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superior benevolence will always prevail against prejudice, he was now courted by those learned societies who formerly affected to deride his discoveries in philosophy and electricity. The Royal Society of London,which had at first refused his performances admission into its transactions, now deemed it an honour to class him among its fellows. The universities of St. Andrews, of Edinburgh, and Oxford, conferred on him the degree of doctor of laws; and the most distinguished philosophers of Europe sought his correspondence. In reading his letters to those great men, we are at a loss which most to admire, the majesty of his sense, or the simplicity of his style. While in England, which was from July, 1757, to July, '62 he suggested to the British ministry the duty of dispossessing the French of that great country on the north of our colonies, called Canada. To this end, he published his famous Canada pamphlet, exhibiting in strong colours the many mischiefs and murders committed on his countrymen, even in times of peace, by the Indians in French pay. This little tract served to rouse the British nation to the pitch he desired.
An army of English regulars and New-England militia were sent under the command of general Wolfe, who presently, succeeded in driving the French out of a fine country, of which, by their cruelties, they had rendered themselves utterly unworthy,
About this time the celebrated doctor Cullen, of Scotland, made some curious discoveries in the art of producing cold by evaporation. Hoping that the genius of Franklin might throw some lights on this dawning science, a friend of doctor Cullen's wrote a statement of the facts to Franklin. The American philosopher, though now immersed in political pursuits, took a little leisure to repeat doctor Cullen's experiments on cold, which he so improved as easily to produce ice in the dog days. But it was one of those discoveries which, as he says, he never valued, because it was too expensive to be of general utility,
About the autumn of 1761, he rendered himself prodigiously popular among the ladies in London, by completing that sweet toned little instrument of music, the HARMONICA.
I have been told that his fame at court on this account, so awakened the recollection of George III. that he caused it to be signified to Dr. Franklin, that he felt a disposition to do something for him.”. Our philosopher replied, that he wanted nothing for himself, butthat, he had a son in America. The king, took the hint, and immediately made out a commission of “Governor of his colony of New Jersey, for his beloved subject, Temple Franklin, esq." On such small things are the fortunes of men sometimes founded!
Doctor Franklin was now become so great a favourite that the people of all classes seemed to take a pride in talking of him, and his sayings, insomuch that not a word of the brilliant sort could fall from his lips but it was sure to be caught up instantly and re-echoed through every circle, from proud St. James to humble St. Giles.
The following impromptu made a great noise in London about this time.
One evening in a large party at his friend Vaughan's he was, laughingly, challenged by a very beautiful girl, a Miss Gun, to make her a couplet of verses extempore. Well, madam, replied he, with great gallantry, since every body is offering a tribute to your graces; let me tender-the following:
“Cupid now to ensure his fun,
Quits his bow and takes to gun.” This handsome play on her name instantly suffused the cheeks of Miss Gun with celestial roses, making her look much inore like an angel than before.
I mention this merely to show what an extraordinary mind that man must have possessed, who with such equal ease could play the Newton or the Chesterfield, and charm alike the lightnings and the ladies.
In the summer of 1762, he took leave of his friends in England to return to his native country. On his voyage he discovered in oil or grease thrown on the water, a property, which few people ever drea int of. When we learn of gold that it may by beating be expanded into a leaf of such incredible fineness, that a guinea might in that way be made to cover Solomon's temple, or deck Noah's ark, we are filled with wonder of such a metal. Doctor Franklin tells us of equal wonders in oil. He informs us that a wine glass full of pure oil poured on a mill pond, will presently spread over it, with a film inconceivably thinner than a cobweb, and so adhesive that the winds shall not excite it to mad-caps and breakers. Hence he infers that oil might be made a mean of saving ships during a violent storm at sea.
In this voyage he made also another discovery which ought to be known to all going by sea, viz. that if persons perishing of thirst on a voyage, would but bathe half a dozen times a day in the sea water, which they easily might, by using their empty water casks as bathing tubs, they would obtain great relief from their thirst, and live several days longer; thence enjoying a better chance for their lives, by getting into port, or falling in with some friendly sail.
On his arrival in Philadelphia doctor Franklin was welcomed with marks of the most flattering respect by the citizens universally-handsome addresses and dinners were given him by literary societies and clubs and the assembly, in the most public manner voted him their thanks for the great honour and services he had rendered the country in general during his residence in England; and especially to the province of Pennsylva
And they accompanied their thanks with a present of five thousand pounds.
Ye blind parents who can think hard of laying out a few dollars for books and education of
your children, 0 think of this, and learn a course of conduct more to your own credit and to their temporal and eternal welfare.
In a few weeks after his return to Philadelphia there occurred in that neighbourhood an affair that serves to show the popularity of doctor Franklin in a very strong light.
In consequence of a number of murders committed on the frontiers by some villanous Indians, about a hundred and twenty young. men of Dauphin county, chrigtians in name but perfect savages in nature, bound themselves by a horrid oath to exterminate a little tribe of about twenty tame Indians, who lived very harmlessly among the whites in York county. Mounted on horses, and with rifles and tomahawks in their hands, they set off very deliberately on this hellish errand towards the settlements of the poor Indians. The old men, womeu,
and children, in the cabins, soon fell weltering in their blood. The rest, who were at work, getting notice, fled to Lancaster, and were lodged in the jail as in a place of security. The blood thirsty whites broke open the jail and butehered every soul. All smeared with innocent blood, and furious as demons, they then pushed off for Philadelphia, to massacre the feeble remains of a friend. ly tribe who had fled into that city for protection. The governor issued his prociamation. The rioters paid no regard to it, but moved on rapidly, well armed, and determined to cut their way to the hated Indians over the dead bodies of all who should oppose thein. They are now on this side of Germantown, only one hour's march from Philadelphia. The inhabitants are all in terror. The governor quits his palace and for safety flies to the house of doctor Franklin. He, calm as he was wont to be amidst the lightnings as they darted around him on his rods, went out to ineet the rioters. We sincerely regret that we cannot give the speech which he made on this memorable occasion. It must have been impressive in à most extraordinary degree, for on hearing it they instantly abandoned their hellish design and returned peaceably to their homes!
HAD the fatal sisters, even now, put forth their shears and clipped his thread, yet would not the friend of man "have fallen without his fame.” Admiring posterity would still have written on his tomb, Here lies the GREAT FRANKLIN.
LIN. But though great now, he is destined to be much greater still. A crisis is approaching that is to call forth all his talents, and to convince even the most unthinking that in the dark day of trouble the "wise shall shine forth like the firmament." By the crisis here mentioned I mean the events leading to the American revolution.
The British cabinet, as if entire strangers to that divine philosophy which commands its disciples to be, "na respecters of persons," allowed themselves in the most fatal policy of sparing the British subjeets in England at the expense of the British subjects in America. After having drained much money from them in a variety of unconstitutional ways, they came at length to the resolution, of taxing the colonies without their consent.
This dark design was hinted in 1754, by the minister, to govern Shirley, of the Massachusetts bay colony, The governor well knowing his extraordinary penetration and judgment, broke this ministerial plan to doctor Franklin; requesting his opinion of it. Doctor FrankJin answered this question of the governor, by urging an "immediate union of the colonies with Great Brio tain, by allowing them representatives in parliament,” as the only thing that could prevent those ceaseless encroachments on the one side, and those bit. ter animosities on the other, which, he feared, would one day, prove the ruin of both countries. As to the ministerial plan of taxing the colonies by act of parlia. ment, where they have no representation, he assured the governor that it would prove utterly abominable “His majesty, sir,” said he to the governor, “has no subjects in all his wide dominions, who more heartily love him than do his American subjects. Nor do there exist on earth, the Englishmen who hold more dear the glory of old England than they do. But the same spirit of their gallant forefathers, which makes them ready to lay down their lives and fortunes, in a constitutional way, for their king and country, will for ever secure them from being slaves. We exult, sir, in the recollection, that of all the governments on earth, that of Great Britain has long been the freest; and that more blood has been shed for freedom's sake in England in one week, than on the whole continent for fifty years. Now, on the bright face of that government, the first and fairest feature
is this, that no king can touch a penny belonging to the poorest subject, without his own consent, by bis representative in parliament. For, if, say they, 'a king can at pleasure take our money, he can take every thing else; since with that he can easily hire soldiers to rob, and then murder us if we but open
our lips against