with the sums already received, a revenue of they will, ultimately, meet a return, not of favors, which about twenty-five millions and a half for the year. The We neither ask nor desire, but of equal reciprocity and expenditures for the three first quarters of the year have good will
amounted to eighteen millions seven bundred and four.